Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 88

# Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Chapter 13
Kinetics of Particles: Energy and
Momentum Methods
VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:
STATICS AND DYNAMICS, 7E
BEER JOHNSTON
Lecture Notes
Dr. Isaac H. Jung
Saint Martins College
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Introduction
Method of work and energy, method of
impulse and momentum
acceleration is not needed
Conservation of energy, conservation
of angular momentum
Impact problems
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Work of Force
( ) ( )
dz F dy F dx F
k d j d i d k F j F i F dU
Fds dU
r d F dU
z y x
z y x z y x
+ + =
+ + - + + =
=
- =

o cos
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( )
}
} }
}
+ + =
= =
- =

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
2 1
2 1
cos
A
A
z y x
s
s
t
s
s
A
A
dz F dy F dx F U
ds F ds F U
r d F U
o

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( ) x F U A =

o cos
2 1
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
y W y y W U
Wy Wy Wdy U
Wdy dU
y
y
A = =
= =
=

}
) (
1 2 2 1
2 1 2 1
2
1
When Ay is negative (moves down), the work is
positive
Work of the Force of Gravity
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Work of the Force Exerted by a Spring
( ) x F F U
kx kx kxdx U
kxdx Fdx dU
kx F
x
x
A + =
= =
= =
=

}
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
1 2 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
If the spring returning to the
undeformed position, then positive energy
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Work of a gravitational Force
1 2
2
2 1
2
2
2
1
r
GMm
r
GMm
dr
r
GMm
U
dr
r
Mm
G Fdr dU
r
Mm
G F
r
r
= =
= =
=
}

GMm=WR
2
R=3960 mi
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Kinetic Energy of a Particle
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
mv mv vdv m ds F
mvdv ds F
ds
dv
mv
dt
ds
ds
dv
m
dt
dv
m ma F
v
v
s
s
t
t
t t
= =
=
= = = =
} }
2 2 1 1
1 2 2 1
T U T
T T U
= +
=

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Applications of the Principles of Work and
Energy
Pendulum
gl v
v
g
W
Wl
T U T
2
2
1
0
2
2
2
2 2 1 1
=
= +
= +

v
2
is like a free fall velocity
P doesnt do any work
Advantage; 1. No need to calculate values between A
1
and
A
2.
Only final stages are counted 2. All scalars so can be
added easily 3. Forces that do no work are ignored

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Disadvantage; can not determine accelerations and forces that do
no work
Use supplemental equations
2 2 1 1
2
2
2
2
3
2
T U T
W
l
gl
g
W
W
l
v
g
W
W P
l
v
g
W
ma W P
n
= +
= + = + =
= =

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Power and Efficiency
Friction energy dissipated by heat and
reduce kinetic energy

input power
output power
v F
dt
r d F
dt
dU
power

=
- =
-
= =
q

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.1
An automobile weighing 4000 lb is driven down a
5
0
incline at a speed of 60 mph when the brakes
are applied, causing a constant total braking
force of 1500 lb. Determine the distance
traveled by the automobile as it comes to a stop
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Solution of Sample Problem 13.1
f t x
x
T U T
x x U
s f t v
lb f t mv T
s f t v
418
0 1151 481000
0
5 sin 4000 1500
/ 0
. 481000
3600 * 2 . 32 * 2
4000
2
1
/ 88 3600 / 5280 * 60
2 2 1 1
0
2 1
2
2
1 1
1
=
=
= = +
+ =
=
= = =
= =

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.2
Two blocks are joined by an inextensible
cable as shown. If the system is released
from rest, determine the velocity of block
A after it has moved 2 m. Assume that the
coefficient of kinetic friction between
block A and the plane is
k
= 0.25 and that
the pulley is weightless and frictionless.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
2
2
2 2 1 1
200
2
1
2 * 490 2 *
2
1
2 * 2 * 0
490 1962 * 25 . 0
1962 81 . 9 * 200
v F
v m F F
T U T
N F
N w
C
A A C
A
A
=
= +
= +
= =
= =

( )
s m v
v F
v m F W
T U T
C
B C B
/ 43 . 4
300
2
1
2 * 2 * 81 . 9 * 300
2
1
2 * 2 * 0
2
2
2 2 1 1
=
=
= +
= +

