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CRE II Heterogeneous Catalysis L1-2

Prof. K.K.Pant Department of Chemical Engineering IIT Delhi. kkpant@chemical.iitd.ac.in

CRE-II
Prerequisite CHL-122 Course Outline

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Introduction to Catalysis, Classification, Catalyst preparation, evaluation of Catalyst properties. 5


Physical and Chemical adsorption, Different types of adsorption isotherms, determination of surface area and pore volume of the Catalyst 6 Kinetics of solid catalyzed gas phase reaction, Reaction mechanism, Laboratory reactors for catalytic gas solid reactions.

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Mass transfer, Diffusion and Chemical reactions in catalysts. Effects of external mass transfer and heat transfer, 2 Effectiveness factors. 8-9

Course outline , contd.. Fixed bed catalytic reactors, reactor models, concept of heterogeneous models.

Non-catalytic gas-solid reactions, different model for gas-solid reaction, 4 Gas liquid reactions, film and penetration theories, enhance factor in gas-liquid reactions, Concept of Reactor Design 4

Reactor systems for gas-liquid reactions. Laboratory / design activity (time permitting). 2-3
Grading: QUIZ : 10 (ONE ONLY), TERM Paper 4, Assignments/ Tut. : 2+4, Minors 2( 40), Major (40) NO MAKE UP EXAMS 3

Books:
Fogler H.S, Elements of chemical reaction engineering IV th Ed . ( Text Book: MUST be BRING during TUTORIAL SESSIONs)

Smith J.M., Chemical engineering kinetics, Mcgraw Hill,


Carberry, J Chemical and catalytic reaction engineering Mcgraw Hill Froment G.F & Bischoff K.B., Chemical reactor analysis and design John Wiley C.G. Hill, An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design Levensipiel : Chemical Rexn Engg.
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What is a catalyst ??
Alters the rate of reaction with high selectivity

Does it participate in the reaction ??


How does it change the rate ?? Offers an alternate path with low E. Does it affect HR, GR, and Eq. constant ??

Does it affect yield & selectivity ??


Does it initiate a reaction ??
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-What is Catalyst ? Allow reactions occur under a milder conditions, e.g. at lower temperatures for those heat sensitive materials

It is important to remember that the use of catalyst DOES NOT vary DG & Keq values of the reaction concerned, it merely change the PACE of the process.

Assignment 1
Due date: August 6th

1. Give the Thermodynamic criteria for a Chemical Reaction. 2. Write down an Algorithm for calculation of product composition in a multiple reaction from Thermodynamic analysis (case study: Steam reforming of Ethanol (PRODUCTS: CH4, CO, CO2, and H2, T= 500-800 C) State other conditions used. 3. Different types of Reactors used in Chemical Process Industries.
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Action of Catalysts
The reaction activation energy is altered The intermediates formed are different from those formed in non-catalytic reaction

The rates of reactions are altered (both


desired and undesired ones)

-Reactions proceed under less demanding conditions


Allow reactions occur under a milder conditions, e.g. at lower temperatures for those heat sensitive materials

It is important to remember that the use of catalyst DOES NOT vary DG & Keq values of the reaction concerned, it merely change the PACE of the process.

Whether a reaction can proceed or not and to what extent a reaction can proceed is solely determined by the reaction thermodynamics, which is governed by the values of DG & Keq, NOT by the presence of catalysts.

The reaction thermodynamics provide the driving force for a rxn; the presence of catalysts changes the way how driving force acts on that process.

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e.g CH4(g) + CO2(g) = 2CO(g) + 2H2(g) DG373=151 kJ/mol (100 C) & DG973

=-16 kJ/mol (700 C)


=>At 100C, DG373=151 kJ/mol > 0.

There is no thermodynamic driving force,the reaction wont proceed with or without a catalyst

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At 700C, DG373= -16 kJ/mol < 0. The thermodynamic driving force is there. However, simply putting CH4 and CO2 together in a reactor does not mean they will react. Without a proper catalyst heating the mixture in reactor results no conversion of CH4 and CO2 at all.

When Pt/ZrO2 or Ni/Al2O3 is present in the


reactor at the same temperature, equilibrium conversion can be achieved (<100%).
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