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PRECISE KILOMETER CALCULATION BY UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT DETECTOR

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Contents
Project overview Block diagram Power supply Microcontroller ADC0804 Relay Relay driver LCD Software requirements Schematic & Working of the project Advantages Applications Future scope Conclusion

Project overview
The project uses the simple concept of OHMs law where a low DC voltage is applied at the feeder end through a series resistor. The current would vary depending upon the length of fault of the cable in case there is a short circuit of LL or 3L or LG etc. The series resistor voltage drop changes accordingly which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital data which the programmed microcontroller would display the same in Kilo meters. The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in KMs and fault creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of the same.

Block diagram

Power supply

Contd..
The 230V AC supply is first stepped down to 12V AC using a step down transformer. This is then converted to DC using bridge rectifier. The AC ripples is filtered out by using a capacitor and given to the input pin of voltage regulator 7805. At output pin of this regulator we get a constant 5V DC which is used for MC and other ICs in this project.

Microcontroller
It is a smaller computer Has on-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...

CPU

RAM ROM

A single chip
I/O Port
Serial Timer COM Port

Microcontroller

Block diagram of mc
External interrupts Interrup t Control On-chip ROM for program code
Timer/Counter

On-chip RAM

Timer 1 Timer 0

Counter Inputs

CPU

OSC

Bus Control

4 I/O Ports

Serial Port

P0 P1 P2 P3

TxD RxD

Address/Data

Features of MC
8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Full Duplex UART Serial Channel

Pin description

Power on Reset circuit


+5V
+ 10 uF 31 30 pF 8.2 K 30 pF 18 X2 11.0592 MHz 19

EA/VPP X1

9 RST

ADC
Analog to digital converters find huge application as an intermediate device to convert the signals from analog to digital form. These digital signals are used for further processing by the digital processors. Various sensors like temperature, pressure, force etc. convert the physical characteristics into electrical signals that are analog in nature.

ADC0804 is a very commonly used 8-bit analog to digital convertor. It is a single channel IC, i.e., it can take only one analog signal as input.

Features of ADC0804
Compatible with microcontrollers, access time is 135ns. Logic inputs and outputs meet both MOS and TTL voltage level specifications. Works with 2.5V (LM336) voltage reference. On-chip clock generator. 0V to 5V analog input voltage range with single 5V supply. 20-pin molded chip carrier or small outline package. Operates ratio metrically or with 5 VDC, 2.5 VDC, or analog span adjusted voltage reference.

Relay
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and have double throw (changeover) switch contacts as shown in the diagram.

Contd..
Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits, the link is magnetic and mechanical. To drive relay through MC ULN2003 relay driver IC is used

Relay driver ULN2003


ULN is Relay driver application The ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor arrays. It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that features high-voltage outputs with commoncathode clamp diode for switching inductive loads. The collector-current rating of a single Darlington pair is 500mA. The Darlington pairs may be paralleled for higher current capability.

Contd..
The ULN functions as an inverter. If the logic at input 1B is high then the output at its corresponding pin 1C will be low.

Liquid crystal display (lcd)


Most common LCDs connected to the microcontrollers are 16x2 and 20x2 displays.

This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20


characters per line by 2 lines, respectively. The standard is referred to as HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which receives data from an external source (and communicates directly with the LCD.

Contd..
If an 8-bit data bus is used the LCD will require 11 data lines(3 control lines plus the 8 lines for the data bus) The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and RW EN=Enable (used to tell the LCD that you are sending it data) RS=Register Select. When RS=0; data is treated as a command & When RS=1; data being sent is text data. R/W=Read/Write . When RW=0; the data written to the LCD & When RW=0; the data reading to the LCD.

Software requirements
Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers, macro

assemblers, real-time kernels, debuggers, simulators,


integrated emulators environments, for evaluation boards, and ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3,

XC16x/C16x/ST10, 251, and 8051 MCU families.


Compilers are programs used to convert a High Level Language to object code. Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the underlying microprocessor, but not for other microprocessors.

Contd..
i.e., the programs written in one of the HLL like C will compile
the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer). For example compilers for Dos platform is different from the Compilers for Unix platform code into object code. So if one wants to define a compiler then compiler is a program that translates source

Working of project
The project uses a set of resistances in series i.e. R10,R11,R12,R13 and R17,R16,R14,R21, R20,R19,R18,R25,R22 as shown in the circuit diagram, one set for each phase. Each series resistors represents the resistance of the underground cable for a specific distance thus 4 such resistances in series represent 1-4kms. 3 relays are used to common point of their contacts are grounded while the NO points are connected to the input of the R17, R21 & R25 being the 3 phase cable input. R10 is fed with a series resistor R1 to 5v supply. The common point of R10 & R1 is given to input pin of 6 of ADC0804 duely wired as explained above.