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Hydrostatic Steering Part 2

Lecture 3 Day 1-Class 3

Parker-Hannifin Corporation, 1999. Mobile

Hydraulic Technology, Bulletin 0274-B1. Motion and Control Training Department: Cleveland, OH. Parker-Hannifin Corporation, 2000. Hydraulic Pumps, Motors, and Hydrostatic Steering Products, Catalog 1550-001/USA. Hydraulic Pump/Motor Division: Greenville, TN. Whittren, R.A., 1975. Power Steering For Agricultural Tractors. ASAE Distinguished Lecture Series No. 1. ASAE: St. Joseph, MI.

Open Center System

Fixed Displacement Pump

Continuously supplies flow to the steering valve Gear or Vane

Simple and economical Works the best on smaller


Open Center Circuit, NonMetering Reversing Section


Cylinder ports are blocked in neutral valve position, the operator must steer the wheel back to straight

Figure 3.1. Open Center Non-Reversing Circuit

Open Center Circuit, Reversing


Wheels automatically return to straight

Figure 3.2. Open Center Circuit, Reversing (Parker)

Open Center Circuit, Power Beyond

Any flow not

used by steering goes to secondary function Good for lawn and garden equipment and Auxiliary Port utility vehicles

Figure 3.3. Open Center Circuit, Power Beyond (Parker)

Open Center Demand Circuit

Contains closed center

load sensing valve and open center auxiliary circuit valve When vehicle is steered, steering valve lets pressure to priority demand valve, increasing pressure at priority valve causes flow to shift Uses fixed displacement pump
Figure 3.4. Open Center Demand Circuit (Parker)

Closed Center System

Pump-variable delivery, constant


Commonly an axial piston pump with variable swash plate A compensator controls output flow maintaining constant pressure at the steering unit

Possible to share the pump with other

hydraulic functions

Must have a priority valve for the steering system

(Parker, 1999)

Closed Center Circuit, NonReversing


displacement pump All valve ports blocked when vehicle is not being steered Amount of flow dependent on steering speed and displacement of steering valve

Figure 3.5. Closed Center Circuit, Non-Reversing (Parker)

Closed Center Circuit with priority valve

With steering

priority valve

Variable volume, pressure compensating pump Priority valve ensures adequate flow to steering valve
Figure 3.6. Closed Center Circuit with priority valve (Parker)

Closed Center Load Sensing Circuit

A special load

sensing valve is used to operate the actuator Load variations in the steering circuit do not affect axle response or steering rate Only the flow required by the steering circuit is sent to it Priority valve ensures the steering circuit has adequate flow and pressure

Figure 3.7. Closed Center Load Sensing Circuit (Parker)

Steering valve and
Figure 3.8 (Wittren, 1975)

metering unit as one linked to steering wheel

Metering unit at

Figure 3.9 (Wittren, 1975)

steering wheel, steering valve remote linked

(Wittren, 1975)

Design CalculationsHydraguide
Calculate Kingpin Torque Determine Cylinder Force Calculate Cylinder Area Determine Cylinder Stroke Calculate Swept Volume Calculate Displacement Calculate Minimum Pump Flow Decide if pressure is suitable

Select Relief Valve Setting

(Parker, 2000)

Kingpin Torque (Tk)

First determine

the coefficient of friction () using the chart. E (in) is the Kingpin offset and B (in) is the nominal tire width

Figure 3.10. Coefficient of Friction Chart and Kingpin Diagram (Parker)

(Parker, 2000)

Kingpin Torque

Information about the tire is needed. If we assume a uniform tire pressure then the following equation can be used.

Io T W * * E2 A
W=Weight on steered axle (lbs) Io=Polar moment of inertia of tire print A=area of tire print


(Parker, 2000)

Kingpin Torque

If the pressure distribution is known then the radius of gyration (k) can be computed. The following relationship can be applied.

Io A


If there is no information available about the tire print, then a circular tire print can be assumed using the nominal tire width as the diameter

B 2 Tk W* E 8


(Parker, 2000)

Calculate Approximate Cylinder Force (Fc)



CF= Cylinder Force (lbs)

R = Minimum Radius Arm

Figure 3.11 Geometry Diagram (Parker)

(Parker, 2000)

Calculate Cylinder Area (Ac)

Fc Ac P
Fc=Cylinder Force (lbs) P=Pressure rating of steering valve Select the next larger cylinder size


-For a single cylinder use only the rod area -For a double cylinder use the rod end area plus the bore area
(Parker, 2000)

Determine Cylinder Stroke (S)

Figure 3.11 Geometry Diagram (Parker) Repeated

(Parker, 2000)

Swept Volume (Vs) of Cylinder

Swept Volume (in3) One

Balanced Cylinder

2 2 VS * ( DB DR ) * S 4
DB=Diameter of bore DR=Diameter of rod


(Parker, 2000)

Swept Volume of Cylinder

One Unbalanced Cylinder

Head Side



2 B



Rod Side -Same as one balanced

Two Unbalanced Cylinders



2 2 (2 * DB DR )


(Parker, 2000)

Displacement (D)

Vs D n


n=number of steering wheel turns lock to lock

(Parker, 2000)

Minimum Pump Flow (Q)

D * Ns Q 231


Ns = steering speed in revolutions per minute Pump Flow is in gpm per revolution

(Parker, 2000)

Steering Speed
The ideal steering speed is 120 rpm,

which is considered the maximum input achievable by an average person The minimum normally considered is usually 60 rpm 90 rpm is common

(Parker, 2000)