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A group of communicating devices communicate together to make a process is known as network.

Eg. PC, Printer, Scanner etc

A process of communicating devices between the logical addressing is known as networking.

Eg. NIC Card, HUB, Switch, TCP/IP, etc

NET WORK & NETWORKING Inter Network Connection of network is called as inter network . Inter Networking Logical communication process is on inter network is known as Inter networking.
Eg. Routers is a communication name Gateway is a data name.

WHY NETWORK IS NEED Computers connected over a network can make that information exchange easier and faster. The information moves directly from computer to computer rather than through a human intermediary. People can concentrate on getting their work done rather than on moving information around the company.


Networks are an interconnection of computers. These computers can be linked together using a wide variety of different cabling types, and for a wide variety of different purposes. The basic reasons why computers are networked are
To share resources (files, printers, modems, fax machines) To share application software (MS Office) To increase productivity (make it easier to share data amongst users)



A local area network (LAN) is a number of computers connected to each other by cable in a single location by a common medium i.e switch, hub and etc, usually a single floor of a building or all the computers in a small company within the geographical area.


Operates within the limited geographical area.

Allow access through high bandwidth up to 1000 mbps. Controls the network under local administration Provides the full time connectivity to local system. Connects physical adjacent devices.


While local area networks are perfect for sharing resources within a building or campus, they cannot be used to connect distant sites. Wide area networks (WANs) fill this need. Stated simply, wide area networks are the set of connecting links between local area networks. These links are made over telephone lines leased from the various telephone companies. In rare instances, WANs can be created with satellite links, packet radio, or microwave transceivers. These options are generally for more expensive than leased telephone lines, but they can operate in areas where leased lines are not available.

WIDE AREA NETWORK A wide area network links computers in different locations. M



Operates over a large geographical area. Allow access over serial interface Works at a local speed 2mbps is maximum speed in internet. Connects devices separates wide even global area.


Bandwidth is the capacity of a medium to convey data.. One example of bandwidth is automobile traffic. A two-lane road with a speed limit can accommodate only so many cars before there are too many and a traffic jam results. You can increase the bandwidth of a road by making the cars travel more quickly (which corresponds to using a faster transmission method in networks) or by making the road wider (which corresponds to using more wires in networks).

The cable connecting the computer can carry one signal at a time, and all the system take turn using it. This type of network is called Base band network. In the base band network, when a computer transmits data it might be broken into many packet and transmits separately. The receiving system reassembles them back into

original. This is called packet switching network.



The alternative to a packet switching network is cct switching. In CSN two system established a cct before communication and broken cct only after the finish the communication between them.

Broad Band
In the broad band net work carries multiple signals in a single cable at a same time . The example of broad band network is

cable TV. In a single cable carries multiple


Half duplex communications

In half duplex communications two computer communicate over a long, data typical travels in only one directions at a time because the base band network used for most LANs supports only a single signal. This is called half duplex communications An example of an Half duplex communications is two way radio set in which only one part can transmit at any one time and each pat must say over to signal.

Data Flow (Transmission)

data flows move in one direction only, (radio or cable television broadcasts)

data flows both ways, but only one direction at a time (e.g., CB radio) (requires control info)

data flows in both directions at the same time

Full duplex communications The two systems that can communicate in both directions simultaneously are called full duplex mode communications The most common example of a full duplex network is once again the telephone system. Both part can speak simultaneously during the telephone call and each part can hear the other at the same time.

Sharing Information
Just as a lot of information is moved about, some information is centrally controlled and shared. There is lot of info on the networked computers and not everyone is given access to it. The information must be kept consistent and secure, and timely access must be given to those who need the information to run the business.

Types of Info
Other types of information you might want to centrally locate and share or control include:
Inventory Company letterhead and letter styles Sales contact information Company procedures manuals Sensitive financial record Service records Company memos

If you select one computer to store the shared info and have all other comp ref the info on that comp over the network, the comp can help you centralize the info and maintain control over it. The central comp is often called a server, and special software and operating systems are often used in server computers.

Sharing Hardware Resources

Computers that are not networked cannot effectively share resources. A network allows anyone connected to the network to use the printer, not just the individual sitting at the computer to which the printer is attached.

