Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 88


Winston Churchill
To improve is to change, to be perfect is to change


Jamshed J. Irani

when you are still strong and when change appears unnecessary, do not wait for the day when you have no option but to change.

Organizational Change
o Organizational change is the process by which organization move from their present state to some desired future state to increase effectiveness. o When an organization system is disturbed by some internal or external forces change frequently occur or any alteration which occur in the overall work environment of an organization.

Characteristics of O.C.
o Change happen for the pressure of both internal and external forces in the organization. o Change in any part of the organization affect the whole organization. o Change may affect people , structure, technology, and other element of the organization. o Change also affect the rate of speed and degree of significance of the organization. o Change may be reactive or proactive.

The Evolution of Starbucks

oIn the beginning they had only just a shop that sold some selected coffee beans.

oAs Starbucks started growing, they realized that the informal techniques were not sufficient and needed to have a more formalized Howard Schultz with people and places. oNow Starbucks was the biggest coffee chain network in the world with more than 15000 shops in over 44 countries. And they grown too fast. oThey adopting the Italian culture and made some important Dave Olsen changes in organization.

Exploring Behavior in Action

Dawn Pinaud

Change Forces
Work force Managerial personnel Management structure Avoid developing inertia Change forces External Forces Technology Marketing conditions Social changes Political forces

Internal Pressures for Change

Work force Avoid developing inertia

Managerial personnel

Management structure

External Pressures for Change

Technological advances Political Forces

Marketing conditions

Social changes

Companies Responses to Pressures for Green Policies and Practices

Managerial Advice

Taking as it positive way:

It create a healthy image in customers. It help in cost cutting. Energy saving in the office. Help in reducing carbon in environment.

Change Agents

A Persons in organization responsible for managing change activities. Can be managers or non managers, current employees, newly hired employees or outside consultants.

Process of Planned Change

Unfreezing Moving Refreezing

Provide rationale for

change Create minor levels of guilt/anxiety about not changing Create sense of psychological safety concerning change

Provide information
that suspects proposed changes Bring about actual shifts in behavior

Implement new
evaluation systems Implement new hiring and promotion systems

Speed of Change
Urgency Degree of support

Criteria to Consider

Amount and complexity of change

Competitive environment
Knowledge and skills available Financial and other resources

Resistance to Change
Effort to block new ways of doing things

Individual Resistance Group Resistance

Organizational Resistance

Individual Resistance
Below are stated some reasons why people resists changes. Some of these appear to be rational or emotional. These reasons are:oEconomic factors oHabits oInsecurity oLack of communication oExtend of change oPsychological factors oSocial factors

Group Resistance
Most organizational changes have impact on formal groups in the organization the main reason why the groups resists change is that they fear that their cohesiveness or existence is threatened by it.

Organizational Resistance
Organizational resistance means the change is resisted at the level of the organization itself. Some organization are so designed that they resist new ideas, this is specifically true in case of organization which are conservative in nature. Majority of the business firm are also resistance to changes. The major reason for organizational resistance are:o o o o o o Threat to power Group inertia Organizational structure Threat to specialization Resource constants Sunk costs

Minimizing Resistance to Change



priority and first strategy for change change urgency to



uncertainty (fear of unknown)

-- time consuming and costly


Minimizing Resistance to Change

Communication Training


new knowledge and skills Includes coaching and action learning Helps break old routines and adopt new roles Problems -- potentially time consuming and costly

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Communication Training Employee Involvement


change Helps saving face and reducing fear of unknown Includes task forces, search conferences Problems -- timeconsuming, potential conflict

ownership of

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Communication Training Employee Involvement Stress Management

When communication, training, and involvement do not resolve stress Potential benefits
More motivation to change Less fear of unknown Fewer direct costs

Problems -- timeconsuming, expensive, doesnt help everyone

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Communication Training Employee Involvement Stress Management Negotiation

When people clearly lose something and wont otherwise support change

Influence by exchange-reduces direct costs

Expensive Increases compliance, not commitment

Minimizing Resistance to Change

Communication Training Employee Involvement Stress Management Negotiation Coercion


all else fails influence



people -- radical form of unlearning

Reduces trust May create more subtle resistance


Organization Development (OD)

A planned, organization-wide, continuous process designed to improve communication, problem solving, and learning through the application of behavioral science knowledge Planned change Long range change Problem solving Team building Feedback

Basic Organization Development Model

Diagnosis of Situation


Introduction of interventions Progress Monitoring

Organization Development Interventions

Organization Development

Relationship Techniques

Structural Techniques

T-group Training Team Building Survey Feedback

Job Redesign Management by Objectives Supplemental Organizational Processes

Relationship Techniques
T-group Training

Team Building

Survey Feedback

Structural Techniques
Job Redesign
Supplemental Organizational Process

Management By Objectives (MBO)


Definition & Meaning

Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual REACTS and INTERACTS with others. Combines of a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts and feels. Predictable relationships are expected between peoples personalities and their behaviors.

