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Volcano and Bathymetric Map

Liang-Fang Chao

What is a volcano?
A volcano is a site where melted rock and other materials from arth!s mantle are released" #$ring an er$ption% melted rock called magma leaves the magma cham&er and moves $p the conduit" 'he magma leaves the cond$it at the vent" Magma is called lava after it leaves the vent"

vent$ally the er$ption ends and the volcano vent &ecomes a &owllike caldera or res$rgent dome or lava lake"

(es$rgent dome

Cinder Cone

A volcanic neck is the solid remains of magma that filled the cond$it" As the volcano erodes% a core of solid magma gets e)posed" *ranite is an igneo$s rock and is formed from magma"

#evil!s 'ower at Wyoming 'he granite peaks in Chile

'he top of an active mantle pl$me is called a hot spot" As the plate moves% it carries the volcanic island away from the active hot spot"

-awaii!s .slands are Volcanic Chains

#etermine direction of movement

C$rrently% the hot spot is making the $ndersea volcano Loihi to the so$theast of the island"

Life of a Volcano
An active volcano is er$pting or has er$pted recently% and is e)pected to er$pt again in the near f$t$re% s$ch as /ila$ea in -awaii 0last er$ption in March 1% 23445 A dormant volcano is not active now% &$t may &ecome active in the f$t$re% s$ch as Mo$nt 6t" -elen and Lassen 7eak" An e)tinct volcano is no longer a&le to er$pt% s$ch as #evil!s 'ower"

Bathymetric Map - A bathymetric map shows what the ocean floor wo$ld look like if all the water drained o$t

Obvious Divergent Boundaries trace over the ridges and rises 0white areas5"

Obvious Convergent Boundaries - trace over the trenches"

EQ Magnitude less than 5.0

Earthquake and Volcano Data

EQ Magnitude 5.0 to 6.9 EQ Magnitude 7.0 and above Volcano

Ma8or 'ectonic 7lates

Eurasian Plate American Plate Pacific Plate IndoAustralian Plate Nazca Plate Eurasian Plate

African Plate

Antarctic Plate

What is the direction of motion for the ma or plates!

Held stationary

Volcano /ila$ea in -awaii

(ight on top of -awaiian -ot 6pot 6hallow Magma (eservoir Most active volcano on arth B$t gentle% with V . ? 3 0Volcanic )plosive .nde)5

49":4;< north latit$de 4=="2>;< west longit$de"

Mo$nt 6t" -elen ":@"23 A% 422"41 W5 y8af8alla8Bk$ll Volcano in .celand 0@;"@; degrees A 49"@2 degrees W5 - recent er$ption March % 2343 C a relatively small glacier in .celand whose icecap covers an active volcano some 4%@@@ meters 0=%:@@ feet5 high"

Mo$nt tna% .taly

$ropeDs highest and most active volcano" located a&ove a s$&d$ction Eone formed where the $rasian and African plates collide% which also prod$ced Ves$vi$s and Campi Flegrei"

Latit$de+ ;><:=G41"2:HA Longit$de+ 4:<=9G:2"9H


6$&d$ctoin Fone

#rakatoa$ %ndonesia
A Volcanic island &etween Iava and 6$matra in .ndonesia% growing &y 2cm per day" )ploded in 411;% killing ;@%:4> people" Lo$dest so$nd ever heard in modern history% &eing heard nearly ;%333 miles away" 's$nami over ;33 meters high" 'he sky darkened worldwide for years"


&ount 'inatubo in 'hilippine

'he 4994 er$ption prod$ced the second largest terrestrial er$ption of the 23th cent$ry 02nd to the 4942 er$ption of /atmai in the Alaska 5

'he caldera was

s$&seJ$ently filled with water from monsoon rains and a crater lake was formed" *lo&al temperat$res dropped &y a&o$t 3"= <C 03"933 <F5 for ; years"

Aovar$pta% Alaska
A new volcano formed in 4992" 'he 4992 V .-@ er$ption lasted @3 ho$rs long and released ;3 times the vol$me of magma as the 4913 er$ption of Mo$nt 6t" -elens" Aear&y /atmai has V . ; in 4992"



(ernandina %sland
the third largest% and yo$ngest% island of the *alLpagos .slands" 'he islands were formed &y the *alLpagos hotspot" 'he island is an active shield volcano that has &een er$pting since April 44% 2339"