Sharing Hardware Resources

Networked computers can also share
Fax modems Scanners Hard disks Floppy disks CD-ROMs Tape backup units Plotters Almost any other device that can be attached to a computer

Sharing Hardware Resources

You can attach some peripherals directly to the network; they do not need to be attached to a computer to be shared on the network. Figure illustrates how anyone on a network can use a shared printer.

Sharing Software Resources

Software resources can also be used more effectively over a network. With stand-alone computers, the software used on the computer must be present on each computers hard disk, whether or not that computer is used at that moment for that task. Software costs can become prohibitive for a large number of computers. It is also difficult and time consuming to install and configure the software individually on every one of the computers.

Sharing Software Resources

With a network you can centrally install and configure the software, vastly reducing the work required to make computer programs available to an organization. You can also restrict access to programs.

Preserving Information
A network also allows for information to be backed up to a central location. Important information can be lost by mistake or accident when a stand-alone computer has no backup. It is difficult to maintain regular backups on a number of stand-alone computers. When you back up to a central location (often to a tape cartridge in the network server), you have one place to look for the lost information, and you can be assured that the information is being backed up.

Protecting Information
A network provides a more secure environment for a companys important information. With stand-alone computers, access to the computers often means access to the information on the computers. Networks provide an additional layer of security by way of passwords. You can give each network user a different account name and password, allowing the network server to distinguish among those who need access to have it and protecting the information from tampering by those who do not.

The computer network can also help people communicate. One of the greatest benefits to users of networks is electronic mail, or e-mail. Rather than exchanging memos and directives on paper, engaging printing costs and delays, network users can instantly send messages to others and even check to see whether their message has been received. You can attach electronic documents to mail messages, instantly duplicate and forward mail, and perform many more tasks

Based on the roles of the computers attached to them, networks are divided into three types:
Server-based (also called client-server), containing clients and the servers that support them. Peer (also called-peer-to-peer), which have no servers and use the network to share resources among independent peers. Hybrid network, which is a client-server network that also has peers sharing resources. Most networks are actually hybrid networks.

Server-based Networking
Users log in once to access resources. Stronger security because of server management Shared files by members Shared printers and other resources E-mail capability through an email server Applications stored in a central location Backups scheduled and performed from a central location Shared resources can reflect the work patterns of subgroups. More efficient software upgrades

Server Based Networks

Server-based networks are defined by the presence of servers on a network that provide security and administration of the network. Server-based networks divide processing tasks between clients and servers. Clients request services, such as file storage and printing, and servers deliver them. Server computers typically are more powerful than client computers, or are optimized to function as servers.

In Windows NT, server-based networks are organized into what are called domains. Domains are collections of networks and clients that share security trust information. Domain security and logon permission are controlled by special servers called domain controllers. There is one master domain controller, called the Primary Domain Controller (PDC), which may be assisted by secondary domain controllers called Backup Domain Controllers (BDC) during busy times or when the PDC is not available for some reason. No computer users can access the resources of servers in a domain until they have been authenticated by a domain controller.

Advantages of Server Based Networks

Server based networks have a great many advantages, including:

Strong central security Central file storage, which allows all users to work from the same set of data and provides easy backup of critical data Ability of servers to pool available hardware and software, lowering overall costs Ability to share expensive equipment, such as laser printers

Advantages of Server Based Networks

Optimized dedicated servers, which are faster than peers at sharing network resources Less intrusive security, since a single password allows access to all shared resources on the network Freeing of users from the task of managing the sharing of resources Easy manageability of a large number of users Central organization, which keeps data from getting lost among computers

Disadvantages of Server Based Networks

Server-based networks do have some disadvantages, although they are mostly related to the cost of server equipment, including:
Expensive dedicated hardware Expensive network operating system software and client licenses A dedicated network administrator (usually required)

Peer-to-Peer Network Model

Computer1 Os: win98 User: u1 Computer3 Os: win95 User: u3


Computer2 Os: win 2k Prof User: u2 Computer4 Os: win Nt Workstation User: u4

Peer Networks
Peer networks are defined by a lack of central control over the network. There are no servers in peer networks; users simply share disk space and resources, such as printers and faxes, as they see fit. Peer networks are organized into workgroups. Workgroups have very little security control. There is no central login process. If you have logged in to one peer on the network, you will be able to use any resources on the network that are not controlled by a specific password.

