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Chapter 7 Consumer Learning

Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk

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Chapter Outline
The Elements of Consumer Learning Behavioral Learning Theories Cognitive Learning Theory Measures of Consumer Learning

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Learning
The process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior Marketers must teach consumers:
where to buy how to use how to maintain how to dispose of products
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Learning Theories
Behavioral Theories
Based on observable behaviors (responses) that occur as the result of exposure to stimuli

Cognitive Theories
Learning based on mental information processing Often in response to problem solving

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Behavioral Learning Theories


Classical Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning Modeling or Observational Learning

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Classical Conditioning

A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.

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Models of Classical Conditioning Figure 7-2a

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Figure 7-2b

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Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning


Basic Concepts
Repetition Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Increases the association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus Slows the pace of forgetting Advertising wearout is a problem

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Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning


Basic Concepts
Repetition Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Having the same response to slightly different stimuli Helps me-too products to succeed Useful in product extensions
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Discussion Question Stimulus Generalization


How does CVS Pharmacy use stimulus generalization for their private brands? Do you think it is effective? Should this be allowable?

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Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning


Basic Concepts
Repetition Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Selection of a specific stimulus from similar stimuli This discrimination is the basis of positioning which looks for unique ways to fill needs
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Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning

A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
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Types of Reinforcement
Positive Negative Forgetting Extinction
iWon Video

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A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Figure 7-10

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Observational Learning

A process by which individuals observe how others behave in response to certain stimuli and reinforcements. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning.

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The consumer observes a positive response by two teens.

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Cognitive Learning Theory

Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment.

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Information Processing
Relates to cognitive ability and the complexity of the information Individuals differ in imagery their ability to form mental images which influences recall

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Information Processing and Memory Stores - Figure 7.14

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Information Processing
Movement from short-term to long-term storage depends on
Rehearsal Encoding

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Retention
Information is stored in long-term memory
Episodically: by the order in which it is acquired Semantically: according to significant concepts

Total package of associations is called a schema


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Table 7.1 Models of Cognitive Learning

Promotional Tricompetent Model Model


Sequential Stages of Processing

DecisionMaking Model

Innovation Adoption Model

Innovation Decision Process

Attention
Interest Desire Action

Cognitive
Affective Conative

Awareness Knowledge

Awareness
Knowledge

Interest Evaluation Evaluation Persuasion Purchase Trial Decision Postpurchase Adoption Confirmation Evaluation

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Issues in Involvement Theory


Consumer Relevance Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion Measure of Involvement

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Consumer Relevance
Involvement depends on degree of personal relevance. High involvement is:
Very important to the consumer Provokes extensive problem solving

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Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion


Central route to persuasion
For high involvement purchases Requires cognitive processing

Peripheral route to persuasion


Low involvement Consumer less motivated to think Learning through repetition, visual cues, and holistic perception

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Peripheral route to persuasion

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Measures of Consumer Learning


Recognition and Recall Measures
Aided and Unaided Recall

Cognitive Responses to Advertising Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty

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Harley-Davidson Has Strong Brand Loyalty

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