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.3
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
A spring is used to stop a 60-kg package which
is sliding on a horizontal surface. The spring
has a constant k = 20 kN/m and is held by
cables so that it is initially compressed 120
mm. Knowing that the package has a velocity
of 2.5 m/s in the position shown and that the
of the spring is 40 mm, determine (a) the
coefficient of kinetic friction between the
package and the surface, (b) the velocity of
the package as it passes again through the
position shown.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( ) ( )
J
x P P U
N
x k kx P
N
kx P
N
f x U
W N F
J
mv T
e
k
k
f
k k
k k
0 . 112 04 . 0 * 2800
2
1
3200 04 . 0 * 20000 120 . 0 * 20000
2400 120 . 0 * 20000
377
) 040 . 0 600 . 0 ( * 6 . 588
6 . 588 81 . 9 * 69
5 . 187 5 . 2 * 60
2
1
2
1
max min 2 1
0 max
0 min
2 1
2
2
1 1
= =
A + =
= + =
A + =
= =
=
=
+ =
=
= =
= =
= =
=

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( ) ( )
s m v
v
U
T U T
T U T
U U U
k
k
k
k
e f
/ 103 . 1
60
2
1
5 . 36 0
5 . 36 0 . 112 377
20 . 0
0 0 . 112 377 5 . 187
0 . 112 377
3
2
3
3 2
3 3 2 2
2 2 1 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
=
= +
= + =
= +
=
=
= +
=
+ =

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.4
A 2000-lb car starts from rest at point 1 and moves
without friction down the track shown. (a)
Determine the force exerted by the track on the
car at point 2, where the radius of curvature of the
track is 20 ft. (b) Determine the minimum safe value
of the radius of curvature at point 3.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
lb W N
v
g
W
ma N W
s f t g v
v
g
W
f t W
T U T
n
000 , 10 5
/ 8 . 50 80
2
1
40 * 0
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 1 1
= =
= = +
= =
= +
= +

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
f t
v
g
W
W
v
g
W
ma N W
s f t g v
v
g
W
f t W
T U T
n
50
/ 1 . 40 50
2
1
25 * 0
2
2
2
3
3
2
3
3 3 1 1
=
=
= =
= =
= +
= +

## worst case is when

N=0
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.5
The dumbwaiter D and its
weight of 600 lb, while the
counterweight C weighs 800
lb. Determine the power
delivered by the electric
motor M when the
dumbwaiter (a) is moving up
at a constant speed of 8
ft/s, (b) has an
instantaneous velocity of 8
ft/s and an acceleration of
2.5 ft/s
2
, both directed
upward.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( )
hp Power
s lb f t s f t lb Fv
T F
ma T
a a if
hp Power
s lb f t s f t lb Fv
T F
T
D
C
D C
D
81 . 3
/ . 2097 / 8 * 1 . 262
5 . 2 * 2 . 32 / 600 600
25 . 1 * 2 . 32 / 800 2 800
25 . 1
2
1

91 . 2
/ . 1600 / 8 * 200
0 600
0 800 2
=
= =
= +
= =
= =
=
= =
= +
=
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Potential Energy
Wy V
V V U
Wy Wy Wdy U
g
g g
y
y
=
=
= =

}
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
) ( ) (
2
1
When V
g2
>V
g1
, potential energy increases, and U
1-2

is negative
Potential Energy of the body with
respect to the force of gravity
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
r
WR
r
Mm
G V
r
GMm
r
GMm
dr
r
GMm
U
g
r
r
2
1 2
2
2 1
2
1
= =
= =
}

GMm=WR
2
R=3960 mi
R is from the center of the
earth
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
2
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
1 2 1
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
2
1
kx V
V V U
kx kx kxdx U
e
e e
x
x
=
=
= =

}
Potential Energy of the body
with respect to the elastic
force F
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Only the initial and final deflection of
the spring are needed
Deflection of the spring is measured
from its undeformed position
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Conservative Force
If the work is independent of the path
followed by the particle A as it moves
from A
1
to A
2
, the force F is
conservative
) , , (
0
2 1
2 1 2 1
z y x dV dU
r d F
V V U
=
= -
=

