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Comba Telecom Ltd

TMA Theory & Application



2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
2
Topics
1. TMA introduction
What is a TMA and accessories?
TMA portfolio
Key specs and competitive
2. Performance enhancement
GSM TMA application
WCDMA application
GSM and WCDMA comparison
3. TMA trail performance and statistic analysis
How to choose a right site for TMA trail
Statistic analysis
4. Trouble shooting

2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
3
What is a TMA System?
What is a TMA?
A Low noise receiver
amplifier used to improve
the up-link sensitivity of the
BTS or Node B.
Why is it necessary?
To extend and maximize
coverage by providing
network balance
To improve the quality of
service to the subscriber
To reduce the infrastructure
cost to the operator
To reduce intra cell noise
BTS
TMA
Power
Supply

BTS
Antenna
TMA
LNA
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4
Increasing Cell Radius








A TMA located on the tower top can increase uplink range by
50% and bring the cell into balance.
1700 - 2200MHz GSM & WCDMA systems virtually demand
TMAs due to higher path loss and limited mobile transmit power.
The risk of *not* using a TMA is lost calls near the cell
boundary.

Downlink
Uplink
without TMA
Uplink
with TMA
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5
Advantages of TMA
Extended network coverage
Remove up-link limitation
Improved Network Quality
Fewer dropped calls
Higher call throughput
Satisfied subscribers
Reduces MS output power
Longer battery life and
less interference.
Reduced infrastructure cost
Fewer sites
Disadvantages
Reduces the overall Mean
Time Between Failure
(MTBF) (with block diagram
introduction)
Maintenance and
supervision is more difficult.


Tower-Mounted Amplifiers (TMA)
ANT0 ANT0 ANT1 ANT1
Node B Node B Node B1 Node B1 To RCU To RCU
Tx Fil
Rx1 Fil
Rx2 Fil
Rx-
Bypass
Bias Tee
and Lightning
Protection
Tx Fil
Rx1 Fil
Rx2 Fil
Rx-
Bypass
R
S
4
8
5
A
LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA
LNA
Supervision
and Alarm
Generation
Unit
LNA
Supervision
and Alarm
Generation
Unit
Modem Modem
DC GND
R
S
4
8
5
B
Lightning
Protection
DC Power
LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA
DC GND
TMA Accessaries
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7
What comprises a TMA System?
It consists of 3 main components:

Tower Mounted Amplifier
A low noise amplifier with bypass switch.

Current Injector or Bias Tee
Facilitates injection of dc power onto the RF cable.

Power Distribution & Management (PDM)
provides power and alarm handling up to 6 TMAs.
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8
Power Distribution Management Unit (PDM)
Converts BTS voltage (-48VDC or +24VDC) to +12 VDC.
Power distribution to the TMA via a CIN.
Supervises TMA current consumption.

+12V
+12V
BTS Sector
TMA
-48V
TMA
Tx/Rx Rx
Antenna
ANT ANT
BTS BTS
To BTS Alarm
Relay Contacts
BT
Power Distribution & Management
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9
Bias Tee (Current Injector)
Injects dc power onto the
feeder for the TMA.
Acts as a surge protector.
N or 7/16 connectors in any
combination.
IP65, weather protected for
outdoor environment.
DC
Input
TMA
BTS
Spark gap
/4
/4
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10
Bias Tee Connection
ANT port connects to feeder cable leading to antenna
BTS port connects to feeder cable leading to BTS
Two types of bias tee :
Model Connector Type
BT-M1
ANT 7/16 DIN-Female
BTS 7/16 DIN-Male
BT-M2
ANT 7/16 DIN-Male
BTS 7/16 DIN-Female
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
11
TMA Portfolio
CDMA single TMA (25MHz) band width
GSM single band TMA(25MHz)
GSM twin band TMA(25MHz)--- AISG compliance and No AISG
EGSM single band TMA(35MHz)
DCS1800 single TMA
DCS1800 Twin TMA--- AISG compliance and No AISG
PCS1900 Twin TMA---AISG compliance and No AISG
UMTS2100 twin TMA--- AISG compliance and No AISG

2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
12
Single Sector power connection
+12V
+12V
BTS
-48V
TMA
Tx/Rx Rx
Antenna
ANT ANT
BTS BTS
BT
To BTS Alarm
Relay Contacts
Power Distribution & Management
+12V
+12V
BTS
-48V
TMA
Tx/Rx Rx
Antenna
ANT ANT
BTS BTS
BT
More Popular