Peer Networks
Access to individual resources can be controlled if the user who shared the resource requires a password to access it. Because there is no central security trust, you will have to know the individual password for each secured shared resource you wish to access. This can be quite inconvenient. Peers are also not optimized to share resources. Generally, when a number of users are accessing resources on a peer, the user of that peer will notice significantly degraded performance. Peers also generally have licensing limitations that prevent more than a small number of users from simultaneously accessing resources.

Advantages of Peer Networks

Peer computers have many advantages, especially for small businesses that cannot afford to invest in expensive server hardware and software:
No extra investment in server hardware or software is required Easy setup No network administrator required Ability of users to control resources sharing No reliance on other computers for their operation Lower cost for small networks

Disadvantages of Peer Networks Peer networks, too, have their disadvantages, including:
Additional load on computers because of resource sharing Inability of peers to handle as many network connections as servers Lack of central organization, which can make data hard to find No central point of storage for file archiving Requirement that users administer their own computers Weak and intrusive security Lack of central management, which makes large peer networks hard to work with

Hybrid Networks
Hybrid networks have all three types of computers operating on them and generally have active domains and workgroups. This means that while most shared resources are located on servers, network users still have access to any resources being shared by peers in your workgroup. It also means network users do not have to log on to the domain controller to access workgroup resources being shared by peers.

Advantages of Hybrid Computing

Hybrid computing provides these advantages:

The advantages of server-based networking Many of the advantages of peer-based networking Ability of users and network administrators to control security based on the importance of the shared resource

Disadvantages of Hybrid Computing

Hybrid computing shares the disadvantages of server-based networking.

Peer Security vs. Server Security

One large difference in the way peer-to-peer and server-based networks operate is in how they implement security. Peer-to-peer networks are usually less secure than are server-based networks, because peer-to-peer networks commonly use share-level security, while server-based networks commonly use file-level or access permission security.

Peer Security vs. Server Security

In Windows 98, for example, the user of the computer can allow any other computer on the network to access a shared directory or device. The user can assign a password to the shared resource if some degree of security is required. However, the user cannot specify which users on the network can access the resourceany user on the network that knows the password can access the resource. Another limitation of peer-to-peer shares implemented in this manner is that each shared resource that you wish to control access to must have its own password. The number of passwords to resources that you must remember can quickly grow unwieldy in a large network.

Peer Security vs Server Security

Most server-based networks implement security differently. Instead of requiring a password for every shared resource you wish to access, the server based network only requires one password for you to access all resources on the network that you have permission to use. The security advantage of peer-to-peer networking is that each user controls access to their own resources. The security disadvantage of peer-to-peer networks is that you cannot differentiate among network users when you allow access to a resource. The security advantage of server-based networking is that each user is allowed access to only those resources that the user has the privilege to access. The security disadvantage of server-based networking is that someone must centrally administer the security on your network.

Types of Servers
Common server types include
File servers Print servers Application servers Message servers Database servers

Windows NT Server supports all of these capabilities. In fact, one Windows NT Server can, by itself, serve in all of these capacities simultaneously on a small network. On larger networks, however, you need to spread these roles among multiple servers.

Logical Topologies

Workgroup Model or Peer-To-Peer Model

Domain Model or Client/Server Model

Network Topologies

Network Topology
The way in which the connections are made of the physical devices is called the topology of the network. Network topology specifically refers to the physical layout of the network, especially the locations of the computers and how the cable is run between them. It is important to select the right topology for how the network will be used. Each topology has its own strengths and weaknesses. The four most common topologies are
the bus topology the star topology the ring topology the mesh topology

Bus Topology
The bus topology is often used when a network installation is small, simple, or temporary. On a typical bus network, the cable is just one or more wires, with no active electronics to amplify the signal or pass it along from computer to computer. This makes the bus a passive topology.

How Bus Networks Works

When one computer sends a signal up (and down) the wire, all the computers on the network receive the information, but only one (the one with the address that matches the one encoded in the message) accepts the information. The rest disregard the message. Only one computer at a time can send a message; therefore, the number of computers attached to a bus network can significantly affect the speed of the network. A computer must wait until the bus is free before it can transmit. These factors also affect star and ring networks.