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
k
z
V
j
y
V
i
x
V
k F j F i F F
z
V
F
y
V
F
x
V
F
dz
z
V
dy
y
V
dx
x
V
dz F dy F dx F
z y x dV dU
r d F
z y x
z y x
z y x
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= + + =
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= + +
=
= -

, ,
) , , (
0
2 1
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Conservation of Energy
When a particle moves under the action of
conservative forces, the sum of the kinetic energy and
of the potential energy of the particle remains
constant
E V T V T
T T V V U
= + = +
= =

2 2 1 1
1 2 2 1 2 1
E; total mechanical
energy
Wl V T
Wl V T
= +
= =
1 1
1 1
, 0
( )
Wl V T
V Wl
g
gl W mv
T
= +
= = = =
2 2
2
2
2
0 ,
2
2
2
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
If no friction, all speeds must be the same
Friction forces are nonconservative forces.
The work of friction force is negative. Total energy is
constant if we add thermal energy dissipated by heat.
Other forms of energy are electric energy (generator),
or chemical energy, etc
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Motion under a Conservative Central Force
r
GMm mv
r
GMm mv
V T V T
rmv mv r
H
=
+ = +
=
=
2 2
sin sin
Constant
2
0
2
0
0 0
0 0 0
0
| |
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.6
A 20-lb collar slides
without friction along a
vertical rod as shown.
The spring attached to
the collar has an
undeformed length of 4
in. and a constant of 3
lb/in. If the collar is
released from rest in
position 1, determine its
velocity after it has
moved 6 in. to position 2.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Solution of Sample Problem 13.6
( )
5 . 5 311 . 0 2 0
2 . 32
20
2
1
2
1
. 5 . 5 . 66 6 * 20 6 * 3
2
1
2
1
. 2 . 24 4 * 3
2
1
2
1
2
2
2 2 1 1
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
= +
+ = +
= =
= = + =
+ =
+ =
= = = = =
v
V T V T
v mv T
lb f t lb in
Wy kx V
V V V
lb f t lb in kx V V
e
g e
e
v
2
=4.91ft/s
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.7

The 0.5-lb pellet is
pushed against the spring
at A and released from
rest.
Neglecting friction,
determine the smallest
deflection of the spring
for which the pellet will
travel around the loop
ABCDE and remain at all
times in contact with the
loop.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
At the point D
2 2 2
2
/ 4 . 64 2 . 32 * 2 s f t v
r
v
g a
ma W
D
D
n
n
= =
= =
=
The smallest velocity
when N=0
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
At the point A
( )
0
18
0
/ 36 * 5 . 0
2
1
2
2 2
=
= + =
=
= =
A
g e A
g
e
T
x V V V
V
x f t lb kx V
At the point D
lb f t V V V
V
lb f t Wy V
g e D
e
g
. 2
0
. 2 4 * 5 . 0
= + =
=
= = =
f t x
x
T V T V
lb f t mv T
D D A A
D D
3727 . 0
5 . 0 2 0 18
. 5 . 0
2
1
2
2
=
+ = +
+ = +
= =
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.8
A sphere of mass m = 0.6 kg is attached to an elastic
cord of constant k = 100 N/m, which is undeformed
when the sphere is located at the origin 0.
Knowing that the sphere may slide without friction on
the horizontal surface and that in the position shown
its velocity v
A
has a magnitude of 20 m/s, determine
(a) the maximum and minimum distances from the
sphere to the origin O, (b) the corresponding values
of its speed
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Between A and B
( )( )( ) ( )
m
m
m m
m m A A
r
v
v r
mv r mv r
H
66 . 8
6 . 0 60 sin 20 6 . 0 5 . 0
60 sin
Constant
0
0
0
=
=
=
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5 . 132 3 . 0 50
6 . 0
2
1
100
2
1
20 6 . 0
2
1
5 . 0 100
2
1
2 2
2 2
2 2
= +
+ = +
+ = +
m m
m m
B B A A
v r
v r
T V T V
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Two equations and two unknowns
r
m
2
are obtained 2.468 or 0.1824
The corresponding speeds are 5.51m/s
and 20.3 m/s (it becomes faster at
minor axis)
Ellipse
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.9
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
A satellite is launched in a direction
parallel to the surface of the earth with
a velocity of 36900 km/h from an
altitude of 500 km. Determine (a) the
maximum altitude reached by the
satellite, (b) the maximum allowable
error in the direction of launching if the
satellite is to go into orbit and come no
closer than 200 km to the surface of
the earth.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
2
0 0 1
0
1
0
0
2
1
2
0
2
0
1 1 0 0
1
2
1
0
2
0
' ' 0 0
2
1
1 1
2
2 2
v r
GM
r
r
r
r
r
GM
r
r v
mv r mv r
r
GMm mv
r
GMm mv
V T V T
A A
= +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
=
+ = +
( ) m
km r
then
gR GM
h km v
km km r
6
6
1
2
0
0
10 * 37 . 6 8 . 66 alt max
10 * 8 . 66
/ 36900
500 6370
=
=
=
=
+ =
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
0 0
0
0
max min 0 0 0
min
2
max
0
2
0
5 . 11 90
9801 . 0 sin
sin
2 2
=
=
=
=
|
|
| mv r mv r
r
GMm mv
r
GMm mv
Using two equations,
eliminate v
max
. The error
should be less than plus
minus 11.5 degrees
Solve for v
max
,
r
min
=6570 km
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Impulse and Momentum
( )
( )
}
}
}
=
+ =
=
=
=

