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Engineering How To

How to size a pump


R Stradley, PE

How to size a pump


Pump sizing is one of the things you need to

know as a Mechanical Engineer.

How to size a pump


Pump sizing is one of the things you need to

know as a Mechanical Engineer. This is something I didnt learn as a student, but wish I had.

How to size a pump


Process System Data Flow calculations Pump Catalog

How to size a pump


Process System Data Flow calculations Pump Catalog

Where to go for help

How to size a pump


Where to go for help
Books

How to size a pump


Where to go for help Books

Crane Technical Paper 410

How to size a pump


Where to go for help Books

Crane Technical Paper 410 Practical fluid flow & friction loss calculation handbook $45 electronic, www.tp410.com $85 hardcover, www.Amazon.com

How to size a pump


Where to go for help Books

Crane Technical Paper 410 Assorted pump handbooks

How to size a pump


Where to go for help Books

Crane Technical Paper 410 Assorted pump handbooks Dont bother with a pump handbook unless You run into special conditions or fluids You want to become a specialist You have a driving need to know why

How to size a pump


Where to go for help Books

Crane Technical Paper 410 Assorted pump handbooks

For basic information, use the net.

How to size a pump


Where to go for help
Books Websites
www.lightmypump.com

Lots of good basic pump & system info. Includes descriptions and videos of pumps that can be understood by the average maintenance man or supervisor. Lots of good engineering pump information. Designed for the junior engineer by a PhD, so it includes a lot of formulas and descriptions. Internet Glossary of Pumps - Over 60 Illustrations (some are animated) of Various Pumps With Brief Descriptions A web site that offers a number of very useful calculators and conversion utilities. It is sponsored by Pumps & Systems magazine.

www.pumped101.com/index.html

www.animatedsoftware.com/pumpglos/pumpglos.htm

www.pumpcalcs.com

How to size a pump


Where to go for help Books Websites Gurus

Guru - practical
Jacques Chaurette, P. Ing Professional Engineer from

Montreal Canada with many years of practical ME and pump experience. Author of the lightmypump.com web site. Ask the Pump Forum any pump question you like. Email jchaurette@lightmypump.com

Guru - technical
Joe Evans, PHD, biophysics. Contributing Editor of Pumps

& Systems Magazine Author of the www.Pumped101.com website He is passionate about the sharing of knowledge and its This forum is more technical. ability to replace memorization Includes a 55 point thread with understanding discussing the limitations of k factors in Crane TP 410 E-mail joeeevans@gmail.com

Guru - troubleshooting
Larry the Pump Guy Professional Pump

Troubleshooter for Bachus Inc Contributing editor for Flow Control magazine Larry Bachus
30 years of experience in

industrial pumps Expert in diagnosing pump problems and seal failures

Email - larry@bachusinc.com

Larry Bachus (The "Pump Guy") demonstr ates the principles of NPSHr vs. NPSHa at a recent Pump Guy Seminar.

How to size a pump


Types of pumps

Centrifugal

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, vertical split inline

How to size a pump


Types of pumps

Centrifugal

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, vertical split inline Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump,

How to size a pump


Types of pumps

Centrifugal

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, vertical split inline Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case,

How to size a pump


Types of pumps

Centrifugal

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, vertical split inline Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case, ANSI standard or API 610

Centrifugal pumps

Source: Manufacturers

How to size a pump


Types of pumps Centrifugal

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case, vertical Taco ANSI standard or API 610

Positive displacement Rotary gear pump, progressive cavity, diaphragm pump, Hose [peristaltic] pump

How to size a pump


Types of pumps Centrifugal

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case, vertical Taco ANSI standard or API 610

Positive displacement Rotary gear pump, progressive cavity, diaphragm pump, Hose [peristaltic] pump Piston pump, rotary lobe pump, rotating disc, nutating disc

How to size a pump


Types of pumps Centrifugal

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case, vertical Taco ANSI standard or API 610

Positive displacement Rotary gear pump, progressive cavity, diaphragm pump, Hose [peristaltic] pump Piston pump, rotary lobe pump, rotating disc, nutating disc Specialty use chemical drum pumps, low flow medical pumps, metering pumps, fuel pumps

Positive Displacement Pumps

Source: Manufacturers

Major pump parts & terminology


Centrifugal Pump Parts. The suction is the flow inlet The discharge is the flow outlet. The volute is the helical outer casing. The impeller is the rotating disk with curved vanes inside the volute. Where suction and impeller meet is the eye.

Major pump parts & terminology


Impeller.

Impeller consists of a back plate, vanes If the vanes are closed it will have a front plate or shroud. Wear rings, back vanes and balancing holes.

How does a centrifugal pump work?


imparts energy to a fluid using

acceleration (not centrifugal force) transforms mechanical (rotational) energy into hydraulic energy. slings fluid from center of the impeller to the vanes outer edge, increasing its velocity. When the fluid reaches the volute, velocity is transformed into pressure.

