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Seed Coat Embryo Storage Tissue (Endosperm)

Seed Hormones
CK-CytoKinin cell division GA-Gibberellic Acid cell expansion AbA-Abscisic Acid dormancy


Fruit Origins: Simple Fruit

Aggregate Fruit

Multiple Fruit





http://www.life.uiuc.edu/plantbio/digitalflowers/picts/Mor aceae/09-%20Morus%20alba%20fruits.jpg

Fruit Composition Superior Ovary Hypogynous Flower True Fruit Only

Half-Superior Ovary Perigynous Flower True + Accessory Fruit

Inferior Ovary Epigynous Flower True + Accessory Fruit

Fruit Description: Fleshy Fruits Drupe: with pit Berry: with seeds Pome: with core




Example: peach

Example: tomato

Example: apple

The Cherry flower is: complete perfect hypogynous

The cherry fruit is a drupe with a both fleshy and pit wall layers.

Coffee fruits mature unevenly and so are hand-pickedby Juan Valdez? This leads to a social dilemmato buy or to boycott or?

Coffea arabica - coffee

Coffee originated in tropical Africa, but most of the crop is now grown in the South American tropics. Why? What South American native is produced mostly Chocolate in Africa?

These grapes are a classic berry. What is the tiny scar on the end of each fruit? The location of the style attachment So is the ovary superior or inferior?
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Here is a berry from an inferior ovary!


What is the difference between the flesh of the two berries shown here? True vs Accessory

Cucurbita female (pistillate, carpellate flower)

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vestigial androecium

fruit will have accessory

inferior ovary pedicel


Are the flowers perfect or imperfect? Is the pistil simple or compound?

Is the ovary inferior or superior?

Is the flower epigynous or hypogynous? This is the true fruit. accessory

What is the rest of the tissue? Is the placenta axile, radial, or parietal? This is a seed or an ovule? What is this stalk? funiculus

Cucumis melo

ovule/seed funiculus placenta placenta

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true fruit

placenta parietal!
rind = accessory

The flowers of apple have a halfinferior (half-superior) ovary. So the fruit is going to be partially an accessory fruit. The apple fruit is a pome, which has a cartilaginous core as the true fruit. The accessory is tasty!

The bottom of the fruit shows the remains of the five styles and stigmata. There are also five triangular flaps that were the sepals,

Fruit Description:

Dry Fruits Dehiscent Follicle-one side

Legume-two sides



Example: milkweed

Example: honey locust Grain - caryopsis



Example: hibiscus

Dry Fruits Indehiscent Achene - cypsela

Nut with involucre


Example: sunflower


Example: corn


Example: oak

Both Kapok and Milkweed have a fruit that splits along one side:

a follicle.

The seeds of both species have a fibrous pappus attached to the seeds.
Kapok was used for filling floatation devices. In WW2, the US investigated using milkweed as a substitute to outfit the Navy. It was found unsuitable.

Here are two fruits, dry at maturity, and splitting along both sides of the fruit to shed seeds. This makes the fruits legumes. The examples shown are lentil (left) and redbud (below).

Is this pistil simple or compound?

Papaver orientale- oriental poppy

Wounding this fruit causes latex to bleed out. This is collected as raw opium. Morphine and codeine can be extracted from this. Heroin is synthesized by reactions with morphine as starting material.

ovary wall stamen and petal scars


Fragaria - Strawberry

Origin: Aggregate Fruit

Composition: True + Accessory

flower hypogynous


style + stigma superior ovary

http://www.eeob.iastate.edu/classes/botany306/terminology/fruit/ images/strawberry-achene.jpg


Descripton (true fruit!): Dry Indehiscent Achene

Fragaria early fruit development shows clearly the carpels of the flower becoming the true fruit stigma style superior ovary
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true fruit receptacle accessory to fruit


Nut! oak, filbert (hazelnut), chestnut stigma style ovary wall

Cypsela daisy family!

Caryopsis - grain The most important fruit on earth! rice, corn, wheat, etc.

scar of epigynous flower inferior ovary wall

scar of style ovary wall



pedicel scar

hypogynous flower chaff pedicel scar

http://www.tropicamente.it/immagini%20sito/CATALOG http://www.mythoO/T/Theobroma%20cacao.jpg fleurs.com/images/fleurs_tropicales/theobroma_cacao_fleurs.JPG

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Theobroma cacao The ground-up interior of the seeds is used to make chocolate (after mixing with sugar and milk solids)

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