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Is Limiters
Is Limiters
Introduction to Is Limiters  STEP Fault Limiting Scheme  Tripping Criteria  Blocking Logic 
Introduction to Is Limiters
STEP Fault Limiting Scheme
Tripping Criteria
Blocking Logic
Inter-tripping to Bus Section
Breakers
Interlocking
Control Supply
Is Limiter LV Compartment Alarm
and Status Signals
Testing
Is Limiter Control Panel
Is Limiter Simulation
Is Limiters Introduction to Is Limiters  STEP Fault Limiting Scheme  Tripping Criteria  Blocking

Is Limiter Overview

INTRODUCTION to Is LIMITERS

Is Limiters interrupts instantaneous fault current

same as fuse but the tripping is initiated by an

external circuit.

The tripping of Is Limiters limits the prospective

fault

current

sources.

by

dividing

the

fault

contributing

It does not clear the fault. The fault is cleared by the protection device closest to the fault.

INTRODUCTION (Cont….)

Operation of Is Limiter
Operation of Is Limiter

INTRODUCTION (Cont….)

Fault Current IEC Definitions
Fault Current IEC Definitions

INTRODUCTION (Cont….)

Interrupting Devices
Interrupting Devices
Circuit  breakers Fuses  Is Limiters 
Circuit
breakers
Fuses
Is Limiters

There are two differences between circuit breakers and fuses

  • - One is that circuit breaker interrupts current

at current zero while fuse interrupts the

instantaneous current.

INTRODUCTION (Cont….) Interrupting Devices Circuit  breakers Fuses  Is Limiters  • There are two
  • - The second difference is that for operation of

the circuit breaker it receives a command from

an external control circuit. The Is limiter sits in between the two. Is limiter interrupts instantaneous fault same as fuse but

needs an external circuit to initiate operation

same as circuit breaker.

INTRODUCTION (Cont….)

Interrupting Device Ratings
Interrupting Device Ratings
Circuit Breaker Ratings: Breaking :  Symmetrical  Asymmetrical   Zero crossing is required to
Circuit Breaker Ratings:
Breaking :
Symmetrical
Asymmetrical
Zero crossing is required to interrupt
current
Making
Short time rating
Fuse Ratings:
Cut off current
Let through energy
Is Limiter Ratings:
Max short circuit current (initial
symmetrical)
Max rate of rise. For ACG limiters it is
44.429 kA/ms
INTRODUCTION (Cont….) Interrupting Device Ratings Circuit Breaker Ratings: Breaking :  Symmetrical  Asymmetrical  

All devices have continuous current and voltage rating

Is Limiter Overview

INTRODUCTION (Cont….)

INTRODUCTION (Cont….) Technical data Rated Rated Switching Voltage Current Capability 0,75 kV 1250 A - 5000

Technical data

Rated

Rated

Switching

Voltage

Current

Capability

0,75 kV

  • 1250 A - 5000 A

  • 140 kA RMS

12,00 kV

  • 1250 A - 4000 A

  • 210 kA RMS

17,50 kV

  • 1250 A - 4000 A

  • 210 kA RMS

24,00 kV

  • 1250 A - 3000 A

  • 140 kA RMS

36,00 kV

  • 1250 A - 2500 A

  • 140 kA RMS

40,50 kV

  • 1250 A - 2500 A

  • 140 kA RMS

For higher rated currents I S -limiters can be connected in parallel.

.

I S -limiter - Circuit Breaker

INTRODUCTION (Cont….)

Total operating time of the circuit breaker: i T 0 : Response time of the protection
Total operating time of the circuit breaker:
i
T 0 : Response time of the protection relay:
30 -
40
ms
T 1 : Operating time of the protection relay:
30 -
40
ms
T 2 : Operating time of the circuit breaker:
40 -
80
ms
T 3 : Arc duration:
10 - 20
ms
t
Total operating time of the I S -
limiter:
T : 5 - 10 ms
T 0
T 1
T
2
T 3
T

=

INTRODUCTION (Cont….)

Breaking of a short-circuit current with I S -limiter

T 1

=
=
= INTRODUCTION (Cont….) Breaking of a short-circuit current with I -limiter T 1 = T 2

T 2

= INTRODUCTION (Cont….) Breaking of a short-circuit current with I -limiter T 1 = T 2
i i = i 1 + i 2 without I S -limiter u i = i
i
i = i 1 + i 2
without I S -limiter
u
i = i 1 + i 2
with I S -limiter
i
1
i
2

126 kA

I K = 25 kA

I K = 25 kA

i i i 1 1 1 I kperm. = 25 kA i i 2 2 i
i i i
1 1 1
I kperm. = 25 kA
i
i
2
2
i = i
i = i 1 + i 2
+ i
1
2
=

Single line diagram of a busbar system with I S -limiter

63 kA

= INTRODUCTION (Cont….) Breaking of a short-circuit current with I -limiter T 1 = T 2

t

Current curve at the short-circuit location

INTRODUCTION (Cont….)

Detection of the Short-circuit current

i 1 Short-circuit current 1 without I S -limiter 2 Short-circuit current – I S -limiter
i
1
Short-circuit current
1
without I S -limiter
2
Short-circuit current
– I S -limiter tripped –
3
Over current
– I S -limiter not
tripped –
4
Peak value of
service current
2
3
(
di
) 2
(
di
) 3
dt
dt
i
Limit
4
t
i limit ^ ( di / dt )
i limit ^ ( di / dt )

INTRODUCTION (Cont….)

