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Chapter 7

Beam Statics
What structural elements are called beams ?
L
P
P
Axis of the beam
Beams must resist loads applied laterally or transversely, i.e. perpendicular
to their axes.
Axis of the beam
Diagrammatic conventions
Beam is a one-dimensional structural element. The other two dimensions
are not considered in structural analysis
Beam has two boundaries, i.e. the ends, where beams may be supported
Roller support
Movement along only one direction is restricted
There is only one reaction component
The direction of the reaction component is perpendicular to the support
Pinned support
Movements along both the two directions are restricted
There are two reaction components, horizontal and vertical
Reactions are always horizontal and vertical, irrespective of the orientation of the
support.
Fixed support
Movements along both the two directions, and rotation are restricted
There are two reaction components, horizontal and vertical, and a reactive
moment
Reactions are always horizontal and vertical, and the reactive moment may be
either clockwise or anti-clockwise.
Classification of beams: Based
on Support Conditions
Simply supported beam
Cantilever
Fixed beam
Continuous beam
Classification of beams: Based on
Statical determinacy/indeterminacy
0
0
0
=
=
=

a
y
x
M
F
F
Statically indeterminate
Statically determinate
Statically determinate
Statically indeterminate
Loads on beams
Types of loads
1. Concentrated/point load
2. Uniformly distributed load or line load
3. Uniformly varying load
1. Triangular loads
2. Parabolic loads
Concentrated/point load UDL: Uniformly distributed load
UDL
w lb./ft
w lb./ft
P lb.
Triangular and parabolic loads
w lb./ft
w lb./ft
w lb./ft
w lb./ft
w lb./ft
Calculation of reactions: Simply supported beams
P
L/2 L/2
A
B
R
Ay

R
Ax

R
By

| = =
+ + =

2
2 /
2
clockwise , 0
P
L
PL
R
L
P L R ve M
By
By A
| = =
+ + =

2
2 /
2
clockwise , 0
P
L
PL
R
L
P L R ve M
Ay
Ay B
0 , 0 = + =
Ax x
R ve F
checked ; 0
2 2
0 , 0
= +
= + + | =

P
P
P
R P R ve F
By Ay y
2 /
2 /
1
L
L
R
R
By
Ay
= =
Reactions are proportional to the distances of the applied force
from the supports.
Calculation of reactions: Simply supported beams
P
2L/3 L/3
A
B
R
Ay

R
Ax

R
By

| = =
+ + =

3
2 3 / 2
3
2
clockwise , 0
P
L
PL
R
L
P L R ve M
By
By A
| = =
+ + =

3
3 /
3
clockwise , 0
P
L
PL
R
L
P L R ve M
Ay
Ay B
0 , 0 = + =
Ax x
R ve F
checked ; 0
3
2
3
0 , 0
= +
= + + | =

P
P
P
R P R ve F
By Ay y
3 / 2
3 /
2
1
3 / 2
3 /
L
L
P
P
R
R
By
Ay
= = =
Reactions are proportional to the distances of the applied force
from the supports. The nearer the applied force, the heavier is the
reaction.
10 kips
5 ft 5 ft.
A
B
5 kips 5 kips
12 kips
2 ft 4 ft.
A
B
kips 8 12
6
4
= kips 4 12
6
2
=
12 kips
2 ft 3 ft.
A
B
1 ft.
10 kips
kips 13 8 5 12
6
4
5 = + = +
kips 9 4 5 12
6
2
5 = + = +
12 kips
2 ft 3 ft.
A
B
1 ft.
10 kips
5 kips
kips 13 8 5 12
6
4
5 = + = + kips 4 5 4 5 12
6
2
5 = + = +
Calculation of reactions: Simply supported beams
Calculation of reactions: Simply supported beams
w lb./ft
L
Total load = wL
L/2 L/2
wL/2 wL/2
w lb./ft
L
Total load = wL
2L/3 L/3
6 2 3
1 wL wL
=
3 2 3
2 wL wL
=
w lb./ft
L
Total load =wL/3
3L/4
L/4
12 3 4
1 wL wL
=
4 3 4
3 wL wL
=
w lb./ft
L/2 L/2
Total load =wL
5L/6
L/6
24 4 6
1 wL wL
=
24
5
4 6
5 wL wL
=
Calculation of reactions: Cantilever
P
L/2 L/2
A
B
R
Ay

R
Ax

ise anticlockw ,
2
0
2
clockwise , 0
PL
M
M
L
P ve M
A
A A
=
= + + + =

0 , 0 = + =
Ax x
R ve F
| =
= + + | =

P R
R P R ve F
Ay
Ay Ay y
0 , 0
The vertical reaction is always equal to the summation of all
vertical forces
M
A