2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
13
TMA Portfolio
AISG/No AISG
product development process

IOT test with or without PDM (need some plots)
with BTS
with Node B
with or without AISG compliance
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14
Status of Comba TMA
Specs introduction
Normal RF specs
High and low temperature test

Key focus from customer side
waterproof
lightning protection
salt mist
other reliability compare with customer
IOT compatible with Base station

2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
15
Enhancement improve
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16
GSM Calculation of Receiver Sensitivity
Thermal noise floor is given by


The noise at the input of a receiver is known as the receiver noise
floor, and is given by

where NF
r
is the noise figure of the receiver

The sensitivity of a receiver is given by

For GMSK modulation, we need a detection SNR of 9 dB
If the receiver noise figure is 2 dB, then the sensitivity is



( )
( ) dBm 30 log 10
dBW log 10


+ =
=
kTB
kTB P
n
( ) dBW log 10
r nr
NF kTB P + =
SNR NF P SNR P P
r n nr sens
+ + = + =
dBm 110 9 2 121 = + + =
sens
P
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17
The overall noise figure, NF
T
, of a number of cascaded devices
can be calculated from Friis' equation:



where gain and noise factor values are in linear units.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ =
1 1
log 10
2 1
3
1
2
1
G G
F
G
F
F NF
T
Input
Amp1
Output
G1, NF1
Amp2Amp3
G2, NF2G3, NF3
The noise factor of the first stage contributes significantly to the
overall noise figure.
The noise figure of a passive device is equal to its insertion loss.
NF in Cascade Amplifier Stages
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18
Sensitivity Improvement
LNA
BTS Receiver
BTS LNA
NF
_
Feeder and Jumpers
dB L
f
4 =
-90
-100
-110
-130
dBm
-120
10 dB
3 dB
Thermal Noise Noise Figure in BTS
A
B C
BTS LNA
G
_
Without TMA
dB NF
BTS LNA
3
_
=
dB G
BTS LNA
14
_
=
6 dB
BTS Receiver
Feeder and
Jumpers
dB L
f
4 =
-90
-100
-110
-130
dBm
-120
10 dB
Thermal Noise Noise Figure in Active Component
A
C D
5.5 dB
LNA LNA
TMA
NF
TMA
G
TMA
B
BTS LNA
NF
_
With TMA
dB NF
TMA
5 . 1 =
dB G
TMA
11 =
8.5 dB
dB NF
BTS LNA
3
_
=
dB G
BTS LNA
6
_
=
8.5 dB
BTS LNA
G
_
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19
TMA RF Impact
BPF
TMA
Gain+NF
Signal 1
Signal 2
TMAinput Noise
Thermal Noisefloor
SNR2
SNR1
LNA
Signal atantenna
terminal
Signal intofeeder
Signal after
feederlosses
NoTMA
Signal afterTMA
Signal after
feederlosses
WithTMA
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20
BTS without TMA
Example 1
Consider a GSM 1800 BTS
uplink arrangement as shown.
Assuming that a detection
SNR of 9 dB is needed,
determine the minimum BTS
receive power level needed
(after the antenna).
RX
Detection
Duplexer
BTS
NF = 5 dB
S/N = 9 dB
Loss = 1 dB
Loss = 3.3 dB
Jumper
Jumper
Feeder cable
7/8", 50 m
Loss = 0.5 dB
Loss = 0.5 dB
Antenna
Received power
RX sensitivity
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
21
BTS without TMA
Solution

Thermal Noise Floor





Receiver sensitivity


Received power

| |
dBm
dBW
kTB P
n
121
151
10 200 290 10 38 . 1 log 10
log 10
3 23
=
=
=
=

dBm
P
sens
07 1
5 9 121
=
+ + =
dBm
P
r
01.7 1
5 . 0 3 . 3 5 . 0 1 107
=
+ + + + =
RX
Detection
Duplexer
BTS
NF = 5 dB
S/N = 9 dB
Loss = 1 dB
Loss = 3.3 dB
Jumper
Jumper
Feeder cable
7/8", 50 m
Loss = 0.5 dB
Loss = 0.5 dB
Antenna
Received power
RX sensitivity
sens
P
r
P
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22
Link Budget Overview
Results
Output
Power
Losses
(Cable,
Combiner, )
BS
Antenna
gain
Path-
loss
Load
(Interference
margin)
SHO
Gain
MS
antenna
gain
UE /
body
loss
Processing Gain
(de-spreading)
MDC
gain
POWER LEVEL
E
c
/I
0
E
b
/N
0
Capacity
Coverage
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23
BTS with TMA
Solution