Schedule for tripping of the I s -limiter i T 0 : Reaching time for tripping
Schedule for tripping of the I s -limiter
i
T 0 : Reaching time for tripping criteria
(instantaneous value and di /dt).
T 1 : Response time of the electronic
approx. 15 µs
i
C
T 2 : Time for opening the bursting bridge
and for commutating the
current to the fuse element
T 3 : Melting time of the fuse element
approx.
85 µs
i
B
approx. 500 µs
i
A
T 4 : Arc duration
i A : Tripping criteria are reached
(instantaneous value and di /dt).
i B : Current at beginning of fuse element's melting
i C : Let-through current
.
t
T 0
T 1 T 2
T 3
T 4

STEP FAULT LIMITING SCHEME

An integrated scheme consisting of three Is limiters, summation CTs, and a logic control panel is provided to achieve a reliable operation of Is limiters when required and to block its operation to prevent unnecessary and

spurious tripping.

Summation CTs are installed in each of the generator incomers, the grid incomers and bus sections to monitor the actual fault currents. Current Limiting Reactor is provided at phase1 & phase2 Intertie to reduce the fault levels to within the Is Limiters and Shah Deniz 11kV fuses breaking capacity.

STEP FAULT LIMITING SCHEME • An integrated scheme consisting of three Is limiters, summation CTs, and

Is Limiter Overview

TRIPPING CRITERIA

Is Limiter must prevent short circuit currents exceeding the permissible values as below:

  • - Breaking current of 50kA

  • - Peak Short circuit Current of 158kA

  • - Initial Symmetrical Short circuit current of 58kA.

The tripping criteria is based on total summation fault current and the current through the Is limiter. If both these values exceed the preset value the Is limiter will trip. Tripping

of the Is Limiter is also dependent on the direction of current.

The tripping values for the summation current and the current through the Is limiter are 7kA and 42kA respectively. These values are factory set and cannot be changed by the operator on site.

BLOCKING LOGIC

The operation of the Is limiters is not activated for the following:

- To prevent unnecessary operation of more than one Is limiter for the same fault.

- To prevent operation of Is limiters for external grid fault.

- To prevent operation if the summation current does

not exceed the tripping value.

BLOCKING LOGIC • The operation of the Is limiters is not activated for the following: -

INTER-TRIPPING TO BUS SECTION BREAKERS

The Is Limiter operates independently for each phase. If the tripping values for one phase are exceeded the Is Limiter for that phase only will trip. If the tripping values for two phases are exceeded the Is Limiters for those phases will trip.

For three phase isolation intertripping is provided

such that tripping of the Is Limiter will trip the

associated bus section breaker.

The tripping values of the Is Limiters are set such

the

circuit

exceeded.

breaker

interrupting

capacity

is

not

INTERLOCKING

A solenoid operated Interlocking is provided such that the Is Limiter truck cannot be inserted or withdrawn unless both sides of the Is limiter

are de-energised.

In addition interlocking is provided such that the associated bus section breaker cannot be

closed

unless

operation.

the

Is

Limiter

is

‘ready’

for

CONTROL SUPPLY

For high reliability two 110V AC supplies:

  • - The main power supply via voltage transformer (VT)

  • - The Secondary power supply from UPS

These two power supplies are provided with an auto changeover scheme. Normal operation will be with the power supply from the voltage transformer. Upon loss

of mains power the auxiliary supply will be switched to

UPS. Similarly upon restoration of main power the auxiliary supply will be switched back the voltage

transformer.

IS LIMITER LV COMPARTMENT ALARM AND STATUS

SIGNALS

Alarm and status signals are sent to PMS, logic control panel and to the associated bus section breaker.

The

followings

are

the

interface

between

LV

Compartment and Logic Control Panel:

  • - Is Limiter Blocking

  • - Is Limiter Deactivation of Tripping Criteria

  • - Tripping Criteria Status

  • - Is Limiter Blocked

  • - Is Limiter Tripped

  • - Is Limiter Ready

TESTING

The testing of the trip values will normally be carried out by specialist engineer using vendor

supplied test inserts and testing equipment. Refer to acceptance test procedure, vendor document reference PTCS01A-H0191.

IS LIMITER CONTROL PANEL

A logic control panel is provided to implement the matrix logic. In order to achieve high reliability the matrix logic is implemented both by using hard wired

control relay and a PLC. If there is any discrepancy

between the hard wired logic and the PLC logic an alarm

is raised.

The control panel consists of hard wired logic and the supervisory PLC. The PLC has dual redundant processors running in synchronism with bumpless transfer from the primary processor to the secondary processor.

IS LIMITER CONTROL PANEL (Cont……)

In-Service/Overide Selection:

- For a fault on each Is limiter an alarm is received from the Is Limiter cubicle to the control panel. The operator can take the faulty Is Limiter out of service without affecting the operation of other Is Limiters. A key operated in-service/over-ride switch is provided for this

for each Is Limiter. Alarms:

- PLC Watchdog Fault - Incorrect activation/blocking criteria outputs from hardwired control section

IS LIMITER CONTROL PANEL (Cont……)

  • - Discrepancy check of main generator/grid circuit breaker status signals

  • - Discrepancy between verified IS Limiter

activation/blocking status and outputs from the hardwired

relay logic

  • - Common fault including control supply fault of Is Limiter

fault to PMS

  • - Is Limiter Control Panel fault to PMS

-Common alarm to the ICSS for any alarm present in the

logic control panel including the Is Limiter fault alarms. Control Supply

  • - Dual UPS supplies with auto changeover.

IS LIMITER SIMULATION

The IS limiters is simulated in a spreadsheet for a 3- phase fault at any 11kV busbar, with the system in any operating configuration. This will also check the Is limiter blocking or activation of selectivity criteria, dependent on the number of main generators/grids supplies connected to the 11kV system. The fault currents are calculated with IS limiter operation and also ignoring Is limiter operation

in accordance with BS-EN 60909-0:2001.

IS LIMITER SIMULATION • The IS limiters is simulated in a spreadsheet for a 3- phase