The reactive moment at the support is always equal to the
summation of all moments
10 kips
5 ft 5 ft.
A
B
10 kips
12 kips
2 ft 4 ft.
A
B
12 kips
2 ft 3 ft.
A
B
1 ft.
10 kips
kips 22 10 12 = +
12 kips
2 ft 3 ft.
A
B
1 ft.
10 kips
5 kips
Calculation of reactions: cantilever
k.ft 24 12 2 =
12 kips
k.ft 50 5 10 =
k.ft 54 3 10 2 12 = +
kips 17 5 10 12 = +
k.ft 24 6 5 3 10 2 12 = +
Calculation of reactions: Cantilever
w lb./ft
L
Total load = wL
L/2 L/2
wL
w lb./ft
L
Total load = wL
2L/3 L/3
2
wL
w lb./ft
L
Total load =wL/3
3L/4
L/4
3
wL
w lb./ft
L/2 L/2
Total load =wL
5L/6
L/6
4
wL
A
A
A
A
2 2
2
wL L
wL =
3 3
2
2
1
2
wL L
wL =
4 4
3
3
1
2
wL L
wL =
24
5
6
5
4
1
2
wL L
wL =
Method of sections
10 kips
5 ft 5 ft.
A
B
5 kips 5 kips
4 ft
10 kips 10 kips

A
5 kips
4 ft
10 kips
10 kips
5 kips
k.ft 20 4 5 =
Internal forces on a beam
section
1. Axial Force: 10 kips
2. Shear Force: 5 kips
3. Bending moment: 20 k.ft
10 kips
5 ft.
B
5 kips
10 kips
10 kips
5 kips
k.ft 20 1 10 6 5 =
1 ft
10 kips
5 ft 5 ft.
A
5 ft. 5 ft. 5 ft.
2 k/ft
50 k.ft
11 kips 9 kips
3ft.
A
9 kips
3ft.
9 kips
k.ft 27 3 9 =
8ft.
1 kip
k.ft 52 3 10 8 9 =
A
9 kips
10 kips
5 ft.
14 ft.
A
9 kips
10 kips
5 ft. 5 ft.
50 k.ft
V
M
Since there is no horizontal force, applied
or reactive; NO AXIAL FORCE
force) (Shear kips 1
0 10 9 , ; 0
=
= + + + | =

V
V ve F
y
a
Moment) (Bending k.ft 86
0 50 9 10 14 9
, clockwise ; 0
=
= + +
+ =

M
M
ve M
a
Summary from the previous slides
Axial force (AF), Shear force (SF) and bending moment (BM) varies from
section to section as one proceeds along the beam
Direction of all those internal forces (AF, SF, BM) also changes.
AF may be tension or compression
SF may be upward or downward
BM may be clockwise or anticlockwise
Solutions: Diagrams showing the variation of AF, SF and BM along the length
of the beam.
A universal sign convention must be adopted so that signs be the same if any
of the parts of a section is considered
Sign convention: AF
Tension: Positive
Compression: Negative
Sign convention: SF
Considered left part & SF downward:
Considered right part & SF upward: Positive
Considered left part & SF upward:
Considered right part & SF downward: Negative
Sign convention: BM
Water retains: Positive
Water sheds: Negative
Example 7-5
5 ft 5 ft.
5 k
4
3
5
4 k
5 ft 5 ft.
3 k
2 k
2 k
3 k
3 k
2 k
2 k
3 k
2 ft
2 k
3 k
5 ft - e
2 k
3 k
4 k
3 k
5 ft + e
k.ft 4 2 2 =
3 k
k.ft 10 5 2 =
2 k
2 k
k.ft 10 5 2 =
2 k
2 k
2 ft
k.ft 4 2 2 =
k.ft 4 3 4 8 2 =
2 k
3 k
4 k
3 k
8 ft
2 k
5 ft 5 ft.
- 3 k
+ 2 k
- 2 k
10 k.ft
AFD
SFD
BMD
Example 7-5 (continued)
4 k
5 ft 5 ft.
3 k
2 k
2 k
3 k
2 k
3 k
x
3 k
k.ft 2 2 x x =
2 k
( ) k.ft 20 2 5 4 2 + = x x x
2 k
3 k
4 k
3 k
x
2 k
Identify regions with is no variation in loads
ft 10 ft 5 : part Second ft. 5 0 : part First < < < < x x
Take two sections through these two parts
origin through passes which
line straight a by defined variation ; 2 : BM
constant 2; : SF
constant 3; : AF
ft 5 x 0 : part First
x
+

< <
line straight a by defined variation 20; 2 : BM
constant ; 2 : SF
0 : AF
ft 10 5 : part Second
+

< <
x
x
Example 7-5 (continued)
- 3 k
+ 2 k
- 2 k
10 k.ft
AFD
SFD
BMD
constant 3; : AF
ft 5 0 : part First

< < x
; 0 : AF
ft 10 5 : part Second < < x
constant ; 2 : SF
ft 5 0 : part First
+
< < x
constant ; 2 : SF
ft 10 5 : part Second

< < x
ft k M x
ft k M x
M x
x
x
. 4 2 2 , 2 when Even
. 10 5 2 , 5 when
0 , 0 when
2 : BM
ft 5 0 : part First
= = =
= = =
= =
< <
ft k M x
M x
ft k M x
x
x
. 4 20 8 2 , 8 when Even
0 20 10 2 , 10 when
. 10 20 5 2 , 5 when
20 2 : BM
ft 10 5 : part Second
+ = + = =
= + = =
+ = + = =
+
< <
5 ft 5 ft.
3 k
2 k
2 k
3 k
Hinges
10 kips
5 ft 5 ft.
A
B
k.ft 50 5 10 =
5 ft.
10 kips
10 kips
5 ft 5 ft.
A
k.ft 50 5 10 =
B
5 ft.
10 kips
5 kips
5 kips
5 kips