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L 41: Fluid/Solid Reactions (Non catalytic)

Prof. K.K.Pant Department of Chemical Engineering IIT Delhi. kkpant@chemical.iitd.ac.in

Fluid Solid non catalytic Reactions

Progressive Conversion Model : According to the progressive-conversion model, reaction proceeds continuously throughout the solid particle.

Shrinking-Core Model (SCM).

Here we visualize that reaction occurs first at the outer skin of the particle. The zone of reaction then moves into the solid, leaving behind completely converted material and inert solid.

SHRINKING-CORE MODEL FOR SPHERICAL PARTICLES OF UNCHANGING SIZE

Step 1. Diffusion of gaseous reactant A through the film surrounding the particle to the surface of the solid. Step 2. Penetration and diffusion of A through the blanket of ash to the surface of the unreacted core. Step 3. Reaction of gaseous A with solid at this reaction surface. Step 4. Diffusion of gaseous products through the ash back to the exterior surface of the solid. Step 5. Diffusion of gaseous products through the gas film back into the main body of fluid. 6

SHRINKING-CORE MODEL FOR SPHERICAL PARTICLES OF UNCHANGING SIZE ( Mass Transfer Control)

Diffusion Through Gas Film Controls

Diffusion Through Gas Film Controls

Diffusion through Ash Layer Controls

No chemical reaction in Ash layer


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In the second part of the analysis we let the size of unreacted core change with time. For a given size of unreacted core, dNA/dt is constant; however, as the core shrinks the ash layer becomes thicker, lowering the rate of diffusion of A.

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CHEMICAL REACTION CONTROLS

(No ash layer present ) R = rc

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Particle Size. Effect : Time needed to achieve the same fractional conversion for particles of different but unchanging sizes is given by: t R 1.5 to 2.0 for film diffusion controlling (the exponent drops as Reynolds number rises)
t R2 , for ash diffusion controlling t R for chemical reaction controlling

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Particles of a Single Size, Plug Flow of Solids, Uniform Gas Composition


Mixture of Particles of Different but Unchanging Sizes, Plug Flow of Solids, Uniform Gas Composition

When in plug flow all solids stay in the reactor for the same length of time tp. From this and the kinetics for whatever resistance controls, the conversion XB(Ri) for any size of particle R (i) can be found. Then the mean conversion xB of the solids leaving the reactor can be obtained by properly summing to find the overall contribution to conversion of all sizes of particles. Thus,

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where R(t, = ) is the radius of the largest particle completely converted in the reactor.

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Ex. A feed consisting 30% of 50-um-radius particles, 40% of 100um-radius particles 30% of 200-um-radius particles is to be fed continuously in a thin layer onto a moving grate crosscurrent to a flow of reactant gas. For the planned operating conditions the time required for complete conversion is 5, 10, and 20 min for the three sizes of particles. Find the conversion of solids on the grate for a residence time of 8 min in the reactor.

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Mixed Flow of Particles of a Single Unchanging Size, Uniform Gas Composition

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Film diffusion control

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