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URP 101:

THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES FOR


LANDUSE AND TRANSPORTATION
PLNNING
PART : LANDUSE PLANNING

Session 2: Land Management in India


Landuse Planning Framework

September 22, 2008

Session by:
Er. Ashwani Kumar,
Asstt. Prof.
Faculty of Planning, CEPT, Ahmedabad - 9
Summary of last lecture
Land and Landuse: Basic definitions
 What is land ?
 What is Land cover ?
 Land Evaluation?
 What is Land Unit ?
 What is Land Use ?
 What is landuse class and Landuse classification ?
 Land Use Classification System ?
 What is Landuse Planning ?
 Land Use Purpose
 Landuse Survey
 Landuse/ Utilization Type

Functions of Land
 Production Function
 environmental Function
 Climate regulative function
 Hydrologic function
 Storage function
 Waste and pollution control function
 Living space function
 Heritage function
 Connective space function
Landuse Planning
Relevance?
Major concerns related to land and it use
 Competing uses of land exert increasing pressure on the finite
land resources
 Land-use patterns emerges due to most economically beneficial
use in short term

 The changes in land use and land cover, causing the land,
forests, soils and other natural resources degradation which effect
several natural functions of land in long term.
 Increasing demand for any one type of land use is of particular
concern.
 One such land use is for development of Urban areas and more
recently for Industrial development

Source: Report of the Committee on ‘India Vision 2020’, Planning Commission, Government of India, 2002
Urban areas as Engine of
Growth?

Source: Report of the Committee on ‘India Vision 2020’, Planning Commission, Government of India, 2002
Should we promote urban or
rural development?
Urban Sprawl or Urban
Planning?
Land-Use Planning?
 Increasing population and human aspirations
 Land becomes an increasingly scarce resource

 Land-use planning is defined


 A systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternatives
for land use, and the economic and social conditions
 The main objective of this planning process is to allocate land uses
to meet the needs of people while safeguarding future resources.

 Land-use planning is important


 To mitigate the negative effects of land use
 to enhance the efficient use of resources
 to minimise the impact on future generation’s resources
 Provide method to select and adopt the best land-use options.
 to coordinate various land uses to minimize conflicts
 To use the land sustaining the natural resources for future generations.
Landuse Planning as Balancing Art

 Land-use planning aims at balance on


 Information on trade-offs markets

 Appropriate technology

 Consensus-based decision-making

 Local communities participation

 Scientific information on land resources

 Integrated evaluation techniques of resource use


Methods/Tools for Landuse Planning
1. Zoning and regulation (Master Plans, layout plans)

2. Prohibitive/Restriction (CRZ, Reserved Forests Act etc.)

3. Market based instruments/Policy: use of economic incentives


(SEZ, EPIP)

4. Institutional reform (IIC, IDCs, DAs, RETs)

5. Investment through multi-agency cooperative projects


(Watershed programmes, wasteland development etc.)

 Public education often is a neglected area that can also


be used as judicious landuse planning
Land-Use Planning Future Directions
 New tools available for effective land-use planning include
 Information management through GIS (geographic information systems)
 Computer simulation for
 Spatial-temporal data modeling on present land use
 Alternative scenarios generation, and

 Impact assessment of consequences

 Land-use planning is becoming complex and multidisciplinary


 Face multiple facet problems which need to be addressed within a single planning
framework
 New Chllanges:
 Non point-source pollution,
 Water allocation,
 Urbanization,
 Ecosystem deterioration, Deforestation,
 Global warming, Desertification,
 Poverty and unemployment,
 Farmland deterioration, and
 Low economic growth

 Watershed-scale planning is gaining popularity among communities and agencies


WATER
FORESTRY
RESOURCES
SECTOR LEGAL FRAMEWORK SECTOR

RECREATION TRADE/
TOURISM NATIONAL INDUSTRY

SECTOR SECTOR
STATE

DISTRICT
QUARRYING AIR
MINING
SECTOR
LEVELS
BLOCK
SECTOR

INTEGRATED TOWN/VILLAGE

LANDUSE
PLANNING LAND
TRANSPORT SECTOR
SECTOR

INSTITUTIONAL
HUMAN
AGRI./ SOILS SUPPORT HABITATIONS
SECTOR SECTOR
Landuse Planning in India: Institutional Framework

 India's constitution kept land as a ‘State’ subject

 There is no National legislation so far on land use.