What Determines The Personality? Heredity Environment Situation

It also depends on religion beliefs , culture, place of upbringing, Physical Characteristics, Gender too.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Type of Social Interaction Preference for Gathering Data
Extrovert (E)
Introvert (I) Sensing (S) Intuitive (N) Feeling (F)

Preference for Decision Making

Style of Decision Making

Thinking (T)
Perceptive (P) Judgmental (J)

Shy, Reserved and Quite


Interest Orientation


Talkative, Sociable, Friendly and Outspoken

Less Regular,
Unconscious, Focus Big Picture Perception


Organised, Practical,


Focus Detail.

Priorities based on personal importance and values, Sympathy




Reliability of logical order cause and effect, Apathy


Spontaneity Curious, awaiting events and adapting to them, Flexible Environment Orientation


Judging attitude Control of events and systematic planning

Big Five Model

Extraversion Conscientiousness

Openness to Experience Agreeableness

Emotional Stability

The degree to which an individual is outgoing and derives energy from being around people enjoys being around other people, is warm to others, speaks up in group settings, maintains a vigorous pace, likes excitement, and is cheerful.
Aamir Khan

Purab Kholi

The degree to which an individual is easygoing and tolerant believes in the honesty of others, is straightforward, is willing to help others, tends to yield under conflict, exhibits humility, and is sensitive to the feelings of others. Luke Kenny
Trusting, good natured, cooperative & soft hearted

Openness To Experience
The degree to which an individual seeks new experiences and thinks creatively about the future has a vivid imagination, has an appreciation for art and beauty, values and respects self and others, prefers variety to routine, has broad intellectual curiosity, and is open to re-examining closely held values. Shahana Goswami
Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded


Kunal Kapoor Farhan Akhtar

R. Madhavan

Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent

Personality Types In An Organization

Dominant Personality:

They like to control their environment by overcoming opposition to accomplish desired results. They enjoy moving people around in their favor. They are direct, forceful, impatient, and opinionated. They enjoy being in charge, making decisions, solving problems, and getting things done. They tend to thrive on power, prestige, and authority, and they can be extremely demanding. They also fear being taken advantage of by losing control of a situation. When people of this style are negatively motivated, they can become defiant. They don't like being told what to do. For example, giving them work that involves dealing with lots of detail would be tedious and de-motivating.

Influencing Personality:

People with this style try to shape the environment by influencing or persuading others to see things their way. They really enjoy being involved with people and getting recognition. This highly social individual loves opportunities to verbalize thoughts, feelings, and ideas. When you negatively motivate people of this style, they can be indiscriminately impulsive. When this happens, they may speak first and think later with little regard for what they say and who might hear it.

Steady Personality:

The Steadiness behavioral type focuses on cooperating with others to carry out the task. These people are very much team players and cooperative group workers.
They tend to be patient, loyal, and resistant to sudden changes in their environment. They respond positively to group achievement recognition, sincere appreciation and predictable situations. When they get negatively motivated which is often caused by sudden, unplanned changes that they see as high risk they can become stubborn or stern, moods usually expressed in the form of passive resistance. This type of behavioral style responds very well to an atmosphere of cooperation rather than competition. Show sincere appreciation when it's earned

Conscientious Personality:

People of this behavioral style appreciate opportunities for thorough, careful planning. They are critical thinkers who are sticklers for detail, They prefer to spend time analyzing a situation and, like the steadiness style, are slow to accept sudden changes. When they are negatively motivated they may become cynical or overly critical. They will normally respond well to logical, well-thought-out, planned options. Your conversations with them will take longer because they'll probably have several questions. They'll also want to verify the quality and reliability of information you give them.


Dominant Personality:

Be clear, direct, and to the point when you interact.

Avoid being too personal or talking too much about non-work items.
Let them know what you expect of them. If you must direct them, provide choices that give them the opportunity to make decisions to satisfy their need to be "in control.

Accept their need for variety and change. When possible, provide new challenges, as well as opportunities to direct the efforts of others.

