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A Synopsis Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree Master of Technology (Mechanical Engineering)




Under The Guidance Of

Supervisor:- Dr. Inderpreet Singh Ahuja (Professor) Department of Mechanical Engineering Punjabi University, Patiala.

Co-Supervisor:- Dr. Kanwarpreet Singh (Assistant Professor) Department of Mechanical Engineering Punjabi University, Patiala.





Maintenance has traditionally been considered as a support, non-productive and non-value adding function of business. Maintenance has become more challenging in the current dynamic business environment. It is considered one of the important strategic decisions in operations management. Traditionally, maintenance, with its multifaceted activities, resources, measurement, and

management, has been important to manufacturing organizations. However, in

recent years, the need to manage the different facets of maintenance more effectively has gained added importance due to changing operational technologies, and the changing organizational role of maintenance Maintenance involves maintaining and securing the equipment and systems in, or restoring

them to, a state in which they can perform the required functions. The reason

why maintenance is considered a cost-controlled activity is that engineers and technical men found it difficult to measure the investments on maintenance in total economic terms. It is very easy to find the cost of maintenance but difficult to quantify the results. Like an iceberg, where the biggest part is invisible under the water and only a small part visible above the surface. The visible part

represents the direct maintenance expense while the invisible part silently denotes the various factors influenced by maintenance.

The maintenance function is inherent to production. Even so, understanding and quantifying maintenance activities can be problematic. A recent understanding is that maintenance is more than a group of people or a workshop and transcends the limits of a traditional department.

Relationship of maintenance practices with

manufacturing organisation.

Maintenance is normally perceived to have a poorer rate of return than any other major budget item. Yet, most companies can reduce maintenance costs by at least one-third, and improve the level of productivity, by giving maintenance the management priority it requires. That priority must span all levels of an organization‟s management structure to develop an understanding at each level of the significance maintenance can have upon the success or failure of organization objectives. The maintenance processes can be streamlined to eliminate waste and produce breakthrough performance in areas valued by customers. The potential impact of maintenance on the manufacturing performance is substantial. Maintenance is responsible for controlling the cost of manpower, material, tools, and overhead. In financial

terms, maintenance can represent 20 to 40 per cent of the value added to a

product as it moves through the plant.

Further, a survey of manufacturers found that full-time maintenance personnel as a percentage of plant employees averaged 15.7 per cent of overall staffing in a study involving manufacturing organizations, whereas in refineries, the

maintenance and operations departments are often the largest and each may

comprise about 30 per cent of total staffing.The effectiveness of maintenance function significantly contributes towards the performance of equipment, production and products. In the dynamic and highly challenging environment,

reliable manufacturing equipment is regarded as the major contributor to the performance and profitability of manufacturing systems. Its importance is rather increasing in the growing advanced manufacturing technology

application stages.

Therefore, equipment maintenance is an indispensable function in a manufacturing Enterprise. The recent competitive trends and ever

increasing business pressures have been putting maintenance function

under the spotlight as never before. For maintenance to make its proper

contribution to profits, productivity, and quality, it must be recognized as an integral part of the plant production strategy. Thus achieving excellence in maintenance issues has to be treated as a strategic issue for manufacturing organizations to create world-class-manufacturers. The effective integration of maintenance function with engineering and other manufacturing functions in the organization can help to save huge amounts of time, money and other useful resources in dealing with reliability, availability, maintainability and performance issues. Strategic investments in the maintenance function can lead to improved performance of manufacturing system and enhance the competitive market position of the organization. This has provided the impetus to the leading organizations worldwide to adopt effective and

efficient maintenance strategies.


The literature has revealed that the manufacturing organizations worldwide are facing many challenges to achieve successful operation in today‟s competitive environment. Modern manufacturing requires that to be successful, organizations must be supported by both effective

and efficient maintenance practices and procedures. Over the past two

decades, manufacturing organizations have used different approaches to improve maintenance effectiveness. Maintenance has traditionally been considered as a support, non-productive and non-value adding function of business. Maintenance has become more challenging in the

current dynamic business environment.Maintenance function has

typically being regarded as a necessary evil and an operating expense to

be minimized and not treated as an investment in increasing process reliabity.

Gupta et al. (2004) studied the contemporary maintenance management in terms of process, framework and supporting pillars. This paper presents a holistic framework for managing the maintenance function which begins with reviewing the concept, state of art processes and standards available to help maintain today‟s complex systems.

Masjuki et al. (2005) presented a generic model on using the total productive maintenance concept in conjuction with ecology oriented manufacturing

focusing on their joint strenghts in attaining organizational goals in furtherance

to the equipment maintenance objectives.

Khamba et al. (2007) justified the total productive maintenance initiatives in Indian manufacturing industry for achieving core competitiveness. The paper aimed at understanding contribution of total productive maintenance initiatives

towards building core competencies in Indian manufacturing industry.

Laakso et al. (2007) described the value driven maintenance planning for a production plant. In this paper maintenance planning approach is presented known as VDMP to emphasize the fact that the objectives of the plant are the reference points for specifying functional requirements for the equipment

locations and the equipments.

Sachdeva et al. (2008) studied the planning and optimization of the maintenance of the paper production systems in a paper plant. The main objective of this paper was to minimize the total cost of inspection and repair, and equipment downtime.

Aditya et al. (2009) discussed the maintenance performance indicators. The purpose of this paper was to present case studies dealing with the application of benchmarking and

maintenance performance indicators for the railway infrastructure. Maintenance performance

indicators can successfully use benchmarking as tool for improvement by learning from within or from other organizations for continuous improvement. In this paper, the authors have identified the existing maintenance performance indicators used for the railway infrastructure in through two case studies. Further research should focus on identifying the parameters essential for developing lead indicators and on finding methods for selecting and evaluating them, in order to facilitate the outsourcing of railway assets maintenance.

Kodali (2009) justified the world class maintenance systems using analytic hierarchy constant sum method. This paper aimed to conduct a detailed study in order to understand the shortcomings and seeks to propose various solutions in form of best practices which leads to the development of world class maintenance systems

Kumar et al. (2009) studied the implementation of total productive maintenance in large

and medium size organizations. The author aims to identify why such programs were introduced, the activities involved, and the effectiveness and difficulties encountered during the process.

Ramayah et al. (2010) studied the total productive maintenance approach. The findings

showed that TPM strategies and autonomous maintenance were the highest scoring practices in

the study. It is found out that TPM focuses on improving equipment effectiveness, productivity, workplace safety and environmental issues, and eliminating production losses. This study has investigated the extent of TPM practices in manufacturing companies. The findings show that the extent of TPM practices in manufacturing companies has good prospects, as all of companies agreed that all the practices are at high levels.

Pophaley et al. (2010) studied the plant maintenance management practices in

automobiles industries in India. The one of the objective of this paper was to investigate the present state of plant maintenance management practices, based on studies conducted in different journals over the past two decades. The paper reviews the research work on plant

maintenance management practices in automobile industries under the traditional operation

paradigm. The current work gives a broader view of maintenance practices and researches carried across the globe, but as maintenance is now a widely accepted philosophy for competitive advantage, more research work is required in auto industries. Finally, the research needs for future was presented. It is the authors‟ intention to utilize the knowledge gained from this literature review to develop a comprehensive and holistic design for maintenance methodology that will be presented in the next part of this research.

Wakjira et al. (2012) did a case study on total productive maintenance in manufacturing industry. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the contributions of total productive maintenance initiatives towards improving manufacturing performance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the contributions of total productive maintenance (TPM) initiatives towards improving manufacturing performance in malt manufacturing industry.

Singh and Ahuja (2012) studied the empirical research evaluates the combined TQMTPM strategic factors to determine the critical success factors in environmental uncertainty using analytical hierarchy process.

Singh and Ahuja (2013) made an attempt to show the synergistic suitability of transfusion of TQM-TPM for Indian manufacturing industries. For the study, the most relevant factors affecting these drives like quality, cost and maintenance has been considered and further these factors has been simulated by the data given by experts in this fields using fuzzy logic toolbox of MATLAB which provides the steps for designing fuzzy inference systems using graphical tools, and a Simulink block for analysing, designing, and simulating systems based on fuzzy logic.

Singh and Ahuja (2012) reviewed the literature on TQM and TPM and also

to study on various TPM and TQM implementation issues in order to develop an

indigenous strategic synergetic effect, considering two key aspects of profitability and operating performance approach for the manufacturing industry.

Katkamwar et al. (2013) represented the study and overview for the

implementing approach of total productive maintenance in Indian spinning industries. The aim of this paper was to suggest and study the implementation of the TPM program in the spinning industry. This paper presents the study and overview for the implementing approach of Total Productive Maintenance in Indian spinning industries.

Types of various maintenance practices being used in Indian Manufacturing Industries

Breakdown maintenance:

In this type of maintenance, no care is taken for the machine, until equipment fails. Repair is then undertaken. This type of maintenance

could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect

the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost. However, an important aspect is that the failure of a component from a big machine may be injurious to the operator. Hence breakdown maintenance should be avoided. This maintenance strategy

was primarily adopted in the manufacturing organizations, worldwide,

prior to 1950. In this phase, machines are serviced only when repair is

drastically required. This concept has the disadvantage of unplanned stoppages, excessive damage, spare parts problems, high repair costs, excessive waiting and maintenance time and high trouble shooting problems.

Preventive maintenance:

This concept was introduced in 1951, which is a kind of physical check-up of the equipment to prevent equipment breakdown and prolong equipment service life. It is a daily maintenance (cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure

deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance.

Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be

prolonged by doing preventive maintenance PM comprises of maintenance activities that are undertaken after a specified period of time or amount of machine use. The preventive work undertaken may include equipment lubrication, cleaning, parts replacement, tightening, and adjustment. The production equipment may also be inspected for signs of

deterioration during preventive maintenance work.