How Bus Networks Works

Another important issue in bus networks is termination. Since the bus is a passive topology, the electrical signal from a transmitting computer is free to travel the entire length of the cable. Without termination, when the signal reaches the end of the wire, it bounces back and travels back up the wire. When a signal echoes back and forth along an unterminated bus, it is called ringing. To stop the signals from ringing, you attach terminators at either end of the segment. The terminators absorb the electrical energy and stop the reflections. Cables cannot be left unterminated in a bus network. Ethernet 10Base2 (also known as thinnet) is an inexpensive network based on the bus topology.

Advantages of Bus Topology

There are several advantages to a bus topology:
The bus is simple, reliable in very small networks, easy to use, and easy to understand. The bus requires the least amount of cable to connect the computers together and is therefore less expensive than other cabling arrangements. It is easy to extend a bus. Two cables can be joined into one longer cable with a BNC barrel connector, making a longer cable and allowing more computers to join the network. A repeater can also be used to extend a bus; a repeater boosts the signal and allows it to travel a longer distance.

Disadvantages of Bus Topology

A bus topology is commonly subject to the following disadvantages:
Heavy network traffic can slow a bus considerably. Because any computer can transmit at any time, and computers on most bus networks do not coordinate with each other to reserve times to transmit, a bus network with a lot of computers can spend a lot of its bandwidth (capacity for transmitting information) with the computers interrupting each other instead of communicating. The problem only gets worse as more computers are added to the network


Disadvantages of Bus Topology

Each barrel connector weakens the electrical signal, and too many may prevent the signal from being correctly received all along the bus. It is difficult to troubleshoot a bus. A cable break or malfunctioning computer anywhere between two computers can cause them not to be able to communicate with each other. A cable break or loose connector will also cause reflections and bring down the whole network, causing all network activity to stop.

Star Topology
In a star topology, all the cables run from the computers to a central location, where they are all connected by a device called a hub. Each computer on a star network communicates with a central hub that resends the message either to all the computers (in a broadcast star network) or only to the destination computer (in a switched star network). The hub in a broadcast star network can be active or passive. An active hub regenerates the electrical signal and sends it to all the computers connected to it. This type of hub is often called a multiport repeater. Active hubs and switches require electrical power to run.

Star Topology
A passive hub, such as wiring panels or punch-down blocks, merely acts as a connection point and does not amplify or regenerate the signal. Passive hubs do not require electrical power to run. You can use several types of cable to implement a star network. A hybrid hub can accommodate several types of cable in the same star network.

Star Topology
In a star topology the computers are all connected by cables to a central point.

Hybrid Star Network

You can expand a star network by placing another star hub where a computer might otherwise go, allowing several more computers or hubs to be connected to that hub. This creates a hybrid star network, like the one shown in Fig

The hybrid star network has several central star network points linked in a star.

Advantages of Star Network

There are several advantages to a star topology:
It is easy to modify and add new computers to a star network without disturbing the rest of the network. You simply run a new line from the computer to the central location and plug it into the hub. When the capacity of the central hub is exceeded, you can replace it with one that has a larger number of ports to plug lines into. You can use several cable types in the same network with a hub that can accommodate multiple cable types.

Advantages of Star Network

The center of a star network is a good place to diagnose network faults. Intelligent hubs (hubs with microprocessors that implement features in addition to repeating network signals) also provide for centralized monitoring and management of the network. Single computer failures do not necessarily bring down the whole star network. The hub can detect a network fault and isolate the offending computer or network cable and allow the rest of the network to continue operating.

Disadvantages of Star Network

The star topology has a few disadvantages:
If the central hub fails, the whole network fails to operate. Many star networks require a device at the central point to rebroadcast or switch network traffic. It costs more to cable a star network because all network cables must be pulled to one central point, requiring more cable than other networking topologies.

Ring Topology
In a ring topology, each computer is connected to the next computer, with the last one connected to the first. Rings are used in high-performance networks, networks requiring that bandwidth be reserved for time-sensitive features such as video and audio, or when even performance is needed when a large number of clients access the network.

Ring Topology

In a ring topology computers are connected in a circle.

