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# Lecture #2

## Buckling of aircraft structures

PLATES IN UNI-AXIAL COMPRESSION
Object Buckling factor k
2

2
0.9
cr
kE
b
o
o

=
PLATES IN SHEAR
Object Buckling factor k
3

2 cr
kE
b
o
o
=
CYLINDRICAL RODS IN COMPRESSION
Object Buckling factor k
4
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0 500 1000 1500
R/h
k

cr
kEh
R
o =
analytically k=0.6!
SHPERICAL SHELL UNDER EXTERNAL PRESSURE
Object Buckling factor k
5
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0 500 1000 1500
R/h
k

cr
kEh
R
o =
analytically k=0.6!
Initial imperfections (the effect is especially large for
cylindrical and spherical shells);
Curved geometry (very actual for aircraft panels);
Uncertain supporting conditions;
Inelastic behavior of material (the effect is crucial for
FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE ACCURACY OF
BUCKLING ANALYSIS
6
Ways to increase the accuracy of calculations:

Use empirical methods and formulas (much testing
required);
Use numerical methods.
COMPARISON BETWEEN CIRCULAR AND SQUARE
CROSS SECTIONS
7
Empirical determination of critical stress (Southwell
method).
Usage of plasticity correction factors calculated by
empirical formulas.
Finite element analysis (FEA).
WAYS TO FIND THE CRITICAL STRESS WHICH IS
BEYOUND THE YEILD LIMIT
8
Thus, the graph of against will form a

straight line with a slope of .
The deformed shape of panel is

The view of coefficients is

Near the buckling mode corresponding
to m and n, the displacement is

SOUTHWELL METHOD FOR PLATES
9

1 1
, sin sin
mn
m n
m x n y
w x y A
a b
t t

= =
=

,
mn x
mn
x
C N
A
f mn N

max
mn x
xcr x
C N
w
N N

max
w

max
x
w
N
xcr
N
PLASTICITY CORRECTION EMPIRICAL FORMULAS
10
Kan and Sverdlov proposed the following formula to
take into account the plastic behavior of material:

,

where ;

- elastic critical stress (calculated using linear
physical law);
- material ultimate stress.

2
1
1
cr u
v
o o
v v
+
=
+ +

,
u
cr el
o
v
o
=

, cr el
o

u
o
PLASTICITY CORRECTION EMPIRICAL FORMULAS
11
According to Gerard, the nonlinear material behavior
could be taken into account using the plasticity
correction factor q:

- tangent and secant moduli;
- elastic and inelastic Poissons ratios.

2
0.9
cr
k E
b
q
o
o

=

2
2
1 1 1 1 3
1 2 2 4 4
el s t
pl s
E E
E E
v
q
v
| |

= + +
|

\ .

,
t s
E E
,
el pl
v v
BUCKLING MODES OF AIRCRAFT PANEL
12
POST-BUCKLING BEHAVIOR
13

2c

t

, cr skin
o

str
o
The post-buckling
behavior of aircraft
panels is usually
studied using the
concept of attached
skin having the
width of 2c:

,
2
cr skin
str
c t
o
o
=
FLOWCHART OF NONLINEAR BUCKLING FEA
14
Linear
compression
Linear buckling
Transfer of initial
imperfections
Linear physical law is used
Probable modes of buckling are
found, dangerous one is chosen
depending on the area of interest
Nonlinear analysis
Results
The critical force corresponds to
the loss of convergence
The model is slightly modified
according to buckling mode,
nonlinearities are specified
FLOWCHART OF NONLINEAR BUCKLING FEA
15
Dimensions of the panel:
a = 60 mm, h = 22 mm, o
1
= 4 mm, o
2
= 6 mm.
Length is 300 mm.

Supporting conditions: clamped at all sides.
Problem is to find a critical stress for this panel.
FLOWCHART OF NONLINEAR BUCKLING FEA
16
Linear
compression
FLOWCHART OF NONLINEAR BUCKLING FEA
17
Linear buckling
1
st
mode
884 MPa
FLOWCHART OF NONLINEAR BUCKLING FEA
18
Linear buckling
2
nd
mode
996 MPa
FLOWCHART OF NONLINEAR BUCKLING FEA
19
Linear buckling
3
rd
mode
1210 MPa
FLOWCHART OF NONLINEAR BUCKLING FEA
1) Rename *.rst file to
"buckling.rst, move it from
buckling to structural analysis directory.

2) Insert a command object in the environment:
/prep7
upgeom,0.1,1,1,buckling,rst
/solu

3) Set nonlinearities:
large deflection -> on
nonlinear effects -> yes
20
Transfer of initial
imperfections
FLOWCHART OF NONLINEAR BUCKLING FEA
21
Nonlinear analysis
485 MPa
last substep
converged
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
FLOWCHART OF NONLINEAR BUCKLING FEA
Results
Nonlinear FEA
predicted 509 MPa
which is 1.73 times
smaller than elastic
solution.
22
Shortening, mm
Stress, MPa
Structural layout
dimension
Determinative factor
Distance between ribs and
fuselage frames
Primary buckling of panels
Distance between stringers
Local buckling of skin
between stringers
Distance between spar web
stiffeners
Buckling of spar web under
Distance between rivets in
longitudinal joints
Local buckling of skin
between rivets
23
EFFECT OF BUCKLING ON A STRUCTURAL LAYOUT
24
EFFECT OF BUCKLING ON A STRUCTURAL LAYOUT
The stringer cross section is dramatically affected by
buckling, showing the compromise between buckling
resistance and technological simplicity: