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SCIENTIFIC

INVESTIGATION

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

OUTLINE
THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
THE STYLES OF THINKING
THE HALLMARKS OF SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATION
THE HYPOTHETICO DEDUCTIVE METHOD
OTHER TYPES OF RESEARCH

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

THE NATURE OF SCIENCE


AIMS TO SOLVE PHYSICALLY DISCERNABLE
PROBLEMS THROUGH A STEP BY STEP, LOGICAL,
ORGANIZED APPROACH
TENDS TO BE OBJECTIVE RATHER THAN
SUBJECTIVE: NOT BASED ON HUNCHES,
EXPERIENCE & INTITUTION
KNOWEDGE & FINDINGS ARE TESTABLE
NO FIELD OF SCIENCE IS FREE FROM GLARING
IGNORANCE AND CONTRADICTIONS

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

NATURE OF SCIENTIFIC THINKING


EMPIRICAL
 OBSERVABLE

BASED ON CONCRETE DATA
RATIONAL
 PROVIDES FOR FORMAL PROOF

IS REASON BASED

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS
DEDUCTION BASED : REASONED
CONCLUSION BY GENERALIZING A KNOWN
FACT. MUST HAVE A VALID PREMISE AND
TRUE IN THE REAL WORLD
INDUCTION BASED : CONCLUSION FROM
OBSERVED EVIDENCE NOT STRONGLY
RELATED. INVOLVING INFERENTIAL JUMP
BEYOND THE EVIDENCE PRESENTED
COMBINATION OF DEDUCTION & INDUCTION

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BUILDING BLOCKS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

IDENTIFICATION
OBSERVATION
OF PROBLEM

REFINEMENT OF
THEORY THEORATICAL
(FOR FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION)

DATA FORMULATION OF
INTERPRETATION HYPOTHESES

ANALYSIS OF DATA CONSTRUCTION OF


CONCEPTS &
OPERATIONAL
DATA COLLECTION DEFINITIONS

FORMULATION OF
RESEARCH
DESIGN
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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
HALLMARKS OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
PURPOSIVENESS: SHOULD HAVE DEFINITE AIM
REFLECT RIGOR:
RIGOR SHOW CAREFULNESS, SCRUPULOUSNESS & DEGREE OF
EXACTITUDE IN RESEARCH INVESTIGATIONS
TESTABILITY:
TESTABILITY CAN BE TESTED BY APPLICATION OF CERTAIN STATISTICAL
TESTS TO COLLECTED DATA
REPLICABILITY:
REPLICABILITY SHOULD PROVIDE SAME RESULTS IF TESTS ARE
REPEATED IN OTHER SIMILAR CIRCUMSTANCES
PRECISION AND CONFIDENCE: HAVE ACCEPTABLE DEGREE OF
ACCURACY AND PROBABILITY OF APPLICATION TO THE WHOLE
OBJECTIVITY:
OBJECTIVITY BASED ON FACTS AND NOT ON SUBJECTIVE OR EMOTIONAL
VALUES
GENERALIZABILITY:
GENERALIZABILITY HAVE SCOPE OF APPLICATION TO OTHER SETTINGS
PARSIMONY:
PARSIMONY SIMPLICITY IN EXPLAINING THE PHENOMENA THAT OCCUR
AND IN GENERATING SOLUTIONS FOR THE PROBLEMS

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

COMMON METHODS OF SCIENTIFIC


INVESTIGATION

HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD

CASE STUDIES

ACTION RESEARCH

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
STEPS IN THE HYPOTHETICO DEDUCTIVE
METHOD

1. OBSERVATION
2. PRELIMINARY INFO GATHERING LEADING TO
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
3. THEORY FORMULATION
4. HYPOTHESIZING
5. DETAILED DATA COLLECTION
6. DATA ANALYSIS
7. DEDUCTION – CONCLUSION
All these steps are explained in subsequent slides

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STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION BY
HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD

OBSERVATION
 SENSING OF CHANGES IN THE ENVIRONMENT
WHICH HAVE POTENTIALLY IMPORTANT
CONSEQUENCES
PRELIMINARY INFORMATION GATHERING
 INVOLVES SEEKING INFO IN DEPTH
 INTERVIEWS AND LITERATURE SURVEY
 LEADS TO PROBLEM AREA IDENTIFICATION.
THEORY FORMULATION

IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES* AND THEIR
RELATIONSHIP TO THE PROBLEM
( A VARIABLE IS ANYTHING THAT CAN TAKE ON
DIFFERING OR VARYING VALUES SUCH AS PRODUCTION
UNITS, ABSENTEEISM, LEVEL OF MOTIVATION, ETC)

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STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION BY
HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE METHOD

HYPOTHESIZING

FROM THEORETICAL RELATIONSHIP OF
VARIABLES CERTAIN TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS
(OR EDUCATED CONJECTURES) CAN BE
GENERATED
DETAILED DATA COLLECTION

SURVEY & COLLECTION OF DATA NEEDED TO
TEST THE HYPOTHESIS
DATA ANALYSIS
 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA TO SEE IF IT
SUPPORTS THE HYPOTHESIS
DEDUCTION

PROCESS OF ARRIVING AT CONCLUSIONS BY
INTERPRETATION OF ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

TWO EXAMPLES OF THE APPLICATION OF THE


HYPOTHETICO DEDUCTIVE METHOD

1. THE CIO OF A FIRM OBSERVES THAT THE NEWLY


INSTALLED MIS IS NOT BEING USED BY MID LEVEL
MANAGERS AS MUCH AS WAS ORIGINALLY EXPECTED.
INSTEAD, THE MANAGERS OFTEN APPROACH THE CIO
OR SOME OTHER COMPUTER EXPERT FOR HELP
2. THE FINANCE MANAGER SENSES THAT THE
BUDGETARY PROCESS IS NOT WORKING AS WELL AS IT
SHOULD. MANAGERS SEEM TO BE OVERLY CAUTIOUS,
PAD THEIR BUDGETS EXCESSIVELY AND SEEM TO ACT
DEFENSIVELY

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
CLASS TO APPLY THE STEPS OF THE HYPOTHETICO DEDUCTIVE
METHOD ON THESE TWO EXAMPLES

The Steps Are:


Are
1. OBSERVATION
2. PRELIMINARY INFO GATHERING LEADING TO PROBLEM
IDENTIFICATION
3. THEORY FORMULATION… ie THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK
4. HYPOTHESIZING
5. DETAILED DATA COLLECTION
6. DATA ANALYSIS
7. DEDUCTION – CONCLUSION

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OTHER TYPES OF RESEARCH
CASE STUDIES:
 INVOLVE IN-DEPTH CONTEXTUAL ANALYSES OF SIMILAR
SITUATIONS IN OTHER ORGANIZATIONS WHERE THE NATURE &
DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM HAPPEN TO BE THE SAME AS
EXPERIENCED IN A SITUATION UNDER STUDY OR REVIEW
 HYPOTHESIS CAN ALSO BE DEVELOPED IN CASE STUDIES
 USUALLY VERY DIFFICULT TO FIND ORGANIZATIONS WITH
IDENTICAL BACKGROUNDS, CULTURE, etc. HENCE, NOT VERY
EFFECTIVE AS A PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUE
 USUALLY MORE USEFUL AS A GUIDE ON THE VARIABLES AND THEIR
INTER-RELATIONSHIPS
ACTION RESEARCH
 ADOPTED WHEN A PROBLEM IS ALREADY IDENTIFIED.
 RELAVENT DATA GATHERED TO PROVIDE A TENTATIVE SOLUTION
WHICH IS THEN IMPLEMENTED
 LIKELIHOOD OF PROBLEMS ARISING IS RECOGNIZED

EFFECTS EVALUATED, DEFINED AND DIAGNOSED AND RESEARCH
CONTINUES TILL PROBLEM IS FULLY RESOLVED

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ASSIGNMENTS

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION
TUTORIAL EXERCISE
GROUPS COMPROMISING TWO TO THREE STUDENTS TO BE
FORMED

EACH STUDENT TO SUBMIT A POSSIBLE PROBLEM HE/SHE WISHES


TO RESEARCH

GROUPS & PROBLEMS TO BE SUBMITTED IN NEXT SESSION ON


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

INSTRUCTOR WILL APPROVE ONE OF THE PROPOSED PROBLEMS


OF EACH GROUP FOR SUBSEQUENT STUDY

APPROVED PROBLEMS WILL BE RESEARCHED IN STEPS AS THE


SUBJECT IS STUDIED AND ULTIMATELY DEVELOPED INTO A
RESEARCH STUDY CULMINATING IN APPROPRIATE
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SOLUTION OF THE BASIC PROBLEM
BEING RESEARCHED UPON

THE WORK WILL BE PROGRESSIVE AND DISCUSSED IN CLASS IN


DIFFERENT PHASES
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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE
EACH STUDENT WILL BE REQUIRED
TO WRITE A RESEARCH PROPOSAL
AND PRESENT IT TO THE CLASS

TOPICS AND THEMES FOR THE


RESEARCH PROPOSAL WILL BE
PROPOSED BY STUDENTS
THEMSELVES AND APPROVED BY
THE INSTRUCTOR
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TIME FRAMES

AS DECIDED BY THE CLASS


THEMSELVES

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