2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
1 2
1 2
Imp
t
t
t
t
t
t
dt F
dt F v m v m
v m v m dt F
v m d dt F
v m
dt
d
F

} } } }
+ + =
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
t
t
z
t
t
y
t
t
x
t
t
dt F k dt F j dt F i dt F

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
2 2 1 1
Imp v m v m

= +

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
z
t
t
z z
y
t
t
y y
x
t
t
x x
mv dt F mv
mv dt F mv
mv dt F mv
= +
= +
= +
}
}
}
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

= +
2 2 1 1
Imp v m v m

If multiple particles and multiple impact forces are
involved
If no impact force
B B A A
v m v m
v m v m
' ' 0
2 1
+ =
=

Boats move opposite
direction each other,
velocity inversely
proportional to mass
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Impulsive Motion
Impulsive force; A force acting on a particle during a
very short time interval so that momentum changes
Baseball bat hits the ball

= A +
2 1
v m t F v m

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.10

An automobile weighing 4000 lb is driven down a
5 incline at a speed of 60 mi/h when the brakes
are applied, causing a constant total braking force
(applied by the road on the tires) of 1500 lb.
Determine the time required for the automobile to
come to a stop.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

= +
2 2 1 1
Imp v m v m

s t
t t
Ft t W mv
49 . 9
0 1500 5 sin 4000 88
2 . 32
4000
0 5 sin
0
0
1
=
= +
= +
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.11
A 4-oz baseball is pitched with a velocity of 80 ft/s
toward a batter. After the ball is hit by the bat B, it
has a velocity of 120 ft/s in the direction shown. If
the bat and ball are in contact 0.015 s, determine the
average impulsive force exerted on the ball during the
impact.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

= +
2 2 1 1
Imp v m v m

( )
0
0
2
0
0
2 1
2 . 24 5 . 97
9 . 39
40 sin 0
0 . 89
40 cos 120 015 . 0 80
2 . 32 * 16
4
40 cos
Z =
=
= A +
=
= +
= A +
F
lb F
mv t F
lb F
m F
mv t F mv
y
y
x
x
x
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.12
A 10-kg package drops from a chute into a 25-kg cart
with a velocity of 3 m/s. Knowing that the cart is
initially at rest and can roll freely, determine (a) the
final velocity of the cart, (b) the impulse exerted by
the cart on the package, (c) the fraction of the initial
energy lost in the impact.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( )
( )
s m v
v
v m m v m
v m m v m
c p p
c p p
/ 742 . 0
25 10 0 30 cos 3 * 10
0 30 cos
Imp
2
2
0
2
0
1
2 2 1 1
=
+ = +
+ = +
+ = +

