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Updates on the Chinese Energy Sector

Yanjia Wang
Tsinghua University, China
5th Asia Energy Security Workshop
31st October 2007, Beijing
Basic Facts in 2006
Primary energy production: 2.21 billion tce, 7.4% higher
than previous year (coal 7.6%, oil 1.9%, NG 18.7%,);
Total energy consumption: 2.46 billion tce, 9.6% higher
than 2005;
Coal consumption: 2.39 billion ton, 10.4% higher
New installed power capacity: 101.17.18GW
Total power capacity installed: 618.35GW, 19.6% higher
Power generated: 2,865.73TWh, 14.6% higher (thermal
power 15.7%, hydropower 9.8%, nuclear 3.3%)
Petroleum consumption 349 million ton, 7.2% higher
Crude oil import (net): 139 million ton, 16.7% higher
Petroleum import (net): 169 million ton, 17.9% higher
NG consumption: 5.56 billion cu.m. 19.9% higher
Continue to Control Energy Growth

2003 2004 2005 2006

Elasticity of energy consumption 1.53 1.59 1.02 0.87

Elasticity of electricity 1.56 1.52 1.30 1.32


consumption
Growth of crude oil import (net) -- 41.4% 1.45% 16.7%
Growth of oil products import -- 83.6% -33.9% 37.56%
(net)
Commissioned power capacity 50 66.7 101.17
(GW)

Total energy consumption 15.3% 16.1% 10.6% 9.6%


growth rate
Top Priority: 20% EE & 10% PR
Target
• National 11th Five-Year Plan(2006-2010):
20% reduction of energy intensity of GDP
10% reduction of pollutant emission
• First year results: 1.23% of EE, not
achieved year-targets
• Only Beijing achieved the target.
• More efforts are making.
• All measures and actions are for achieving
the targets.
Thousand Enterprises Action Plan
• 9 energy intensive sectors: steel, non-
ferrous , coal production, electricity
generation, petroleum, chemical, building
materials, textile, paper.
• 998 enterprises (1008 in 2004, year-
consumption 0.18 million tce and above)
• These enterprises consumed 670 Mtce,
accounted for 33% of national total, 47%
of industrial total in 2004.
Sectoral Distribution
1. Steel 264
2. Non-ferrous 71
3. Coal production 58
4. Electricity generation 132
5. Petroleum & Petrochemical 99
6. Chemical 240
7. Building materials 97
8. Textile 23
9. Paper 24
Four Economic Regions
Northeastern

Eastern

Western

Central
Regional Distribution
• Eastern region (Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei,
Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangdong,
Hainan, Fujian, Shangdong) 390
• Central region (Huibei, Hunan, Henan, Jiangxi ,
Anhui, Shanxi) 289
• Western region (Inner Mongolia, Guangxi,
Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet,
Shannxi, Gsansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang)
229
• Northeastern region (Liaoning, Jilin,
Helongjiang) 100
Eastern Central Western Northeast Total

Steel 117 77 46 24 264


Non-ferrous 6 27 34 4 71
Coal 11 25 15 7 58
production
Electricity 33 53 29 17 132
generation
Petroleum & 41 14 21 23 99
Petrochemical

Chemical 101 63 64 12 240


Building 50 22 17 8 97
materials
Textile 16 4 1 2 23
Paper 15 4 2 3 24
Total 390 289 229 100 1008
Re-thinking Tariff Subsidy Policy
• Subsidy: low price to large consumers by direct supply or
sales agreement.
• 2 cent/kWh discount to 13 aluminum plants with annual
output above 50,000 tone each in 1999
• 2 cent/kWh discount to aluminum, ferrous-alloy, alkali
enterprises during 2000-2005 when NDRC raised tariff.
• New tariff difference regulation in June 2006(large
industry, several elec. intensive sectors, industry, etc).
• Review the policy implementation (June 2007): partly
adopted in Hebei, Fujian, Jiangxi, Ningxia, Xinjiang; no
implementation in Yunnan; keep subsidy in Sichuan,
Hubei.
Tariff in Jiangsu Province
Tariffyuan/kWh Capacitycharge
Maxdemand Transformer
220kV capacity
Customer Less 1 1-10 35 -110 110
and Yuan/k
W /mon
th)
kV kV kV kV Yuan/k
V A/Month
above
Resident 0.5283 0.5183
Non -resident
0.890 0.875 0.860
lighting
Otherindustry 0.763 0.748 0.733
(m- s - scale fertilizer ) 0.370 0.355 0.340
Larg eindustry 0.562 0.547 0.532 0.517 33 23
(calcium carbide,
alkali , ammonia, 0.552 0.537 0.522 0.507 33 23
phosphor)
(Chlor -Alkali ,
0.544 0.529 0.514 0.499 33 23
Al uminum )

(fertilizer ) 0.232 0.217 0.202 30 21

Plant which
developmen t is
0.582 0.567 0.552 0.537 33 23
limited by the
government
Plant will phaseout 0.612 0.597 0.582 0.567 33 23