How Ring Network Works

Every computer is connected to the next computer in the ring, and each retransmits what it receives from the previous computer. The messages flow around the ring in one direction. Since each computer retransmits what it receives, a ring is an active network and is not subject to the signal loss problems a bus experiences. There is no termination because there is no end to the ring. Some ring networks do token passing. A short message called a token is passed around the ring until a computer wishes to send information to another computer. That computer modifies the token, adds an electronic address and data, and sends it around the ring. Each computer in sequence receives the token and the information and passes them to the next computer until either the electronic address matches the address of a computer or the token returns to its origin. Contd

How Ring Network Works

The receiving computer returns a message to the originator indicating that the message has been received. The sending computer then creates another token and places it on the network, allowing another station to capture the token and begin transmitting. The token circulates until a station is ready to send and captures the token. This all happens very quickly: a token can circle a ring 200 meters in diameter at about 10,000 times a second. Some even faster networks circulate several tokens at once. Other ring networks have two counter-rotating rings that help them recover from network faults. FDDI is a fast fiber-optic network based on the ring topology.

Advantages of Ring topology

The ring topology offers the following advantages:
Because every computer is given equal access to the token, no one computer can monopolize the network. The fair sharing of the network allows the network to degrade gracefully (continue to function in a useful, if slower, manner rather than fail once capacity is exceeded) as more users are added.

Disadvantages of Ring topology

The ring topology has the following disadvantages:
Failure of one computer on the ring can affect the whole network. It is difficult to troubleshoot a ring network. Adding or removing computers disrupts the network.

Star Bus Topology

The star bus topology combines the bus and the star, linking several star hubs together with bus trunks. If one computer fails, the hub can detect the fault and isolate the computer. If a hub fails, computers connected to it will not be able to communicate, and the bus network will be broken into two segments that cannot reach each other.
CS Dept

CE Dept

Trg Branch

Star Ring Topology

In the star ring, also called the star wired ring, the network cables are laid out much like a star network, but a ring is implemented in the central hub. Outlying hubs can be connected to the inner hub, effectively extending a loop of the inner ring. Token Ring is considered a star ring. Although its topology is physically a star, it functions logically in a ring.

Basic Network Components

Network Adapter Cards
A network adapter card plugs into the workstation, providing the connection to the network. Adapter cards come from many different manufacturers, and support a wide variety of cable media and bus types On power-up, the computer detects the new network card, assigns the correct resources to it, and then installs the networking software required for connection to the network. All the user need do is assign the network details like computer name.

Basic Network Components

For Ethernet cards, each card is identified by a twelve digit hexadecimal number. This number uniquely identifies the computer. These network card numbers are used in the Medium Access Control [MAC] Layer to identify the destination for the data. When talking to another computer, the data you send to that computer is prefixed with the number of the card you are sending the data to. This allows intermediate devices in the network to decide in which direction the data should go, in order to transport the data to its correct destination.

Basic Network Components

A typical adapter card looks like

NIC Installation

How Peripheral Cards Work

Peripheral cards require a software driver to function. This software driver provides the interface between the card and the operating system, making the services provided by the card available to the user. The software driver is normally configured to match the resource settings of the card. This is done by a configuration utility, and stored either in the executable file, or a separate file (like .ini or .cfg).

Place of NIC driver in OSI Model

Network adapter cards and drivers provide the services corresponding to the data link layer in OSI model. In the IEEE model, the data link is split into the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer, which corresponds to the software drivers and the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer, which corresponds to the network adapter.

How Peripheral Cards Work

The software driver provides the follow functions
initialization routine interrupt service routine procedures to transmit and receive data procedures for status, configuration and control

The basic operation looks something like,

card receives data card generates interrupt by asserting interrupt request line processor responds to interrupt request and jumps to service routine Service routine instructs processor to read data from port location interrupt service routine releases processor to continue previous work

Network Components
Cable is used to interconnect computers and network components together. There are three main cable types used today
Twisted pair Coaxial cable Fiber optics

The choice of cable depends upon a number of factors, like

Cost Distance Number of computers involved Speed Requirements [bandwidth] i.e., how fast data is to be transferred