How to size a pump


Data needed to size the pump

Flow rate peak and average flow Specific gravity Total head Also called total dynamic head [TDH]

How to size a pump


Flow rate (GPM or L/S) Pumps are sized for the largest consumer

Home: Biggest consumer: bathtub ~10 gpm (0.6 L/s).

How to size a pump


Flow rate (GPM or L/S) Pumps are sized for the largest consumer Home:

Industry: Tank fill rate: ~ 100 gpm (6.3 L/s)

How to size a pump


Flow rate (GPM or L/S) Pumps are sized for the largest consumer

Home: Industry: Tank fill rate: ~ 100 gpm (6.3 L/s) Process cooling to a heat exchanger ~1000 gpm (63 L/s)

How to size a pump


Flow rate (GPM or L/S) Pumps are sized for the largest consumer Home:

Industry: Tank fill rate: ~ 100 gpm (6.3 L/s) Process cooling to a heat exchanger ~1000 gpm (63 L/s) Utility equipment: 5000 gpm (315 L/s)

How to size a pump


Flow rate (GPM or L/S) Pumps are sized for the largest consumer

Home: Industry: Tank fill rate: ~ 100 gpm (6.3 L/s) Process cooling to a heat exchanger ~1000 gpm (63 L/s) Utility equipment: 5000 gpm (315 L/s) may depend on some interaction between processes that needs to be carefully analyzed.

How to size a pump


Specific gravity

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump


Total Head is

the height to which a pump can move a fluid at zero flow

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump


Total Head is

the height to which a pump can move a fluid at zero flow total static head pressure head velocity head friction head loss.

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump


Total Static Head

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump


Pressure Head Can be significant on its own Can be insignificant or part of total static head

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump


Velocity Head

Normally it zeros back to pressure at end state Significant when calculating intermediate states Calculated as H = V2/2G Is estimated as part of friction flow using a discharge coefficient

How to size a pump


Friction Head Loss calculation Where Crane TP 410 is used Programs available on-line & on-disk

Source: Crane TP 410

How to size a pump


Friction Head Loss calculation Where Crane TP 410 is used Programs available on-line & on-disk Watch out for boundary conditions & assumptions Viscosity Specific gravity Vapor pressure Transition flow and Reynolds number Multiphase flow Suspended multi-solids Non-Newtonian fluids like Thixotropics Shear sensitive fluids Compressibility & supercompressibility Cryogenics

How to size a pump


Friction Head Loss calculation Where Crane TP 410 is used Programs available on-line & on-disk Watch out for boundary conditions & assumptions Viscosity Specific gravity Vapor pressure Transition flow and Reynolds number Multiphase flow Suspended multisolids Non-Newtonian fluids like Thixotropics Shear sensitive fluids Compressibility & supercompressibility Cryogenics Always perform a manual SANITY check!

Cross check
Friction Head Loss Rules of thumb: Middle of range Velocity = 7-10 fps P = 1 - 3 psi/100

Source: Crane TP 410

Friction head loss - Moody


Friction Head Loss

Source: Crane TP 410

How to size a pump

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Pump Characteristic Curve

Pump Curve: A graphical representation of the pump Total Head vs.

flow. It predicts how the pump will perform at different flow rates. Note the BEP at 74%
Source: lightmypump.com

System curve

System Curve: A graphical representation of the system Total Head vs. flow

curve Predicts system performance at different flow rates. Note: it is a parabolic W2 function
Source: lightmypump.com

The intersection of the system curve with the characteristic

curve defines the operating point of the pump.

Source: lightmypump.com

Pump Characteristic Curve

System Curve Changes

System & Pump Curves Age

How to size a pump: Exercise 1


Find: @ 300 GPM TDH = ___ Eff = _____ BHP = ___

@ 500 GPM TDH = ___ Eff = _____ BHP = ___

How to size a pump: Exercise 1


Pump curve

300 GPM TDH = 260 Eff = 69 BHP = 27 500 GPM TDH = 200 Eff = 60 BHP = 36

How to size a pump: Exercise 2


Generate a system curve for the following: Ignore entrance, exit, elbow and velocity losses Design flow is 400 GPM +/- 100 in a 6 inch pipe.

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump-Exercise 2


6 inch pipe @300 GPM DP= ___ psi/100 DP=2.31*___=___ft/100 DP=___*1000/100=____ft @400 GPM DP= ___ psi/100 DP=2.31*___=___ft/100 DP=___*1000/100=____ft @500 GPM DP= ___ psi/100 DP=2.31*___=___ft/100 DP=___*1000/100=____ft

How to size a pump-Exercise 2


6 inch pipe @300 GPM DP= 0.275 psi/100 DP=2.31*0.275=0.635 ft/100 DP=0.635*1000/100=6.35 ft @400 GPM DP=0.471 psi/100 DP=2.31*0.471=1.09 ft/100 DP=1.09*1000/100=10.9 ft @500 GPM DP= 0.72 psi/100 DP=2.31*0.72=1.66 ft/100 DP=1.66*1000/100=16.6 ft

How to size a pump: Exercise 2

How to size a pump: Exercise 3


The plant has this spare 2x3x13 pump with a 20 HP

motor. Will it work for the system in exercise 2?

