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COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF LONG-TERM ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

S Senthil kumar BL.EN.P2TSE13007

INTRODUCTION:
Energy storage systems for a long time have been utilized in many forms and applications. Todays energy storage technologies are used to achieve electric power systems of higher reliability and to contribute to the broader use of renewable energy. Increasing the amount of storage associated with a wind power plant will gradually make the output more controllable and predictable. 2

ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES


Energy Storage System Electromagneti c

Mechanical Long term Short term

Electro-Chemical

Flywheels

Inductors (SMES)

Supercapacitors

Compresse d Air

Pumped Hydro

Batteries

Hydrogen

Typical storage capacity versus discharge times for energy storage technologies

COMPARISON OF LONG-TERM ENERGY STORAGES


Storage Capacity system MW Pumped 100 1000 Hydroelectri c Compressed 0.1 1000 Air Batteries 0.1 10 Hydrogen 0.1 1 Efficiency % 70 80 Technology Mechanical

75 85 60 80 20 40

Mechanical Electrochemic al Electrochemic al

PUMPED HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY STORAGE


Pumped storage is the most successful, economical and widely used energy storage technology. This units operate on the principle of a hydro-electric power plant. Their generator units serve also as motors. pump/turbine (PT) operates as a pump and a motor/generator (MG) as a motor.

Bath County Pumped Storage Station, United States 3,003 MW. Sardar Sarovar Dam, India, 1,450 MW.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

Arial view of a 30 MW, 136m head seawater pumped hydro plant in Japan.

ADVANTAGE
PHS plants can produce a large amount of energy for sustained periods of time. Instead of having only a few hours of energy storage it could be days. Their storage capacity is dependent only on the size of the reservoir. These plants have round trip efficiencies in the range of 70 to 80 %.

DRAWBACK
Significant area of land required and the elevation needed between reservoirs. Environmental impact.

a. b. c. d. e.

fisheries, recreation, water quality, aesthetics, and land use.

An alternative to avoid the environmental impacts of the large reservoirs by placing them

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BATTERY ENERGY STORAGE

Batteries are one of the most cost-effective energy storage technologies available, with energy stored Electrochemically. Battery energy storage systems (BES) are modular, quiet, and non-polluting. They can be located almost anywhere and can be installed relatively quickly.

Charging a battery causes reactions in the compounds, which then store the energy in a chemical form. 11

ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM


Power Bus
Power Discharge
Power charge

ac dc

ac dc

Battery Electrochemical reactions


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Instead of two separate ac/dc converters for charging/discharging, a sole bidirectional converter may be utilized. Upon demand, reverse chemical reactions cause electricity to flow out of the battery and back to the grid. The energy recovery efficiency depends on the type of battery and the rate of discharge. some batteries can respond to load changes in about 20 milliseconds. The efficiency of battery modules is in the range of 6080 % 13

DRAWBACK

Temperature change in the battery must be controlled or it can affect the batterys life expectancy. The batterys life cycle. As long as the depth of discharge is relatively low the batterys cycle of life will remain unaffected. The maximum discharge rate of the battery. environmental concerns related to battery storage due to toxic gas generation during battery charge/discharge.

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NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Lithium ion, Sodium Sulfur, Nickel Cadmium, Nickel Metal Hydride, Hydrogen Vanadium Redox Zinc Bromine (above two of the them also known as flow-through batteries).

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COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE

This systems use off peak electrical power generated from base load plants or renewable energy sources to compress air at high pressure into an underground reservoir or a surface vessel. Compressed air is stored in large impervious caverns (e.g. salt caverns) at pressures of 45 to 70 bar. During times of high electrical demand this compressed air is combined with a fuel to drive a turbine generator set. 17

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF CAES

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It is capable of starting up within tens of minutes. Typical ratings for a CAES system are in the range of 50300 MW, with an efficiency of about 85 %. A commercial installation is in operation near Bremen, Germany. The largest CASE is the Iowa Stored Energy Park at 2,700 MW. This is being developed in conjunction with a large wind farm.

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DRAWBACK
Storage reservoirs would probably be too large and too expensive for above the surface. Efficiency of the compression process. Compressed air contains heat and this is removed prior to storage, reducing efficiency. This heat removal can be achieved by heat exchangers (intercooling) between subsequent stages in the compressor. To avoid wasted energy, the intercoolers must 20

HYDROGEN ENERGY STORAGE


Hydrogen is one of the promising alternatives that can be used as an energy carrier. Having all the advantages of fossil fuels, hydrogen is free of harmful emissions when used with dosed amount of oxygen, thus reducing the greenhouse effect. The main issue with using hydrogen as an energy storage mechanism is that it has only been demonstrated at small scale to date. 21

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF HES

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Hydrogen production from electricity will be through the electrolysis of water using surplus electricity. The hydrogen can then be reconverted to electricity through the use of a fuel cell.
Essential elements of a hydrogen energy storage system comprise an electrolyzer unit which converts electrical energy input into hydrogen by decomposing water molecules. The hydrogen storage system itself and a hydrogen energy conversion system which converts the stored chemical energy in the 23

There are five basic methods for hydrogen storage: Compressed and stored in a pressure tank; Cooled to a liquid state and kept cold in an insulated tank; Physisorpted in carbon; Metal hydrides; Complex compounds.

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COMPARISON OF HYDROGEN STORAGE CAPACITY BY DIFFERENT METHODS

2 5

Hydrogen storage approaches

Energy Intensity

Efficiency Leakage Rate % (/day)

(MJ/kg)
Compresse d gas Liquid Activated carbon Low temperature Hydrides (<100C) High temperature (>300C) 0.79-0.83 0.79-0.83 0.9-0.93 0.9-0.93 300 bar 700 bar 0.915 0.905 28-45 8-10 0.92 0.91 0.63-0.77 0.92-0.93 0.000024 0.000033 1 0.2

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CONCLUSION
Ensuring availability and reducing variability. Making energy more available means making it more predictable, reliable and controllable. A good idea is to implement hybrid solutions. Utilization The future of hydrogen storage depends mostly on the improved efficiency of the energy conversion cycle, the storage media and advanced power electronic converters for grid interfacing. The recent developments in the converter design, especially regarding the implementation of the qZSI topology make the hydrogen based energy storage systems attractive to many industrial applications 27