Overall noise figure, NF
T






Received power



Improvement in sensitivity
| |
dB 12 . 3
05 . 2 log 10
5 . 0 17 . 0 38 . 1 log 10
10 10
1 10
10
1 10
10 log 10
10 6 . 5 10 12
10 5
10 12
10 6 . 5
10 4 . 1
=
=
+ + =
(

+ =
dBm
P
r
08.4 1
5 . 0 12 . 3 9 121
=
+ + + =
( ) dB 70 . 6 4 . 108 7 . 101 = =
RX
Detection
Duplexer
BTS
S/N = 9 dB
Loss = 3.3 dB
Received power
RX sensitivity
NF = 1.4 dB
Gain = 12 dB
Loss = 0.3 dB
Overall
Loss = 0.5 dB
NF = 5 dB
Loss = 1 dB
Loss = 0.5 dB
Loss = 0.5 dB
Noise Figure
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24
WCDMA Sensitivity Improvement
In WCDMA, the sensitivity of an unloaded Node B for a particular
radio access bearer (RAB) is given by

where
P
sr
is the receiver noise floor (dBm)
E
b
/N
0
is the bit energy to noise power spectral density for the
particular RAB (dB)
G
p
is the processing gain for the particular RAB (dB)

The processing gain is defined as


where
W is the spread bandwidth or chip rate (Hz)
R
b
is the data rate of the RAB (bits/sec)
p b nr sr
G N E P P + =
0
(dB) log 10
b
p
R
W
G =
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25
Example 2
Consider the BTS receive
system with TMA.
Determine the improvement in
the minimum BTS received
power.
BTS with TMA
RX
Detection
Duplexer
BTS
S/N = 9 dB
Loss = 3.3 dB
Received power
RX sensitivity
NF = 1.4 dB
Gain = 12 dB
Loss = 0.3 dB
Overall
Loss = 0.5 dB
NF = 5 dB
Loss = 1 dB
Loss = 0.5 dB
Loss = 0.5 dB
Noise Figure
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26
Sensitivity Improvement
The receiver noise floor related to the receiver noise figure by

Sensitivity of Node B can be expressed by



Receiver noise figure has a great impact on the receiver
sensitivity.
p b t
G N E NF N + + =
0
r t nr
NF N P + =
p b nr sr
G N E P P + =
0
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27
Sensitivity Improvement
Assumptions
Jumper Cable Losses
= 0.5 dB
Feeder Cable Loss
= 3 dB
Bias-Tee Loss
= 0.15 dB
Duplexer Loss
= 1 dB
TMAs Uplink Gain
= 12 dB
TMAs Noise Figure
= 1.4 dB
Node B Receiver Noise
Figure = 5 dB

Node B without TMA
F
L
2 S
P
Rx
Det
Rx
Det
1 J
L
2 J
L
d
L
r
NF
1 S
P
Node B with TMA
TMA
Bias Tee
F
L
TMA
NF
TMA
G
2 S
P
Rx
Det
Rx
Det
1 J
L
2 J
L
3 J
L
DPX
L
r
NF
s
NF
1 S
P
BT
L
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28
Sensitivity Improvement
Assumptions
Jumper Cable Losses
= 0.5 dB
Feeder Cable Loss
= 3 dB
Bias-Tee Loss
= 0.15 dB
Duplexer Loss
= 1 dB
TMAs Uplink Gain
= 12 dB
TMAs Noise Figure
= 1.4 dB
Node B Receiver Noise
Figure = 5 dB

Node B without TMA
F
L
2 S
P
Rx
Det
Rx
Det
1 J
L
2 J
L
d
L
r
NF
1 S
P
Node B with TMA
TMA
Bias Tee
F
L
TMA
NF
TMA
G
2 S
P
Rx
Det
Rx
Det
1 J
L
2 J
L
3 J
L
DPX
L
r
NF
s
NF
1 S
P
BT
L
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29
Sensitivity Improvement
Without TMA
For a speech RAB, the processing gain is given by