X direction
First, find v
2
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( )( )
0
0
0
2 2 1 1
9 . 38 9 . 23
0 30 sin 3 * 10
742 . 0 10 30 cos 3 * 10
Imp
Z = A
= A +
= A +
= +

N t F
t F
t F
v m v m
y
x
p p

0 . 15
56 . 18
=
=
y
x
F
F
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Solution of Sample Problem 13.12 (c)
Energy lost
( ) ( )
786 . 0
45
63 . 9 45
63 . 9 742 . 0 * 25 10
2
1
2
1
45 3 * 10
2
1
2
1
1
2 1
2
2
1 2
2
2
1 1
=

= + = + =
= = =
T
T T
J v m m T
J v m T
c p
p
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Impact
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Impact
A collision between two bodies which occurs in a very
small interval of time and during which the two bodies
exert relatively large forces on each other is called an
impact
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Direct Central Impact
A period of restitution;
the two particles either
will have regained their
original shape or will stay
permanently deformed
B B A A B B A A
v m v m v m v m ' ' + = +
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
u v
v u
Pdt
Rdt
e
v m Rdt u m
u m Pdt v m
A
A
A A A
A A A

= =
=
=
}
}
}
}
'
'
Efficiency of Restitution e
Force P and R are exerted from
B during deformation and
restitution period, respectively
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
B A A B
B A
A B
B A
B A
B
B
v v e v v
v v
v v
e
v u u v
u v v u
e
v u
u v
e
Similarly
=

=
+
+
=

=
' '
' '
' '
'
Efficiency of Restitution e
Because two equations for e are
the same, you can add to find
another expression of e
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Direct central Impact, cont
When e=0, perfectly plastic impact

( ) ' v m m v m v m
B A B B A A
+ = +
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
) ' ( ) ' (
' '
' '
' '
B B B A A A
B B A A B B A A
B B A A
B A A B
v v m v v m
v m v m v m v m
v v v v
v v v v
=
+ = +
+ = +
=
When e=1, perfectly elastic impact
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2
1
'
2
1
2
1
2
1
' ) ' ( ' ) ' (
B B A A B B A A
B B B B B A A A A A
v m v m v m v m
v v v v m v v v v m
+ = +
+ = +
Momentum and
total energy are
conserved
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
When e<1, it
is not
conserved

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Oblique Central Impact
Assume
perfectly
smooth and
frictionless

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n
B B
n
A A
n
B B
n
A A
v m v m v m v m ' ' + = +
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
t
B
t
B
t
A
t
A
v v
v v
'
'
=
=
Momentum
conservation
1
2
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
t
B
n
A
n
A
n
B
v v e v v = ' '
3
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Constrained Condition
( ) ( )
t
B
t
B
v v ' =
1. t-direction
momentum is
conserved
2. x-direction momentum is conserved
( ) ( )
x
B B A A
x
B B A A
v m v m v m v m ' ' + = +
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
n
n
A
n
A n
A A A
A A A
u v
v u
Pdt
Rdt
e
v m Rdt u m
u m Pdt v m

= =
=
=
}
}
}
}
'
cos
cos
' cos
cos
u
u
u
u
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
n
B
n
A
n
A
n
B
v v e v v = ' '
3
The above equation
can be obtained as
seen here
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Problem Involving Energy and Momentum
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Three methods for kinetics problems;
EF=ma, method of work and energy and
method of impulse and momentum,

Apply energy method
Momentum
consevation
Apply energy method
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.13
A 20-Mg railroad car moving at a speed of 0.5
m/s to the right collides with a 35-Mg car which
is at rest. If after the collision the 35-Mg car is
observed to move to the right at a speed of 0.3
m/s, determine the coefficient of restitution
between the two cars.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
65 . 0
0 5 . 0
025 . 0 3 . 0 ' '
/ 025 . 0 '
3 . 0 * 35 ' 20 0 * 35 5 . 0 * 20
' '
=