Twisted Pair (TP) Wires

Commonly used for telephones and LANs Reduced electromagnetic interference
Via twisting two wires together (Usually several twists per inch)

TP cables have a number of pairs of wires

Telephone lines: two pairs (4 wires, usually only one pair is used by the telephone) LAN cables: 4 pairs (8 wires)

Also used in telephone trunk lines (up to several thousand pairs) Shielded twisted pair also exists, but is more expensive

Network Components
Twisted Pair (Shielded Twisted Pair and Unshielded Twisted Pair) Shielded twisted pair uses a special braided wire which surrounds all the other wires, which helps to reduce unwanted interference. The features of twisted pair cable are, used in token ring (4 or 16MBps), 10BaseT (Ethernet 10MBps) 100BaseT (100Mbps) reasonably cheap reasonably easy to terminate [special crimp connector tools are necessary for reliable operation UTP is prone to interference, which limits speed and distances category 2 = up to 1Mbps (Telephone wiring) category 3 = up to 10Mbps (Ethernet and 10BaseT) category 5 = 100MBps (supports 10BaseT and 100BaseT)

Network Components
Unshielded Twisted Pair cable used in Category 5

Category 5 cable uses 8 wires. The various jack connectors used in the wiring closet look like

The patch cord which connects the workstation to the wall jack looks like,

Std Cabling in Network

1 T D + 2 T D 3 4 5 6 7 8 R UN UN R UN UN D US US D US US + ED ED - ED ED

Std Cabling in Network

Cross cable

1 2 3 4

6 7 8

2 3 4 5 6

7 8

RJ-45 Connector
How to determine the type of patch cable
Align the ends of the cable side by side so that the contacts are facing you, then compare the colors from left to right.

If the colors are in the same order on both plugs, the cable is straight through. If the colors appear in the reverse order, the cable is reversed.

Network Components
Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable so as named because it contains two conductors within the sheath. At the centre of the cable is the copper core that actually carries the electrical signals. Surrounding the core is a layer of insulation and also it is called second conductor. The second conductor works as ground. There are two types of coaxial cable

RG8 used in LAN also known as thick Ethernet. RG-58 used for LAN and known as thin Ethernet.

Fiber Optic Cable

Completely different. Instead of Electrical signal it transmit pulses of light over a glass or plastic element. Has extremely high capacity, ideal for broadband Fiber optic cable structure (from center):
Core (v. small, 5-50 microns, ~ the size of a single hair) Cladding, which reflects the signal Protective outer jacket

Types of Optical Fiber

Multimode (core diameter 62.5 microns)

Earliest fiber-optic systems LED is using instead of laser and carries multiple wave lengths. Can not span distances as long as single mode but it bends at corner. As is much cheaper.

Graded index multimode

Reduces the spreading problem by changing the refractive properties of the fiber to refocus the signal Can be used over distances of up to about 1000 meters

Single mode (core diameter 8.3 microns)

Transmits a single wave length direct beam through the cable Signal can be sent over many miles without spreading Expensive (requires lasers; difficult to manufacture) It can not be bend around the corner.

Optical Fiber
Excessive signal weakening and dispersion

(different parts of signal arrive at different times)

Center light likely to arrive at the same time as the other parts

Network Components
Fiber optic is often used to overcome distance limitations. It can be used to join two hubs together, which normally could not be connected due to distance limitations. In this instance, a UTP to Fiber transceiver (often referred to as a FOT) is necessary. It costs more than either twisted pair or coax, and requires special connectors and jointing methods. ST connector SC connector

Network Components
The features of fiber-optic cable systems are,
expensive used for backbones (linking LANs together) or FDDI rings (100Mbps) high capacity (100Mbps) immune to electromagnetic interference low loss difficult to join connectors are expensive long distance




Network hubs
A hub is a device used to connect all the computers on a star or ring network. Like NIC adapters hubs are associated with specific data link layer protocols. Ethernet hub are the most common because Ethernet is the most popular data link layers protocols, but token ring MAUs are hubs also and other protocols such as FDDI, can also use hubs. An Ethernet hub is also called a multi port repeater. A repeater is a device that amplifies a signal and it passes through it to counteract the effect of attenuation. When data enter s the hub through any of its ports, the hub amplifies the signal and transmits it out to all of the other ports. This enables a star network to share a single medium even through each computer has its own separate cable. The hub relays every packet transmitted by any computer on the network to all the other computer while amplifying the signal..


