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ITCM 410 - Construction Surveying

File #2
Topographic
Surveying
Area Computation

Area Units
Units :

ft2, mi2, m2, km2

1 acre = 43,560 ft2

640 acres = 1 mi2

10,000 m2 = 1 hectare = 2.47 Acres

Area Field Measurement


Division into simple figures
(triangles, rectangles)
Offset from a straight line
Double Meridian Distance
(DMD)
Coordinates

Area by Division Into Triangles


A track can be divided into simple
geometric figures.

Area of a Triangle
(when sides are known)

Area s(s a)(s b)(s c)


where: a, b, and c are sides of the triangle
s = (a+b+c)
Another formula for area of a triangle is
Area = ab sin C
where: C = angle included between side a
and b.

Area by Division Into Triangles


The area of a parcel is the sum of the
areas of all triangles. The choice of
which equation to use will depend on
available equipment. If an EDM is
accessible, lengths of triangle sides are
readily measured and first equation is
best. If 2nd equation is used, both
angles and distances must be
measured.

Area By Offsets
Irregular tracts can be reduced to series of
trapezoids by right-angle offsets from
points at regular intervals along measured
straight line.

Area By Offsets

where: b is the length of a common interval


between offsets and h are the offset

Area By Offsets

Area = 50[(0 + 5.2 + 8.7 + 9.2 + 4.9 + 10.4


+ 5.2 + 12.2 + 2.8)/2]= 2860 ft2

Area By Offset for a Tract With


Curved Boundary

Area - Curved Boundary


For irregular curved boundaries, the spacing
of offsets along the reference line should be
selected so that connecting straight lines on
a curved boundary at offset points
accurately define the curves.

Area - Curved Boundary


Area= [60(7.2+11.9)+80(11.9+14.4)+
100(14.4+6.0)+30(6.0+6.1)+105
(6.1+11. 8)+60(11.8+12.4)]
= 4,492 ft

Area Map Measurement


Division of Area
Coordinate Squares
Planimeter
Computer software

Area Map Measurement

Area by Coordinates

Example

Area by Coordinates

Area by Coordinates

Area by Coordinates

Sum the products


of diagonal terms
upward to the
right:

(1,371.35 734.98) +
(691.17 908.98) +
(100.00 239.96) +
(208.89 100.00) +
(1,169.72 857.00) =
= 2,683,510

Area by Coordinates

Sum the product


of diagonal terms
downward to the
right:

(857.00 691.17) +
(734.98 100.00) +
(908.98 208.89) +
(239.96 1,169.7) +
(100.00 1,371.35) =
= 1,273,529

Area by Coordinates
Determine the double area by taking the
difference between the two sums:
2,683,510 - 1,273,529 = 1,409,981
Divide the double area by 2:
Area = 1,409,981 2 = 704,991 ft
Divide by 43,560 ft/ac:
Area = 704,991/43,560=16.18 acres

Area by Coordinates Method


Surveying Traverse Computations
Azimuth
Unadjusted
Adjusted
Coordinates
Pt.
Bearing
Length, ft.
Deg Min Sec
Latitude
Departure
Latitude
Departure
Northing
Easting
A
5000.00
5000.00
o
126
56
10 S 53 04' E
323.626
-194.4744
258.6758 -194.4647
258.6601
B
4805.54
5258.66
o
178
20
30 S 1 40' E
101.517
-101.4740
2.9378 -101.4710
2.9329
C
4704.06
5261.59
o
15
33
30 N 15 33' E
360.178
346.9803
96.6067 346.9911
96.5892
D
5051.06
5358.18
o
284
35
40 N 75 25' W
305.123
76.8834 -295.2773
76.8925 -295.2921
E
5127.95
5062.89
o
206
10
20 S 26 10' W
142.570
-127.9522
-62.8832 -127.9479
-62.8902
A
5000.00
5000.00
Error =
-0.03681
0.05981
0.00000
0.00000
2
Spreadsheet created by Dr. Charles Patrick,
Area, ft =
Perimeter=
1233.01 Rel. Acc. =
68148.1
Professor
Linear Misclosure =
0.07023
17,557
Area, ac. =
1.564
Morehead State University, Kentucky
127,995,984
128,132,280
136,296

Unadjusted
Adjusted
Coordinates
Azimuth
U
Pt.
Bearing
Length, ft.
Latitude
Departure Deg
Latitude
Departure
Northing
Easting
Min Sec
Latitud
5000.00
5000.00
A
-194.4744
258.6758 126
-194.4647
258.6601
56
10
S 53 o 04' E
323.626
-194.4
4805.54
5258.66
B
o
-101.4740
2.9378 178
-101.4710
20
30 2.9329
S 1 40' E
101.517
-101.4
4704.06
5261.59
C
o
346.9803
96.6067 346.9911
15
33
3096.5892
N 15 33' E
360.178
346.9
5051.06
5358.18
D
76.8834 -295.2773 284
76.8925
-295.2921
35
40
N 75 o 25' W
305.123
76.8
5127.95
5062.89
E
-127.9522
-62.8832 206
-127.9479
-62.8902
10
20
S 26 o 10' W
142.570
-127.9
5000.00
5000.00
A
-0.03681
0.05981
0.00000
0.00000
Error =
-0.03
2
Spreadsheet
created by Dr. Charles Patrick,
Area, ft 1233.01
=
Rel. Acc. =
68148.1
Perimeter=
Rel.
Acc
Professor
17,557
Area, ac.
=
1.564
Linear
Misclosure
=
0.07023
17,5
Morehead State University, Kentucky
127,995,984
128,132,280
136,296