The unloaded Node B sensitivity, measured
at the BTS port, is given by




If the sensitivity is measured at the antenna
port, then
Node B without TMA
F
L
2 S
P
Rx
Det
Rx
Det
1 J
L
2 J
L
d
L
r
NF
1 S
P
dB 25
2 . 12
3840
log 10 log 10 ~ = =
b
p
R
W
G
dBm 124
25 4 5 108
0 1
=
+ + =
+ + =
p b r t S
G N E NF N P
( )
dBm 120
5 . 0 5 . 0 3 124
2 1 0 2
=
+ + + =
+ + + + + =
J J F p b r t S
L L L G N E NF N P
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30
Sensitivity Improvement
With TMA
To calculate Node B sensitivity with TMA,
the total noise figure of the receiver system
is computed using Friis equation.
Total loss between TMA and receiver is



Overall system noise figure measured from
input of TMA is
Node B with TMA
TMA
Bias Tee
F
L
TMA
NF
TMA
G
2 S
P
Rx
Det
Rx
Det
1 J
L
2 J
L
3 J
L
DPX
L
r
NF
s
NF
1 S
P
BT
L
dB 15 . 5
1 15 . 0 3 5 . 0 5 . 0
2 1
=
+ + + + =
+ + + + =
DPX BT F J J t
L L L L L L
dB 95 . 2
10 / 10
1 10
10
1 10
10 log 10
/
1 1
log 10
10 / 15 . 5 10 / 12
10 / 5
10 / 12
10 / 15 . 5
10 / 4 . 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+

+ =
t TMA
r
TMA
t
TMA total
L G
F
G
L
F NF
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31
Sensitivity Improvement
System sensitivity with TMA, measured at the antenna port, can
now be calculated by



Sensitivity improvement is quantified by



Improvement is derived mainly from low
noise figure and high gain of TMA.
12 dB gain in LNA does not result in a
12 dB improvement in sensitivity, due
to the noise contribution of the LNA.
Node B with TMA
TMA
Bias Tee
F
L
TMA
NF
TMA
G
2 S
P
Rx
Det
Rx
Det
1 J
L
2 J
L
3 J
L
DPX
L
r
NF
s
NF
1 S
P
BT
L
dBm 6 . 125
5 . 0 25 4 95 . 2 108
'
3 0 2
=
+ + + =
+ + + =
J p b total t S
L G N E NF N P
( ) dB 6 . 5 120 6 . 125
'
2 2 _ 2
= =
=
S S imp S
P P P
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32
Coverage Area Enhancement
In WCDMA, coverage of a cell is uplink-limited
lower transmit power of the UE, as compared to Node B.
UE is located at cell border area may be able to receive a good
CPICH on DL, but may not have sufficient power on UL to
connect to the Node B.
Call may not be connected
If a call can be initiated, it
can be dropped easily due
to the weak signal on uplink
direction.
Also apply to UEs in neighbouring
cells handing over to this cell.
CPICH power is normally reduced
at Node B to maintain a balanced link, resulting in a reduced
coverage of the cell.

DL DCH &
Pilot
UL
DCH
Node B
UE
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33
Sensitivity Improvement
ReceiverSensitivity. (TMANF1.5dB, BTSNF5dB)
-111.00
-109.00
-107.00
-105.00
-103.00
-101.00
-99.00
-97.00
1 2 3 4 5
Cableloss(dB)
N
o
m
i n
a
l d
e
t e
c
t a
b
l e
s
i g
n
a
l
NoTMA
TMAGain 6dB
TMAGain 12dB
TMAGain 15dB
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34
Differences GSM / CDMA
GSM is a time domain system ie a single resource to single user
whereas CDMA is code division system ie single resource to
multiple users (power is the shared resource)

GSM quality levels vary and over quality is wasted

CDMA have a fixed quality as target in the power control loop and
can trade quality against data rate. The varying parameter is MS
(UE) Tx power.