ACTIVE HUB:- An active hub is usually powered and it actually amplifies and clean up the signal it receives, thus doubling the effective segment distance limitation for the specific topology.

PASSIVE HUB:- A passive hub is typically unpowerd and makes only physical electrical connections.

There are three main points to remember about hubs: a) Many kinds of nodes can be connected to the hub with networking cable. b) All hubs can be up linked together, either with straight-through cable or cross-over cable, depending on whether or not the hub has an uplink port. c) Performance will decrease as the number of users is increased. Always remember that hubs can only communicate in half duplex mode, which means that a computer on the network can only send data when it is not receiving.

Architecture type of hub



( which will support a speed of 10Mbps)


100baseT (which supports 100Mbps)

10/100baseT (Auto sensing or dual speed 10/100Mbps)

A standard 10baseT hub cannot connect to hardware that runs at 100Mbps unless a switch or hub with auto-sensing capabilities is used between them.

Switches are a fundamental part of most networks. They make it possible for several users to send information over a network at the same time without slowing each other down. Just like routers allow different networks to communicate with each other, switches allow different nodes (a network connection point, typically a computer ) of a network to communicate directly with one another in a smooth and efficient manner. The switch establishes a connection between two segments.

Basic Switch Operation

Forwarding Table Port Port 1 2 MAC Adr

Layer 2
3 4

1 2 3 4

Used to make forwarding decisions

When a frame is received, the switch reads its [data link layer] destination address and sends the frame out the corresponding port in its forwarding table.

Learning Switch Operation

Switch starts by working like a hub
With an empty forwarding table
Forwarding Table

It gradually fills its forwarding table by learning about the nodes



Reads the source MAC address of the incoming frame and records it to the corresponding port number Reads the destination MAC address. If not in the Table then it broadcasts the frame to all ports Waits for the destination computers to respond, and repeats the first step

There are a lot of different types of switches and networks. Switches that provide a separate connection for each node in a any internal network is called LAN switches. Architecture types Cut-Through Switches Store-Forward Switches Back pressure Switches

Modes of Switch Operations

Cut through switching
Read destination address and start transmitting
Without waiting for the entire message is received

Low latency; but may waste capacity (errorred messages) Only on the same speed incoming and outgoing circuits

Store and forward switching

Wait until the whole message is received, perform error control, and then transmit it Less wasted capacity; slower network Circuit speeds may be different

Fragment free switching

Read the first 64 byte segment (contains the header) Perform error check, if it is okay then start transmitting Compromise between previous two modes

Switched Ethernet Topology

Uses switches (instead of hubs)
Designed to support a small set of computers (16 to 24) in one LAN Looks similar to a hub, but very different inside Designed to support a group of point-to-point circuits
No sharing of circuits

Both Logical and physical topology of the network becomes a star topology Switch reads destination address of the frame and only sends it to the corresponding port
While a hub broadcasts frames to all ports

Performance Comparison

Capable of using about only 50% of capacity (10BaseT) before collisions become a problem

Runs at up to 90% capacity on 100Base-T



It operates in layer 1
It send the data each port

It operates in layer 2
Send the data on reqd port

Hub works in half duplex Switch run in full duplex mode mode

Data transfering speed is less than switch Bandwidth is 10Mbps with time sharing

Data transfering speed is greater than hub Bandwidth is same as each port

MAC in Switched Ethernet

Each circuit shared by a computer and the switch Still CSMA/CD media access control used
Each device (computer or switch) listens before transmitting

Multiple messages can be sent at the same time.