The High D person is motivated by personal control through direct communication. Compliment them for results they achieve.

They are "bottom line" oriented. Ask them about their career plans and timetables for
achieving success. Show how they can get results by helping you get results.

Influencing Personality:

You'll need to communicate more with people of this style, and it'll often involve

social interaction.

Give them lots of your time. Compliment them. Ask about things going on in their lives outside of work. Let them share with you their goals at work and elsewhere. Link your objectives to their dreams and goals.

Steady Personality:

Acknowledge that their efforts help others.

Provide opportunities for them to cooperate with others on the team to achieve desired

Provide specific direction and offer assurances when necessary. When implementing change, be sure to lay out a systematic, step-by-step procedure and draw out their concerns and worries about the situation. They need to feel secure.

Assure them that you've thought things through before initiating changes. Give them a plan to deal with problems when they occur.

Conscientious Personality:

Opportunities to demonstrate their expertise.

Plenty of details. Enough time to prepare for meetings properly.....especially if they have an item on the agenda to present.

Situations where their systematic approach will contribute to long-term success.

Personality Disorders
Personality disorders are a type of mental illnesses in which your ways of thinking, perceiving situations and relating to others are dysfunctional. In general, having a personality disorder means you have a rigid and potentially self-destructive or self-denigrating pattern of thinking and behaving no matter what the situation.


Research shows that most personality disorders are formed due to abuse, sexual and/or physical.

Some experts believe that events occurring in early childhood exert a powerful influence upon behavior later in life. Others indicate that people are genetically predisposed to personality disorders. In some cases, however, environmental facts may cause a person who is already genetically vulnerable to develop a personality disorder.


Different Clusters Of Personality Disorders

Cluster A: Odd or eccentric behavior Cluster B: Dramatic, emotional or erratic behavior

Cluster C: Anxious, fearful behavior


Different Personality Disorders

Antisocial Personality Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder Histrionic Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Dependent Personality Disorder Avoidant Personality Disorder


Occupational Personality Types


Person Job Fit

Hollands Personality-Job Fit Theory
Type Personality Occupations Mechanic, Farmer, Assembly-Line Worker Biologist, Economist, Mathematician Social Worker, Teacher, Counselor Accountant, Manager Bank Teller Lawyer, Salesperson Painter, Writer, Musician


Shy, Stable, Practical


Analytical, Independent


Sociable, Cooperative


Practical, Efficient


Ambitious, Energetic


Imaginative, Idealistic




Definition of stress Signs of stress Stressors in organization

Acute Episodic Chronic

The cognitive appraisal process Bodily response of stress Workplace factors causing stress Stress management strategies

Definition of Stress
Pressure from the environment, Strain within the person. Interaction between the situation and the individual Psychological and physical state that results when the resources of the individual are not sufficient to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation.

Signs of stress
Feelings (for example, anxiety, depression, irritability, fatigue), Behaviour (for example, being withdrawn, aggressive, tearful, unmotivated), Thinking (for example, difficulties of concentration and problem solving) Physical symptoms (for example, palpitations, nausea, headaches).

Stressors in organization

Consider few situations

You are fired a day before you become eligible to receive your retirement pension You find out that the company is about to eliminate your department Your boss tells you that you will not get raise this year

Each situation involves external events that creates extreme demands on you called as stressors Stressors are classified as
Acute Stressors Episodic Stressors Chronic Stressors

Acute Stressors

It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future These stressors bring sudden change that threatens us physically of psychologically Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting Because it is short term, acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress.

Episodic Stressors

There are those, however, who suffer acute stress frequently Multiple acute stressors in a series.. Frequently observed in Type A personality

A soldier


Chronic Stressors
This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day, year after year. Chronic stress destroys bodies, minds and lives

A bad boss

An abusive husband

The Cognitive Appraisal Process

If you are distressed by anything external, the pain is not due to the thing itself, but to your estimate of it.. Marcus Antonius Cognitive appraisal process is a judgment about the stressfulness of a situation based on your capabilities and capacities

Ex. Writing a sales performance report can be an interesting activity for a sales person who has performed well but can be stressful for someone who has not performed well

Bodily Response to stress

Workplace factors causing stress

Intrinsic to job Role in organization Career development Relationship at work Organizational structure and climate

Intrinsic to job
Poor physical working conditions Work overload Time pressures Physical danger, etc

Role in organization
Role ambiguity Role conflict Responsibility for people Conflicts re organizational boundaries (internal and external), etc

Career development

Lack of job security Over promotion Under promotion Thwarted ambition etc

Relationship at work
Poor relations with boss, subordinates or colleagues Difficulties in delegating responsibility, etc

Organizational structure and climate

Little or no participation in decision Restrictions on behavior (budgets, etc) Office politics Lack of effective consultation Financial difficulties

The model of work related stress

Stress Management strategies

1 Avoid unnecessary stress

Learn how to say no

Know your limits and stick to them Taking on more than you can handle is a sure fire recipe for stress.