 Technical Committee on Co-ordination of Agricultural


Statistics, set up in 1948 by the Ministry of Food &
Agriculture:
 To remove the non-comparability & to break up the broad
categories into smaller constituents for better comprehension
of land resource management

 Recommended a nine-fold land-use classification replacing the


old five-fold classification, & also recommended standard
concepts & definitions for all the states to follow
Landuse Classification
Classification adopted for land-utilisation statistics
S.No. Old classification (till 1949-50) S.No.
New classification (since 1950-51)
1. Forests 1. Forests
2. Area not available for cultivation 2. Land put to non-agricultural uses

3. Other cultivated land, excluding 3. Barren & unculturable land


current fallows
4. Fallow lands 4. Permanent pastures & other
grazing lands
5. Net area sown 5. Miscellaneous tree crops &
groves, not included in the net
area sown.
6. Culturable waste
7. Fallow land, other than current
fallows
8. current fallows
9. Net area sown
Landuse Planning in India: Institutional Framework
National Land Use and Wasteland Development Council (NLWDC) constituted under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister at the national level. (1985)

 Department of Land Resources of the Ministry of Rural Development


 Effective coordination and management of land resources of the country.

 Later Changed to Central Land Use Council

 Subsequently three Boards constituted under the Council:

National Land Use and Conservation Board (NLCB) (1985)


 In Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation

 to serve as policy planning, coordinating and monitoring agency at national level for issues concerning health and management of Land
Resources.

National Wastelands Development Board (NWDB) (1985)


 In the Department of land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development

 for matters related to wasteland in the country

National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB) (1985)


 In the Ministry of Environment and Forests

 for the matters related to the land belonging to forests


Landuse Planning in India: Institutional Framework
 The National Land Use and Conservation Board (NLCB) in the Department of Agriculture and
Cooperation functions as
 Policy planning, coordinating and monitoring agency

 Issues concerning the health and scientific management of land resources.

 The NLCB also considered the enactment of a composite Land Resources Management Act
encompassing various aspects of land use

 National Land Use Policy outlines have already been prepared which take into account
environmental, social, demographic, economic, and legal issues

 The policy has been circulated to all concerned for its adoption and implementation.

 State Land Use Boards (SLUBs) set up in each State to implement the policies and guidelines
issued by the NLCB.

 At the local level, Panchayats, Watershed Committees, Self Help Groups, NGOs, State implementing
agencies etc. are involved for planning, implementation, post care maintenance activities for land
resources.
Land: Sources of Information 
The organizations/agencies are involved in maintaining and updating the information on the land :
 Revenue Department of the State Governments

 Agricultural statistics

 National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning under Indian Council for Agricultural
Research

 All India Soil and Land Use Survey Organization under Ministry of Agriculture

 National Remote Sensing Agency

 Indian Space Research Organization

 Department of Land Resources under Ministry of Rural development

 Ministry of Environment and Forests

 Survey of India

 Ministry of Water Resources

 State Agriculture Universities and other Institutes.


Land Resource Management Initiatives
in India
 Under Rainfed Farming System Division
 National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA)
 Creation of Watershed Development Fund in NABARD

 Under Soil and Water Conservation Division


 Soil Conservation in the Catchment Areas of River Valley Projects and Flood Prone Rivers (RVP
and FPR)
 Indo-German Bilateral Project
 Watershed Development Projects in Shifting Cultivation Areas of North Eastern States (WDPSCA)
 Reclamation of Alkali soils
 National Land Use and Conservation Board (NLCB)
 Strengthening of State Land Use Boards (SLUB)
 All India Soil and Land Use Surveys (AISLUS)

 Externally aided projects:


 DANIDA assisted Watershed Development Projects
 KFW (Germany) assisted Watershed Development Project
 ODA (UK) assisted Karnataka Watershed Development (AWAD) Society
 WB assisted Integrated Watershed Development Project-Hills Phase-II
 EEC assisted Doon Valley Watershed Project
Thank you