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Guided by
Er Sachin Yele


2.Development of LCD
3.Implementation of LCD
5.Application of LCD

* A liquid crystal display (LCD)
is a thin,non emissive flat panel
used for electronically
displaying information such as
text, images, and moving
* Its uses include monitors for
computers, televisions, instrument
panels, and other devices such as
video players, gaming devices,
clocks, watches, calculators, and

* Among its major features are its

lightweight construction, its
*It is an electronically-
optical device made
up of any
number of pixels

*Each pixel of an LCD

typically consists of a layer of
molecules aligned between
two transparent electrodes,
and two polarizing filters,
Some LCD Equipments
Development of LCD
1.1888: Friedrich Reinter (1858-1927) discovers the
liquid crystalline nature of cholesterol
extracted from carrots

2.1911: Charles Mauguin first experiments of

liquids crystals confined between plates in thin
•1922: Georges Friedel describes the structure and
properties of liquid crystals and classified them
in 3 types (nematics, smectics and cholesterics).

•1936: The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company

patents the first practical application of the
technology, "The Liquid Crystal Light Valve".

•1962: The first major English language

publication on the subject "Molecular Structure
and Properties of Liquid Crystals", by Dr.
George W. Gray

•1962: Richard Williams of found that liquid

crystals had some interesting electro-optic

•1964 George H. Heilmeie was inducted in the National
Inventors Hall of Fame and credited with the invention
of LCD.

•1970: On December 4, 1970, the twisted nematic field

effect in liquid crystals was filed for patent by
Hoffmann-LaRoche in Switzerland Hoffmann-La Roche then
licensed the invention to the Swiss manufacturer Brown,
Boveri & Cie who produced displays for wrist watches
during the 1970s and also to Japanese electronics
industry which soon produced the first digital quartz
wrist watches with TN-LCDs and numerous other products.
•1972: The first active-matrix liquid crystal display
panel was produced in the United States by T. Peter

•2008: LCD TVs become the majority with a 50% market

share of the 200 million TVs

The term liquid crystal refers to the
fact that these compound has a
crystalline arrangement of molecules
,yet they flow like liquid .as shown in
figure two glass plate ,each containing
a light polarizer at right angle to
each other sandwich the liquid crystal
material . The intersection of two
conductor defines a pixel position .
when the molecule are on state the
polarized light passing through the
material is twisted so that it will
pass through opposite polarizer .
T h e lig h t is th a n re fle ct b a ck to th e
vie w e r . to tu rn o f th e p ixe lw e a p p ly
vo lta g e to th e in te rse ctin g co n d u cto rs to
a lig n th e m o le cu le so th a t th e lig h t is n o t
tw iste d . th is typ e o f fla t p a n e ld isp la y
re fe rre d to a s a p a ssive m a trix LC D .
A n o th e r m e th o d fo r co n stru ctin g LC D is
to p la ce a tra n sisto r. T h e tra n sisto r a re
u se to co n tro lth e vo lta g e a t p ixe l
lo ca tio n to p re ve n t th e ch a rg e th a t
g ra d u a lly le a kin g o u t fro m th e liq u id
crysta lce lls. T h is d e vice a re ca lle d
a ctive m a trix d isp la y
Important factors to consider when evaluating an LCD monitor:
•Resolution: The horizontal and vertical screen size expressed in
pixels (e.g., 1024x768). Unlike CRT monitors
•Dot pitch: The distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels.
The smaller the dot pitches size, the fewer granularities is
present, resulting in a sharper image.
•Viewable size: The size of an LCD panel measured on the diagonal
(more specifically known as active display area).
•Response time: The minimum time necessary to change a pixel's
color or brightness. Response time is also divided into rise and
fall time. For LCD monitors, this is measured in bib (black to black)
or gag (gray to gray).
•Refresh rate: The number of times per second in which the monitor
draws the data it is being given. The picture definition is stored
in refresh buffer and the screen is refreshed at a rate of 60
frames per second.
•Matrix type: Active TFT or Passive.
•Color support: How many types of colors are supported (coll., more
specifically known as color gamut).
•Brightness: The amount of light emitted from the display (coll.,
more specifically known as luminance).
•Contrast ratio: The ratio of the intensity of the brightest bright
to the darkest dark.

1. Digital television
2. Liquid crystal display
television (LCD TV)
3. Computer monitor
4. LCD projector
5. Aircraft Instrumentation
6. Mobile technology
LCD technology still has a few
drawbacks in comparison to some other
display technologies:
1. Many LCDs are incapable of displaying very
low resolution screen modes.
2. Some types of LCDs have a more limited color
3. Although LCDs typically have more vibrant
images than CRTs, they do have lower contrast
ratios than CRTs in terms of how deep their
blacks are. A contrast ratio is the difference
between a completely on (white) and off (black)
pixel, and LCDs can have "backlight bleed" where
light (usually seen around corners of the
screen) leaks out.
4. LCDs typically have longer response
5. LCD panels using TN tend to have a
limited viewing angle relative to CRT and
plasma displays. This reduces the number
of people able to conveniently view the
same image – laptop screens are a prime
6. cheap LCD monitors unsuitable for work
where color is important, such as in
graphic design work, as the colors change
when the eyes are moved slightly up or
7. Consumer LCD monitors tend to be more
fragile than their CRT counterparts
Though LCD brought revolution
to the display unit but the
major drawback is the inability
view clearly at wider angle
because it is totally based on
reflection .So in accordance to
the principle it should not
based only reflection but also
scattering of light so that we
can increase the viewing