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Not

merely a collection of files Central source of data Database DBMS C-M-U; retrieval; and generation of reports DBA

Effectiveness Objectives: 1. Ensuring that data can be shared among users 2. Maintaining data that are both accurate and consistent 3. Ensuring that all data required for future applications will be readily available 4. Allowing the database to evolve as the needs of the users grow 5. Allowing users to construct their personal view of the data without concern for the way the data are physically stored

1.

Reality, Data Metadata Reality


Entities Attributes

Data

Record Occurrences

Data Item Occurences

Metadata

Record Definitions

Data Item Definitions

Any object or event about which someone collects data A person, place or thing, an event or unit of time Entity Subtype additional minor entity

Symbolized as a smaller rectangle within the entity rectangle A special one-to-one relationship Eliminate situation in which an entity may have null fields stored on database

Student Internship

Associations between entities AKA data associations Types of relationships:

One-to-one relationship (1:1) One-to-many or Many-to-one relationship (1:M) Many-to-many relationship (M:M)

Self-join relationship relationship connecting it to itself

Product

has

Product Package One-to-One (1:1) Office

Employee

is assigned to treats

Physician

Patient

belongs to
Employee
Department

One-to-Many (1:M) or Many-to-One (M:1)

Product

Product Many-to-Many (M:N)

Product

Product

Entity Associative Entity Attributive Entity To 1 relationship


To many relationship To 0 or 1 relationship

A class of persons, places, or things Used to join two entities

Used for repeating groups Exactly one One or more Only zero or one

To 0 or more relationship To more than 1 relationship

Can be zero, one, or more

Greater than one

(Physician-Name, Physician-Address, Physician-Phone, Specialty)

Physician

is taken care of by
(Patient-Name, Patient-Address, Patient-Phone, Date-First-Visit)

treats
(Product-Name, Patient-Name, Description, Date, Symptom)

experiences

Patient
is given to

Treatment

(Carrier-Name, Carrier-Address, Plan-Description)

Insurance Carrier

Prescription

(Product-Name, Dosage, Manufacturer, Amount)

Some characteristic of an entity Data element (data dictionary) data items attribute Data items smallest units in a file or database

AKA field represents something physical not logical

Entity
Salesperson

Data Item
Salesperson Number Salesperson Name Company Name Address Sales Width Height Length Weight Mailing Address Return Address Product(s) Description(s) Quantity Ordered Last Name of Customer First Initial Street Address City State Zip Code Credit Card Number Date Order Was Placed Amount Status

Value
87254 Kaytell Music Unlimited 45 Arpeum Circle P20,765 2 16 16 3 765 Dulcinea Drive P.O. Box 341, Spring Valley, MN B521 My Fair Lady compact disc 1 Kiley R. 765 Dulcinea Drive La Mancha CA 93407 65 8798 87 01/03/2010 $6.99 Backordered

Package

Order