GSM RF performance is (almost) load independent, CDMA
performance alters with load (load curve & cell breathing)

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35
Processing Gain
Due to processing gain, spread signal is below the noise level.
R
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

S
i
g
n
a
l

P
o
w
e
r

Receiver Noise Level
(e.g. -105dBm)
PS 384 kbps
CS 64 kbps
Voice 12.2 kbps
+10
+18
+25
Processing
Gain (dB)
dB N E
b
4
0
+ =
dB N E
b
2
0
+ =
dB N E
b
1
0
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
b
p
R
W
G log 10
-21dB
-16dB
-9dB
), ( ) ( ) (
0 0
dB G dB
N
E
dB
I
E
p
b c
=
dB
voice I E
c
17
) (
0
=
), ( ) ( ) (
0
0
dB G dB
N
E
I dB E
p
b
c
+ =
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36
Interference Margin
The more number of users in a cell, the higher is the interference
level, which will limit the capacity of WCDMA.
Interference margin is determined from UL/DL loading q values.
Loading causes the receiver noise floor to rise and hence reduces
the available link budget.
( ) ] [ 1 log 10 dB I
Margin
q =

10
20
6
3
1.25
25% 50% 75% 99%
Margin
I
q
Loading Factor
dB
I
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
10
20
6
3
1.25
25% 50% 75% 99%
Margin
I
q
Loading Factor
dB
I
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

M
a
r
g
i
n
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37
CDMA Load Curve
The load curve shows the relation between noise rise and load.

It always starts in the system noise floor and then have the
same load related increase, independent of starting point, +3 dB
@ 50% load, +6 dB @75%.

100% represents the unreachable pole capacity

Decreased noise figure means decreased UE Tx power.
Therefore a greater number of users can use the system for a
given interference level
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38
CDMA Power / Load Curve
0
3
6
9
12
0% 25% 50% 75% 95%
Without TMA
With TMA
The load curve is
shifted 3 to 5 dB
down, for every load.
Improvement in coverage
or data rate from
reduction of required UE
output power
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39
What does the TMA do for CDMA?
The TMAs enable the mobile to use its power for efficient
communication rather than for overcoming noise. This
means:
Extended coverage range
Higher pilot level can be used
Reduced interference in both own and adjacent cells
Less battery drain on the mobile, meaning longer talk
time
Greater margins for fading and control range.
Higher data capacity on the network
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40
Coverage & Capacity
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
3
0
0
DL Div.
DL Ref
UL TMA
DL Omni
UL no
TMA
DL-diversity.
6x20W
3 sectorized
3x20W
DL-omni
1x20W
TMA-UL
dB
kB/s
UL-no TMA
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41
Results from trial
CDMA Ms Tx power
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Distance
U
E

T
X

P
o
w
e
r

[
d
B
m
]
------ Without TMA
------ With TMA
4,2 dB reduction
of average TX
power
Power reduction very
consistent all along
the drive path
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
42
Conclusions
TMAs make a significant contribution to improving
system performance
The benefits can be seen in coverage and capacity
for WCDMA and coverage for GSM
Whilst performance improvements will be seen
with no BTS adjustment, it is important to optimise
the BTS parameters for maximum benefits.

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43
How to choose a right trail for TMA
The Process:


Show some statistics come in


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44
TMA Improvement Calculations
Sector A
Feeder loss = 4 dB
Improvement in Rx pwr
= -104 - (-109.3)
= 5.3 dB
Sector B
Feeder loss = 3.35 dB
Improvement in Rx pwr
= -104.7 - (-109.9)
= 5.3 dB
Sector C
Feeder loss = 2.21 dB
Improvement in Rx pwr
= -105.8 - (-110.3)
= 4.5 dB
CELL2TR2/RX2180
17THFLOOR(EL=60.00)
CELL3RXD4300
17THFLOOR(EL=60.00)
o
o
CELL3TX4/RX4300
o
17THFLOOR(EL=60.00)
CELL2RXD2180
o
17THFLOOR(EL=60.00)
EQUIPMENTROOM
15THFLOOR
TELECOMSRISER
CELL1TX0/RX060
o
o
22NDFLOOR(EL=70.00)
22NDFLOOR(EL=70.00)
CELL1RXD060
o
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45
Performance Measurement
Handover Request Ratio due to
Uplink Signal (UL_RxLev)
Downlink Signal (DL_RxLev)
Uplink Quality (UL_RxQual)
Downlink Quality (DL_RxQual)
Power Budget (PB)