Computer A can send a message to computer B at the same time that computer C sends one to computer D Two computers send frames to the same destination at the same time
Switch stores the second frame in memory until it finishes sending the first, then forwards the second

Media Access Control (MAC)

Uses a contention-based protocol called CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detect)
Frames can be sent by two computers on the same network at the same time
They will collide and become garbled

Can be termed as ordered chaos

Tolerates, rather than avoids, collisions

Carrier Sense (CS):
Listen to the bus to see if another computer is transmitting
Before sending anything

Transmit when no one is transmitting

Multiple Access (MA):

All computers have access to the network medium

Collision Detect (CD):

Declared when any signal other than its own detected If a collision is detected
Wait a random amount of time and then resend it
Must be random to avoid another collision





More than 100mtr HUB client client client client



INTRODUCTION:Bridge is physical device typically a box of two port which connect two network at Data Link Layer. A Bridge provides packet filtering at Data link layer .A bridge to join to existing Lan or two split one lan in to two segment. Bridge operate in promiscuous mode. Meaning that they read and process all the packet Tx over the network segment. Data packet enter the bridge through either one of the port and the bridge then read the destination address in each packet header and decides how to process that packet . This is called packet filtering. If the destination address of a packet arriving from one network segment is that of a cmptr on the other segment, the bridge Tx it out from other port. If the destination address of a cmptr on a same network segment as the cmptr that generated it, the bridge discard the packet.


Bridges &Collision
A collisions domain is a network that is constructed so that when two cmptrs transmit packet at the same time a collision occurs. When we add the new hub in existing network that the same collision domain as the original network because Hub relay the signal without filtering the packet Bridge do not relay the signals to other network until they have receive the entire packet. For this reason two cmptr on different side of the bridge do not cause to conflict. Bridge maintain the internal address table that listed the hardware address of the cmptr on both segment . When bridge receive the packet and read the destination address DLL header. It check the address against its lists. If the address is associated with the segment other than that from which the packet arrived, the bridge relay it to that segment there are two type of bridge (a) Local Bridge (b)Translation Bridge (c ) Remote Bridge

Local Bridge
Standard type of bridge use to connect network segment of same type and same location is called local bridge. This is simplest type of bridge ,it does not modify the data in packet. It simply read the address in the data link layer protocol and pass the packet or discard it.

Translation bridge
It is DLL device that connect network using different network media or different protocol. This bridge is more complicated than local bridge. The bridge can thus connect an eathernet segment to FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) segment or connect two different type of eathernet type segment such as (100BaseTx)

Remote Bridge
Remote bridge is designed to connect two network segment at distance locations using some form of wide area network link. The link can be a modem connection leased telephone line or any type of WAN technology. The advantage of using a bridge in this manner is that you reduce the amount of traffic passing over the WAN link., which is usually far slowler and more expensive than the local Network.

INTRODUCTION Routers are packet forwarding devices or it is a device that forwards data packet along network . Routers are located at gateway the places where two or more networks connect. . A router is connected to at least two networks, Commonly two LANs or WAN or a LAN and its ISPs network. Routers allow transmission of data between network segments




Routers are specialized computers that send your messages and those of every other Internet user speeding to their destinations along thousands of pathways.

Routing is the process of moving data throughout a network , passing through several network segments. Router gets information about which path to take from files on the routers called routing tables. These table contain information about which router network interface to place information on in order to send it to a particular network segment.Routers will not pass unknown or broadcast packets. A router will route a packet only if it has a specific destination.

Router A

Router B

Router C




Routing tables in to two ways:1. Static routing ( network administrator manually updated the routing table}

2. Dynamic routing ( send out special packets to request updates of the other routers on the network or send their own updates)


Information on which connections lead to particular groups of addresses Priorities for connections to be used Rules for handling both routine and special cases of traffic .

There are two connections between the router and our ISP T-1 connection that supports 1.5 megabits per second. ISDN line that supports 128 kilobits per second.

The main difference between routers, bridges

A router passes packets by looking up the destination in it's routing table of an incoming packet.
Bridges work at layer 1/2 physical media where everything is passed from one port to another with no regard for source, destination, or network address. Routers work at layer 3 moving packets from one port to another based on the L3 address - i.e. IP address, IPX address, etc.

A modem is a internet peripheral device which enables computers to communicate with each other over conventional telephone lines. The term modem stands for modulator/demodulator. The purpose of a modem is to convert digital signal to analog signal (modulate) and analog signal to digital signal (demodulate ).

The modern digital information processing devices to exchange information over the portion of the global communications networks that is still analog .Wireless modems convert digital data into radio signals and back. Modems came into existence in the 1960s as a way to allow terminals to connect to computers over the phone lines.

Telephone network


modem Telephone network


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