Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

Ethics: Theory and Practice

Jacques P. Thiroux Keith W. Krasemann

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapter Eight
Setting Up a Moral System: Basic Assumptions and Basic Principles

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Conflicting General Moral Sense


Consequentialism v. Nonconsequentialism
We must consider the consequences of our decisions, acts, and rules, but at the same time be aware of and avoid the endjustifies-the-means problem

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Conflicting General Moral Sense


Self v. Other-interestedness
There are problems associated with a totally self-interested basis for morality; therefore, I agree with the utilitarian approach of doing what is in the best interest of everyone

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Conflicting General Moral Sense


Act v. Rule
In a moral system, we require freedom (act) and yet also stability and order (rule)

Emotion v. Reason
In a moral system, we require reason without excluding emotion

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Basic Assumptions
What constitutes a workable and livable moral system:
Rationally based and yet not devoid of emotion Logically consistent but not rigid and inflexible Universality or general application to all humanity and yet be applicable in practical ways to individuals and situations Able to be taught and promulgated Ability to resolve conflicts
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Including Rational and Emotional Aspects


Emotion
Moral issues have an emotional dimension

Reasoning
Logical argument Logical consistency Consider others arguments A common way to resolve differences

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Logical Consistency
Logical consistency creates stability within a moral system But a moral system that says something can never in any situation be done morally is too rigid Therefore, we must strive for logical consistency but allow for enough flexibility so that the system remains applicable
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Universality and Particularity


Universality
Morality that attempts to help all human beings relate meaningfully must strive to possess universal applicability

Particularity
But ones moral system should not become so generalized and abstract that it cannot be applied to particular situations and individuals

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ability to Be Taught and Promulgated


If any moral system is to be applied to more than one person, it must be able to be promulgated, that is, laid out for people to see and understand It should also be teachable so that others can learn about is regardless of whether they wish to accept or reject it

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ability to Resolve Conflicts


A workable moral system must be able to resolve conflicts among duties and obligations, and even among its participants If any moral theory or system proposes a series of duties and obligations that human beings ought to perform or be responsible for, yet fails to tell people what they should do when these conflicts arise, then the entire theory is thrown into doubt
Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.