Avoid people who stress you out

limit the amount of time you spend with that person or end the relationship entirely.

Take control of your environment

If the evening news makes you anxious, turn the TV off. If traffics got you tense, take a longer but less-traveled route.

Avoid hot-button topics

If you get upset over religion or politics, cross them off your conversation list.

Pare down your to-do list

Analyze your schedule, responsibilities, and daily tasks. If youve got too much on your plate, distinguish between the shoulds and the musts.

2 Alter the situation

Express your feelings instead of bottling them up.

If something or someone is bothering you, communicate your concerns in an open and respectful way. When you ask someone to change their behaviour, be willing to do the same. If you both are willing to bend at least a little, youll have a good chance of finding a happy middle ground.

Be willing to compromise

Be more assertive

Dont take a backseat in your own life. Deal with problems head on, doing your best to anticipate and prevent them. Poor time management can cause a lot of stress. When youre stretched too thin and running behind, its hard to stay calm and focused. But if you plan ahead and make sure you dont overextend yourself, you can alter the amount of stress youre under.

Manage your time better

3 Adapt to the stressor

Reframe problems.

Try to view stressful situations from a more positive perspective. Rather than fuming about a traffic jam, look at it as an opportunity to pause and regroup, listen to your favourite radio station, or enjoy some alone time. Take perspective of the stressful situation. Ask yourself how important it will be in the long run. Will it matter in a month? A year? Is it really worth getting upset over? If the answer is no, focus your time and energy elsewhere

Look at the big picture

Adjust your standards

Perfectionism is a major source of avoidable stress. Stop setting yourself up for failure by demanding perfection. Set reasonable standards for yourself and others, and learn to be okay with good enough.
When stress is getting you down, take a moment to reflect on all the things you appreciate in your life, including your own positive qualities and gifts. This simple strategy can help you keep things in perspective.

Focus on the positive

4 Accept the things you cant change

Dont try to control the uncontrollable

Many things in life are beyond our control particularly the behaviour of other people. Rather than stressing out over them, focus on the things you can control such as the way you choose to react to problems.

Look for the upside

As the saying goes, What doesnt kill us makes us stronger. When facing major challenges, try to look at them as opportunities for personal growth.

Share your feelings.

Talk to a trusted friend or make an appointment with a therapist. Expressing what youre going through can be very cathartic, even if theres nothing you can do to alter the stressful situation.

Learn to forgive

Accept the fact that we live in an imperfect world and that people make mistakes. Let go of anger and resentments. Free yourself from negative energy by forgiving and moving on.

5 Make time for fun and relaxation

Set aside relaxation time

Include rest and relaxation in your daily schedule. Dont allow other obligations to encroach. This is your time to take a break from all responsibilities and recharge your batteries. Spend time with positive people who enhance your life. A strong support system will buffer you from the negative effects of stress. Make time for leisure activities that bring you joy, whether it be stargazing, playing the piano, or working on your bike. This includes the ability to laugh at yourself. The act of laughing helps your body fight stress in a number of ways.

Connect with others

Do something you enjoy every day

Keep your sense of humour

6 Adopt a healthy lifestyle

Reduce caffeine and sugar The temporary "highs" caffeine and sugar provide often end in with a crash in mood and energy. By reducing the amount of coffee, soft drinks, chocolate, and sugar snacks in your diet, youll feel more relaxed and youll sleep better Avoid alcohol, cigarettes, and drugs Self-medicating with alcohol or drugs may provide an easy escape from stress, but the relief is only temporary. Dont avoid or mask the issue at hand; deal with problems head on and with a clear mind.

Get enough sleep Adequate sleep fuels your mind, as well as your body. Feeling tired will increase your stress because it may cause you to think

Managing Stress
Body relaxation excercises -breathing techniques - guided imagery

Physical exercise -yoga -work out routine

3. Meditation 4. Counseling -talk therapy -life coaching

Balance in Life

The Key Word is.