Agriculture 0.440 0.430 0.415


Irrigation at poor
0.294 0.292 0.288
region
TOU in Jiangsu Province (Yuan/kWh)
P
eak Off -p
eak Valley
1—1
0kV 0
.93
7 0
.56
2 0
.24
7
No su
bsid
y 3
5 —1
10k
V 0
.91
2 0
.54
7 0
.24
2
1
10k
V 0
.88
7 0
.53
2 0
.23
7
2
20k
V an
dab
ove 0
.86
2 0
.51
7 0
.23
2
Calciu
m 1—1
0kV 0
.92
0 0
.55
2 0
.24
4
carb
ide, 3
5 —1
10k
V 0
.89
5 0
.53
7 0
.23
9
alk
ali , 1
10k
V 0
.87
0 0.5
22 0
.23
4
am
mon
ia,
p
hosp
hor 2
20k
V an
dab
ove 0
.84
5 0
.50
7 0
.22
9
1—1
0kV 0
.90
7 0
.54
4 0
.24
1
Mem
bran
e 3
5 —1
10k
V 0
.88
2 0
.52
9 0
.23
6
Ch
lor -A
lkali 1
10k
V 0
.85
7 0
.51
4 0
.23
1
Larg
e
2
20k
V an
dab
ove 0
.83
2 0
.49
9 0
.22
6
in
dustry
1—1
0kV 0
.38
7 0
.23
2 0
.13
7
Fertilizer 3
5 —1
10k
V 0
.36
2 0
.21
7 0
.13
2
1
10k
V an
dab
ove 0
.33
7 0
.20
2 0
.12
7
1—1
0kV 0
.97
0 0
.58
2 0
.25
4
3
5 —1
10k
V 0
.94
5 0
.56
7 0
.24
9
L im
ited
1
10k
V 0
.92
0 0
.55
2 0
.24
4
2
20k
V an
dab
ove 0
.89
5 0
.53
7 0
.23
9
1—1
0kV 1
.02
0 0
.61
2 0
.26
4
3
5 —1
10k
V 0
.99
5 0
.59
7 0
.25
9
P
hase o
ut
1
10k
V 0
.97
0 0
. 5
82 0
.25
4
2
20k
V an
dab
ove 0
.94
5 0
.56
7 0
.24
9
< 1
kV 1
.27
2 0
.76
3 0
.31
4

1
00k
V A
(kW) N
osu
bsid
y 1-1
0kV 1
.24
7 0
.74
8 0
.30
9
an
dab
ove 3
5 -1
10k
V 1
.22
2 0
.73
3 0
.30
4
O
ther <1
kV 0
.61
7 0
.37
0 0
.18
3
in
dustry Fertilizer 1-1
0kV 0
.59
2 0
.35
5 0
.17
8
3
5 -1
10k
V 0
.56
7 0
.34
0 0
.17
3
Cancel Subsidy to Energy Intensive
Enterprises on Electricity
• New policy published by NDRC, MoF and Power
Supervision Commission on Oct. 11st, 2007
• By Oct. 20th, 2007, stop subsidies to ferrous-
alloy sector except got permission from NDRC.
• By the end of 2007, stop special subsidies to
aluminum and adopt elec.-intensive tariff.
• By the end of 2008, stop subsidy to Chlor-Alkali .
• Stop all subsidies given by local governments
right now.
• Penalty: suspend new power plant projects (no
approvals, reduce number of projects)
EE Timetable to Large State-owned
Enterprises (Aug. 30 2007)
• 154 enterprises under SASAC(State-owned Assets
Supervision and Administration Commission of the State
Council)
• 3 types: key 33, attention 66, general 58
• State-owned enterprises produce 100% of oil, NG and
ethylene, 50% of elec., 15% of coal.
• 230 state-owned enterprises within ‘1000 enterprises’
• State-owned petrochemical plants consume 5.8% of total
energy, metallurgy 2.9%.
• 2009 target for key enterprises
Specific Targets in 2009
Sector E/VA SO2 COD Others

Petrochemical 16% 9.3% 8.4% 24% fresh


water
Steel 16% 16% 23% 10% in energy
consumption/
ton steel
Power 5.1% on 27.8% 0.36 percent
gce/kWh point on grid
losses
Non-ferrous 16% 8% 8%

Transport Aviation12.8%
Water 14.2%
Chemical 16% 8% 8%

Coal 16% 8% 8%

Building 16% 15% 6%


materials
Re-emphasize to Shutdown Small Coal-fired Power Plants
(Jan. 2007)
Shutdown:
1. Below 50MW
2. Below 100MW and operated 20 years
3. Below 200MW and full lifetime
4. Supply efficiency (gec/kWh) 10% higher than provincial average or
15% higher than national average of 2005
5. Failure to reach the environmental standards
Co-gen
1. Replace small co-gen by large ones
2. Encourage to build back-pressure and biomass-fired co-gen
3. Encourage retrofit medium scale power plant (less 15-years operation)
to co-gen
4. Limit or stop operation during off-space-heating season to those co-
gen which coal consumption 10% higher than provincial average or
15% higher than national average of 2005
Re-emphasize to Shutdown Small Coal-fired Power Plants
(Jan. 2007) (con’d)

No more higher tariff to small power plants (equal or less than local
benchmarking tariff)
Install de-Sox facilities to all generators with capacity of 135MW and
above
Surcharge to on-site generation plants (three gorges, rural grid, public
affaires, renewables, emigration)
Prohibit to transfer public power plants to enterprises
Medium- Long-term Renewable Energy
Development Planning (Sept. 2007)
• 15% consumption from renewables in 2020
(hydro 300GW, wind power 30GW, biomass
30GW, solar PV 1.8GW, solar water heater 300
million sq. m., biofuel 10 million toe, biomass
briquette 50 million ton)
• 8% of capacity is renewables to all power
companies which total capacity reached 5 GW.
• Total investment required 2 trillion yuan)
• NDRC continues to control power pricing