How to size a pump: Exercise 3


The plant has this spare 2x3x13 pump with a 20 HP

motor. Will it work for the system in exercise 2?

How to size a pump: Exercise 4


For 2x3x13

pump for conditions from exercise 2 Find: Speed= ___ BHP=____

How to size a pump: Exercise 4


For 2x3x13

pump for conditions from exercise 2 Find: Speed= 1900 BHP=25

How to size a pump: Exercise 5


For constant

speed 3x4 pump at 1775 rpm same conditions

Find wheel

size Dia=____ BHP=___ EFF=____

How to size a pump: Exercise 5


For constant

speed 3x4 pump at 1775 rpm same conditions

Find wheel

size Dia=11.5 BHP=22 EFF=67

How to size a pump: pick type

Source: Gouldspumps.com

How to size a pump other factors


Location Available space Maintenance access At least 30 inches around

How to size a pump other factors


Location Available space Maintenance access At least 30 inches around Bad design End effects on inlet

and outlet Takes up too much space

How to size a pump other factors


Location Available space Maintenance access Vertical split case

How to size a pump other factors


Location Available space Maintenance access Vertical in line

How to size a pump other factors


Location Available space Maintenance access Reliability

How to size a pump other factors


Location Available space Maintenance access Reliability

Quality

How to size a pump other factors


Location Available space Maintenance access Reliability


Quality Throwaway Critical process pump

How to size a pump other factors


Location Available space Maintenance access Reliability Standardization


Duplicate existing ANSI power industry API Chemical or Oil

Control Valves for pumps


Decrease flow Decrease pressure

downstream of valve Changes system curve

CVs for pumps


Control valves @75% Head = 110% BHP = 90%

Pump Affinity Laws


Flow 1 / Flow 2 = Speed 1 / Speed 2 TDH 1 / TDH 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]2 BHP 1 / BHP 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]3

VFDs for pumps


@75% speed Flow = 75% Head = 56% BHP = 42% @50% speed Flow = 50% Head = 25% BHP = 12.5%

How to size a pump: Exercise 6


A Variable Frequency Drive is used to boost the

capacity of an existing cooling pump to meet additional production capacity. The pump runs at 1750 RPM [fixed speed standard 25 HP motor minus slip]. Pump operating conditions are measured at 300 GPM, 160 ft TDH, 20 BHP. If we speed up the pump to 2000 RPM with a VFD, what is the estimated flow, head, and horsepower? Will we have to increase the size of the motor?

How to size a pump: Exercise 6


Using the Affinity Laws, we get: Flow 1 / Flow 2 = Speed 1 / Speed 2

Flow 2 =

TDH 1 / TDH 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]2 TDH2 = BHP 1 / BHP 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]3 BHP2 =

How to size a pump: Exercise 6


Using the Affinity Laws, we get: Flow 1 / Flow 2 = Speed 1 / Speed 2 300/Flow 2 = 1750/2000 Flow 2 = 342 gpm
TDH 1 / TDH 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]2 160/TDH2 = [1750/2000]2 TDH2 = 209 ft BHP 1 / BHP 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]3 20/BHP2 = [1750/2000]2 BHP2 = 30 hp

How to size a pump: Exercise 6


The pump is fine. You have to change out the motor when you add the drive to speed up the pump.

How to size a pump: Exercise 7

VFD on this pump 1800 RPM

HP= 64 TDH=___ GPM=___

1000 GPM Speed=___ TDH=____ HP=______ 1200 RPM GPM=___ TDH=___ HP=_____

How to size a pump: Exercise 7


VFDs 1800 RPM

HP= 64 TDH=80 GPM=1350

1000 GPH RPM=1500 TDH=60 HP=? 1200 RPM GPH=500 TDH=45 HP=?

How to size a pump: Exercise 7


VFDs 1800 RPM

HP= 64 TDH=80 GPM=1350

1000 GPH RPM=1500 TDH=60 HP=? 1200 RPM GPH=500 TDH=45 HP=?

How to size a pump: Exercise 7


Hint: Always do the manual sanity check. Graph it. Hint: When you dont know a formula, get it from

your favorite website.

BHP=[GPM*FT*SG]/[3960*EFF] Assume eff=0.60 or [look up a real pump in a catalog] BHP2=[1000*60*1.0]/[3960*.6]=25.2 BHP3=[500*45*1.0]/[3960*.6]=9.5

Congratulations Junior Engineer. You are now ready to conquer the world because you

know:

How to size a pump