Drop Call Measurements
TCH Drop Call Rate (Drop #2)
Subscriber Perceived Drop Call Rate (Drop #3)
ErlangMin/Drop

2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
46
HO Performance - Sector 1
ART - sector1
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
1
0
/
1
/
9
8
1
0
/
8
/
9
8
1
0
/
1
5
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
2
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
5
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
2
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
2
6
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
0
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
7
/
9
8
1
2
/
2
4
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
1
/
9
8
1
/
7
/
9
9
1
/
1
4
/
9
9
1
/
2
1
/
9
9
1
/
2
8
/
9
9
2
/
4
/
9
9
2
/
1
1
/
9
9
2
/
1
8
/
9
9
2
/
2
5
/
9
9
HO_REQ_UL_RATIO HO_REQ_DL_RATIO HO_REQ_UQ_RATIO HO_REQ_DQ_RATIO HO_REQ_PB_RATIO
TMA Installation
TMA Changeout
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
47
HO Performance - Sector 2
ART- sector 2
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
1
0
/
1
/
9
8
1
0
/
8
/
9
8
1
0
/
1
5
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
2
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
5
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
2
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
2
6
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
0
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
7
/
9
8
1
2
/
2
4
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
1
/
9
8
1
/
7
/
9
9
1
/
1
4
/
9
9
1
/
2
1
/
9
9
1
/
2
8
/
9
9
2
/
4
/
9
9
2
/
1
1
/
9
9
2
/
1
8
/
9
9
2
/
2
5
/
9
9
HO_REQ_UL_RATIO HO_REQ_DL_RATIO HO_REQ_UQ_RATIO HO_REQ_DQ_RATIO HO_REQ_PB_RATIO
TMA Installation
TMA Changeout
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
48
HO Performance - Sector 3
ART-sector 3
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00%
80.00%
90.00%
100.00%
1
0
/
1
/
9
8
1
0
/
8
/
9
8
1
0
/
1
5
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
2
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
5
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
2
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
2
6
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
0
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
7
/
9
8
1
2
/
2
4
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
1
/
9
8
1
/
7
/
9
9
1
/
1
4
/
9
9
1
/
2
1
/
9
9
1
/
2
8
/
9
9
2
/
4
/
9
9
2
/
1
1
/
9
9
2
/
1
8
/
9
9
2
/
2
5
/
9
9
HO_REQ_UL_RATIO HO_REQ_DL_RATIO HO_REQ_UQ_RATIO HO_REQ_DQ_RATIO HO_REQ_PB_RATIO
TMA Installation
TMA Changeout
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
49
Drop #3 Performance - Sector 1
moving average for sector 1 (drop #3)
0.00%
0.50%
1.00%
1.50%
2.00%
2.50%
3.00%
3.50%
1
0
/
1
/
9
8
1
0
/
8
/
9
8
1
0
/
1
5
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
2
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
5
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
2
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
2
6
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
0
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
7
/
9
8
1
2
/
2
4
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
1
/
9
8
1
/
7
/
9
9
1
/
1
4
/
9
9
1
/
2
1
/
9
9
1
/
2
8
/
9
9
2
/
4
/
9
9
2
/
1
1
/
9
9
2
/
1
8
/
9
9
2
/
2
5
/
9
9
ma
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
50
Drop #3 Performance - Sector 2
moving average for sector 2 (drop #3)
0.00%
0.20%
0.40%
0.60%
0.80%
1.00%
1.20%
1.40%
1.60%
1.80%
2.00%
1
0
/
1
/
9
8
1
0
/
8
/
9
8
1
0
/
1
5
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
2
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
5
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
2
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
2
6
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
0
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
7
/
9
8
1
2
/
2
4
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
1
/
9
8
1
/
7
/
9
9
1
/
1
4
/
9
9
1
/
2
1
/
9
9
1
/
2
8
/
9
9
2
/
4
/
9
9
2
/
1
1
/
9
9
2
/
1
8
/
9
9
2
/
2
5
/
9
9
ma
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
51
Drop #3 Performance - Sector 3
moving average for sector 3 (drop #3)
0.00%
0.50%
1.00%
1.50%
2.00%
2.50%
1
0
/
1
/
9
8
1
0
/
8
/
9
8
1
0
/
1
5
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
2
/
9
8
1
0
/
2
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
5
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
2
/
9
8
1
1
/
1
9
/
9
8
1
1
/
2
6
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
0
/
9
8
1
2
/
1
7
/
9
8
1
2
/
2
4
/
9
8
1
2
/
3
1
/
9
8
1
/
7
/
9
9
1
/
1
4
/
9
9
1
/
2
1
/
9
9
1
/
2
8
/
9
9
2
/
4
/
9
9
2
/
1
1
/
9
9
2
/
1
8
/
9
9
2
/
2
5
/
9
9
ma
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
52
Summary of Performance
Radio Parameters Before After
Handover Request Ratio due to
- Uplink Signal (UL) 24.27 % 0.80 %
- Downlink Signal (DL) 6.12 % 14.42 %
- Uplink Quality (UQ) 2.57 % 1.20 %
- Downlink Quality (DQ) 8.50% 5.93%
- Power Budget (PB) 58.40% 77.46%
Drop Call Measurements
- TCH Drop Call Rate (Drop #2) 1.16 0.98
- Subscriber Perceived Drop Call Rate (Drop #3) 2.66 1.74
- ErlangMin/Drop 62.99 85.81
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
53
Summary of Performance
The uplink is stronger than the downlink (more HO due to DL).
Majority of the handovers are due to better servers (HO due to PB).
Generally, uplink quality has improved (lesser HO due to UQ).
Drop calls has reduced.
ErlangMin/Drop has increased to 85.81.
Neighbouring cells performance would also improve
because calls that are handed over to them are due to better signal
strength.
Coverage or whether a subscriber can initiate a call is dependent
on the downlink signals. In what used to be boundary coverage
areas, the subscribers can now make AND expect to finish the
calls.
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
54
Guidelines on Site Selection for TMA
High TCH Drop Call Rate or High HO Failures
HO reason or Drop reason is due to poor uplink signal level
and/or quality
Handover due to Power Budget is low (~ 50% or less)
High feeder loss (> 2dB)
High BTS output power or low combining loss
Link is breaking on uplink