Predictive maintenance:

Predictive maintenance is often referred to as condition based maintenance (CBM).This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or

diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic

maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition-based maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an on-line system. E.g. Replacement of coolant or oil, if there is a change in colour. Change in colour indicates the deteriorating condition of the oil.

4. Corrective maintenance:

It improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability. This is a system, introduced in 1957, in which the concept to prevent equipment failures is further expanded to be applied to the

improvement of equipment so that the equipment failure can be eliminated and the

equipment can be easily maintained (improving equipment maintainability). The primary difference between corrective and preventive maintenance is that a problem must exist before corrective actions are taken. The purpose of corrective maintenance is improving equipment reliability, maintainability, and safety; design weaknesses (material, shapes); existing equipment undergoes structural reform; to reduce deterioration and failures,

andto aim at maintenance-free equipment.

5. Maintenance prevention:

Introduced in 1960s, this is an activity wherein theequipment is designed such that they are maintenance free and an ultimate idealcondition of “what the equipment and the line must be” is achieved. It indicates the design of new equipment. Weakness of current machines is sufficiently studied (on site information leading to failure prevention, easier maintenance and prevents of defects, safety and ease of manufacturing). The observations and the study made are shared with the equipment manufacturer and necessary changes are made in the design of new machine.

6.Productive maintenance (PM):

Productive maintenance means the most economic maintenance that raises equipment

productivity. The purpose of productive maintenance is to increase the productivity of an enterprise by reducing the total cost of the equipment over the entire life from design, fabrication, operation and maintenance, and the losses caused by equipment degradation. The key characteristics of this maintenance philosophy are equipment reliability and maintainability focus, as well as cost conscious of maintenance activities.

The maintenance strategy involving all those activities to improve equipment productivity

by performing Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance and Maintenance Prevention throughout the life cycle of equipment is called Productive Maintenance.


There is abundant literature on the maintenance practices from different perspectives,

including their role in improving the competitive positions of nations and economic zones.

After successful institutionalization of maintenance programs in the organizations, concerted efforts must be made to ensure sustained maintenance deployment in the manufacturing organizations, as manufacturing improvements are only possible through persistent deployment of maintenance initiatives. According to the literature review it has

been found that various maintenance practice are implemented in various large scale

industries for obtaining various business performance outputs in manufacturing industries. So, a need is felt to study the implementation rate of these maintenance practices in the small and medium scale Indian industries. As these maintenance practices will help in contributing in the improvement of their business performances



As the Maintenance practices being much in vogue in Indian manufacturing

industries, a need is felt to examine the efficiency of these maintenance

practices in the small and medium scale industries in the northern region of

the country. An investigation into this issue will help answering some vital questions on implementation of these practices in manufacturing industries in Indian context. The objectives of this study are to find out the prevailing situation of these maintenance practices in small and medium scale industries and also to examine the effectiveness of maintenance practices to improve business performance measures of Indian manufacturing organizations


The study shall be carried out in the small and medium scale manufacturing

organizations in the country that have implemented or are in the process of implementing various maintenance practices. The study will focus on the extent up to which the different maintenance practices are being practiced at the industries in the northern region of the country. Also the study will involve the

evaluation of the contribution of the maintenance practices in improving the

business performances of the industries.


The following issues shall be taken up during the research work:

The prevailing status of various maintenance practices used in small and medium scale industries in the northern region of the country. Evaluating the contribution of various maintenance practices in improving the business performance.


The detailed literature review shall be carried out to ascertain the contributions of maintenance practices towards improving the business performances for meeting the global competition.

Survey of various manufacturing units shall be carried out through a specially designed questionnaire for understanding and assessing the prevailing situation. The research will be based on empirical data collected through a questionnaire from Indian companies. The industries for study will be selected from northern locations to obtain findings for manufacturing industry. The questionnaire will clearly seek information from the respondents to indicate the types of maintenance practices adopted by the company. It will also require the

respondents to rate the improvements contributed by the selected practice over the period of implementation. The information obtained through the questionnaire shall be analyzed to ascertain the contributions of maintenance practices towards achieving manufacturing competencies of the Indian Manufacturing Industry.


CHAPTER 1: Introduction In this chapter, the significance of maintenance function towards improving the manufacturing performance shall be discussed. Moreover, the contributions of maintenance practices towards manufacturing performance enhancements for meeting global competition will be elaborated.

CHAPTER 2: Literature Review The detailed literature on maintenance practices and its development shall be analyzed and the experiences of the northern side of Indian entrepreneurs shall be elaborated.

CHAPTER 3: Design of the Study


design of


study shall emphasize on the

methodology adopted for

analyzing and synthesizing the collected information through the questionnaire.

CHAPTER 4: Analysis of the Data The information obtained through the questionnaire shall be analyzed to ascertain the contributions of maintenance philosophies towards manufacturing competencies of the Indian Manufacturing Industry.

CHAPTER 5: Conclusions, Limitations and scope for future work. The conclusions derived from the synthesis of the data in a sequential manner shall be presented, limitations of the study shall be highlighted and scope for the future work shall also be suggested.


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