=
=
+ = +
+ = +
B A
A B
A
A
B B A A B B A A
v v
v v
e
s m v
v
v m v m v m v m
coefficient of restitution
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.14
A ball is thrown against a frictionless,
vertical wall. Immediately before the ball
strikes the wall, its velocity has a magnitude v
and forms an angle of 30 with the horizontal.
Knowing that e = 0.90, determine the
magnitude and direction of the velocity of
the ball as it rebounds from the wall.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( )
0
0
0
7 . 32 926 . 0 '
779 . 0 866 . 0 9 . 0 '
0 ' 0
500 . 0 '
500 . 0 30 sin
866 . 0 30 cos
Z =
= =
=
= =
= =
= =
v v
v v v
v e v
v v v
v v v
v v v
n
n n
t t
t
n
e calculated for ball and wall
(velocity must be zero)
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.15
The magnitude and direction of the velocities
of two identical frictionless balls before they
strike each other are as shown. Assuming e =
0.90, determine the magnitude and direction of
the velocity of each ball after the impact.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( )
( )
( ) s f t v v
s f t v v
s f t v v
s f t v v
B
t
B
B
n
B
A
t
A
A
n
A
/ 6 . 34 60 sin
/ 0 . 20 60 cos
/ 0 . 15 30 sin
/ 0 . 26 30 cos
0
0
0
0
= =
= =
= =
= =
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
The t-component doesnt
change
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
t B n A n A n B
n B B n A A n B B n A A
t B
t A
v v e v v
v m v m v m v m
s f t v
s f t v
=
+ = +
=
=
' '
' '
/ 6 . 34 '
/ 0 . 15 '
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) 4 . 41 ' '
' '
0 . 6 ' '
' '
= +
=
= +
+ = +
n
B
n
A
t
B
n
A
n
A
n
B
n
B
n
A
n
B B
n
A A
n
B B
n
A A
v v
v v e v v
v v
v m v m v m v m
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.16
Ball B is hanging from an
inextensible cord BC. An
identical ball A is released
from rest when it is just
touching the cord and
acquires a velocity v
o
before
striking ball B. Assuming
perfectly elastic impact (e =
1) and no friction,
determine the velocity of
each ball immediately after
impact.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( )
o o t A
t A o
A A
v v v
v m mv
v m t F v m
5 . 0 30 sin '
' 0 30 sin
'
0
0
= =
= +
= A +

( ) ( )
( )
0
0 0
433 . 0 ' ' 5 . 0
' 30 sin ' 30 cos ' 0
' '
v v v
v m v m v m
v m v m t T v m
B
n
A
B B
n
A
t
A
B B A A A A
=
=
+ = A +
Ball A
For t-direction
For x-direction
Three unknowns
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( )
( )
( )
0 0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 . 16 30 1 . 46
1 . 46
720 . 0 '
693 . 0 '
520 . 0 '
866 . 0 ' ' 5 . 0
0 30 cos ' 30 sin '
' '
= =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
o
|
v v
v v
v v
v v v
v v v
v v e v v
A
B
n
A
n
A B
n
A B
n
B
n
A
n
A
n
B
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Sample Problem 13.17
A 30-kg block is
dropped from a
height of 2 m onto
the 10-kg pan of a
spring scale.
Assuming the impact
to be perfectly
plastic, determine
the maximum
deflection of the pan.
The constant of the
spring is k = 20
kN/m.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) s m v
V T V T
V
v v m T
J m N y W V
v m T
A
A A A
A
A A
/ 26 . 6
0
30
2
1
2
1
588 2 294
0
2
1
2
2 2 1 1
2
2
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
=
+ = +
=
= =
= = =
= =
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
( )( )
m h m x
V T V T
x x x h
kx h W W V V V
T
J kx V V V
J v m m T
s m v
v s m kg
v m m v m v m
B A e g
e g
B A
B A B B A A
225 . 0 , 230 . 0
10 * 91 . 4
2
1
0
241 . 0
2
1
0
442
2
1
/ 70 . 4
) 10 30 ( 0 / 26 . 6 * 30
4
2 2 1 1
3
4 3 4
2
4
4
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
2 2
4
3
3
= =
+ = +
= =
+ + = + =
=
= + = + =
= + =
=
+ = +
+ = +

Impact;
conservation of
momentum
3
3
3
10 * 91 . 4
10 * 20
81 . 9 * 10

= =
=
k
W
x
B
conservation of
Energy