2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
55
TMA Trouble Shooting
VSWR test after installation
Short circuits alarming
Low current alarming

2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
56
Bias Tee Connection
Bias tee must be position in front of lightning protection devices
Lightning protection devices placed in front of bias tee will caused
bias tee to malfunction
BTS
ANT
BTS
BTS
ANT
ANTENNA
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
57
Tower Mounted Amplifier Dual TMA
ANT1 Port
BTS1 Port
Bias Tee
BTS PDM
+12V
Alarm
To BTS
Bias Tee
Tx Fil
LNA LNA
Rx1 Fil
Rx2 Fil
Rx-
Bypass
Bias Tee
Tx Fil
LNA LNA
Rx1 Fil
Rx2 Fil
L
N
A
0

A
l
a
r
m
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

U
n
i
t


Rx-
Bypass
L
N
A
1

A
l
a
r
m
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

U
n
i
t


ANT0 Port
Bias Tee
BTS0 Port
To Antenna To Antenna
ANT1 Port
BTS1 Port
Bias Tee
BTS PDM
+12V
Alarm
To BTS
Bias Tee
Tx Fil
LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA
Rx1 Fil
Rx2 Fil
Rx-
Bypass
Bias Tee
Tx Fil
LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA
Rx1 Fil
Rx2 Fil
L
N
A
0

A
l
a
r
m
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

U
n
i
t


L
N
A
0

A
l
a
r
m
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

U
n
i
t


Rx-
Bypass
L
N
A
1

A
l
a
r
m
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

U
n
i
t


L
N
A
1

A
l
a
r
m
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

U
n
i
t


ANT0 Port
Bias Tee
BTS0 Port
To Antenna To Antenna
ANT0 ANT0 ANT1 ANT1
Node B Node B Node B1 Node B1 To RCU To RCU
Tx Fil
Rx1 Fil
Rx2 Fil
Rx-
Bypass
Bias Tee
and Lightning
Protection
Tx Fil
Rx1 Fil
Rx2 Fil
Rx-
Bypass
R
S
4
8
5
A
LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA
LNA
Supervision
and Alarm
Generation
Unit
LNA
Supervision
and Alarm
Generation
Unit
Modem Modem
DC GND
R
S
4
8
5
B
Lightning
Protection
DC Power
LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA LNA
DC GND
2008 Comba Telecom, All Rights Reserved
58
Q&A