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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Management of solid wastes has become very important in order to minimize the adverse effects of solid effects. SOURCES OF UR !" #!S$ES Urban waste consists of medical waste from hospitals% m&nicipal solid wastes from homes' offices' mar(ets' small cottage &nits and hortic&lt&re waste from gardens' orchards.

) #aste from *omestic waste + polyethylene bags' empty metal and al&mini&m cans' scrap metals' glass bottles' waste paper' cloth,rags' food waste. ) #aste from shops consists of waste paper' pac(aging material' cans' bottles' polythene bags' pean&t shells' tea leaves. ) iomedical waste incl&de pathological wastes' infectio&s wastes. ) Constr&ction,demolition waste + debris' r&bbles' wood and concrete. ) -ortic&lt&re waste and waste from sla&ghtered animals + vegetable parts' resid&e and remains

of sla&ghtered animals. #!S$ES ............../........... / / iodegradable "on0biodegradable eg +veg wastes' stale 1olythene bags' food' tea leaves' egg scrap metal' glass shells' pean&t shells' dry bottles. leaves.

iodegradable waste + $he solid waste materials that can be degraded by micro0 organisms are called biodegradable waste. E2 + vegetable wastes' stale food' tea leaves' egg shells' pean&t shells' dry leaves etc.

) "on0biodegradable waste + #astes that can not be degraded by micro0organisms are called non0biodegradable wastes. E2 + 1olyethylene bags' scrap metal' glass bottles etc.

) 3nd&strial wastes Factory'pac(aging material' organic wastes' acids'al(alis'metals'hazardo&s and to2ic materials. So&rces + Chemical ind&stries' metal and mineral processing ind&stries. Radioactive wastes + n&clear power plants. $hermal power plants + Fly ash Solid wastes + scrap metal' r&bber'plastic' paper'glass'woods'oils'paints'asphalt'tars'dyes ' scrap leather' ceramics' abrasives' slag'heavy metals' asbestos' batteries.

Effects of Solid wastes ) Uncontrolled and &nhygenic conditions ) Fo&l smell' breeds vario&s types of insects and infectio&s organisms ) 3nd&strial solid wastes + so&rces of to2ic metals' hazardo&s wastes ca&se changes in physicochemical and biological characteristics' affecting the prod&ctivity of soils. ) 4ario&s types of wastes li(e cans' pesticides' cleaning solvents' batteries' radioactive materials' plastics are mi2ed &p with paper' scraps and other non0to2ic materials which co&ld be recycled.

&rning prod&ces dio2ins' f&rans' polychlorinated biphenyls + ca&se cancer

Management of Solid #aste 5R6s + red&ce' re&se and recycle before destr&ction and safe storage of wastes. i7 Red&ction in &se of raw materials + decrease the prod&ction of waste. Red&ced demand will decrease mining of their metal and ca&se less prod&ction of waste. ii7 Re&se of waste materials + Containers can be re&sed

4illagers ma(e casseroles from waste paper and other waste materials. Ma(ing r&bber rings from discarded cycle t&bes which are &sed by newspaper vendors' red&ces waste generation d&ring man&fact&ring of r&bber bands. iii7 Recycling of materials + a7 Formation of some old type prod&cts + eg old al&mini&m cans and glass bottles are melted

b7 Formation of new prod&cts + 1reparation of cell&lose ins&lation from paper' preparation of f&el pellets from (itchen waste. 1reparation of a&tomobiles and constr&ction materials from steel cans. $he process of red&cing' re&sing and recycling saves money' energy' raw materials' land space and red&ces poll&tion. Recycling will red&ce c&tting of trees for ma(ing fresh paper. Re&se of metals will red&ce mining and melting of ores for recovery of metals from ores and prevent poll&tion.

*3SC!R*3"8 #!S$ES
) Sanitary 9andfill + 8arbage is spread o&t in thin layers' compacted and covered with clay or plastic foam. ) Composting + iodegradable yard waste is allowed to degrade or decompose in an o2ygen rich medi&m.Man&re is formed which improves soil conditions and fertility. ) 3ncinerators are b&rning plants capable of b&rning a large amo&nt of materials at high temp. 3nitial cost is very high. *&ring incineration' high levels of dio2ins' f&ran

lead' cadmi&m may be emitted with the fly ash of incinerator. *io2in level may reach many times more than in ambient environment.

INCINERATION

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