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Measuring Rock Properties


1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Maurice Dusseault

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The Optimization Loop


In situ state -p,,T Better physics Science studies Better models DESIGN This ongoing process requires Behavioral laws Predictions measuring material parameters Simulations Other applications Experience New processes
1-D Measuring Rock Properties

RISK MANAGEMENT & OPTIMIZATION


MONITOR Process Control PRODUCE

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Common Symbols in RM
E, n: Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio f: Porosity (e.g. 0.25, or 25%) c, f,To: Cohesion, friction , tensile strength T, p, po: Temperature, pressure, initial pres. sv, sh: Vertical and horizontal stress shmin, sHMAX: Smallest, largest horizontal s1,s2,s3: Major, intermediate, minor stress r, g: Density, unit weight (g = r g) K, C: Bulk modulus, compressibility These are the most common symbols we use

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

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Stress and Pressure

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Petroleum geomechanics deals with stress & pressure Effective stress: solid stress Pressure is in the fluid phase To assess the effects of ', p, T, C Rock properties are needed
Deformation

sa axial stress
A

pore pressure po sr radial stress

properties Fluid transport properties Thermal properties

Fa sa A

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Obtaining Rock Properties


Properties data bank
Depth Fric. Coh. XXX YYY ZZZ

Reflected and direct paths

REG. TIPO
Borehole seismic

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Rock Properties (E, , f, c, C, k,)

3-D Seismic

SVS-337

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The Geology (Lithostratigraphy)

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

How many rock types must I define and test for a reasonable, useful Geomechanics Analysis?

Source: University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology

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This is a Challenging Problem

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

How can I determine field rock behavior from limited quantity, questionable quality core? How do I cope with massive heterogeneity? What about anisotropy (e.g.: shales)? Can I test shale realistically in the laboratory? Are laboratory results representative? How many tests do I need? I have no core (or bad core)! What do I do? How many rock types to test (see diagram)? And so on and so forth

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Geological Models: Logs vs. Rocks


REG. TIPO
ER-EO B-SUP

ER-EO

ER-EO

REG. TIPO

ER-EO C-3

C-4 C-5 C-6

B-SUP

B-SUP
B-6/9

B-6/9

C-4

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

C-5 C-6

C-7

B-6/9

B-6/9

SMI
C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 C-7 GUASARE SVS-337

GUAS

C-7

C-6 C-7

GUASARE
SVS-30

FALLA ICOTEA GUASARE

Fault Structure, Center of Lago de Maracaibo (Venezuela)

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What is a GMU?

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Geo-Mechanics Unit Nature is too complex to fully model Simplification needed A GMU is a single unit for design and modelling purposes 1 GMU = 1 set of mechanical properties GMU selected from logs, cores, judgment

Log data

Core data
GMU 1 GMU 2

GMU 3 GMU 4 GMU 5 GMU 6

GMU 7 GMU 8

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GMUs and Rock Mechanics

Rocks are heterogeneous, anisotropic, etc For analysis, we divide systems into GMUs
Includes

critical strata, overburden, underburden

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Too many subdivisions are pointless


Cant

afford to test all of them

Too few subdivisions is risky

TOO FEW?

TOO MANY?

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Correlations for Properties


An adequate data base must exist The GMU* is properly matched to the data base, for example, using the following:
lithology Similar depth of burial and geological age Similar granulometry and porosity Estimate of anisotropy (eg: shales and laminates) Correlations based on geophysical properties Use of a matched analog is advised in cases where core cannot be obtained economically
*GMU = geomechanical unit
Similar

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

MBDCI UNCERTAINTY

Reservoirs are heterogeneous & anisotropic at all scales (microns to kilometers)

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

70 of Athabasca Even sandstone reservoirs show am great variability,Oilsands, especially f = 30%, So distances = 0.8, > as 1,000,000 vertically, and properties can change over small ascP a North of Fort McMurray, Alta few millimeters. Clearly, simplifications are needed for analysis.

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Scale of Specimens to Test

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Is a 35 mm core representative of a conglomerate with 20 mm pebbles?

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Plugging a Larger Diameter Core


25 mm specimens plugged from a 125 mm core

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Issues of scale and representativeness always arise in Petroleum Geomechanics testing

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Scale and Heterogenity


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How Do We Test This Rock Mass?

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Joints and fractures can be at scales of mm to several meters Large f core: 115 mm Core plugs: 20-35 mm If joints dominate, small-scale core tests are indicators only This issue of scale enters into all Petroleum Geomechanics analyses

A large core specimen A core plug

1m
Machu Picchu, Peru, Inca Stonecraft

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Scale of Discontinuities
Laboratory specimen (intact) A tunnel in a rock mass
Rock vs Rock mass --Intact rock
1-D Measuring Rock Properties

70-200 mm

--Single discontinuities
--Two discontinuities

--Several disc.
--Rockmass
20-30 m

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Discontinuities & Rocks

Rocks are heterogeneous at all scales (microns to kilometers) In granular media, macroscopic stresses are transmitted through grain contact forces (fn, fs)

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

fs = shear force fn = normal force

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Difficult Materials to Get and Test

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Very high porosity materials (e.g.: diatomite) Materials containing viscous oil with gas in solution (expansion e.g.: oil sands) Highly fractured materials such as fractured quartz-illite shales Highly heterogeneous layered material from great depth (core breaks apart at each layer, referred to as disking)

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Unusual Materials (Diatomite)


Increasing stress on diatomite (through pressure depletion) causes material compaction and eventually pore collapse

v
1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Source: Bruno and Bovberg, 1992

cylindrical specimen

SPE75230, Barenblatt et al, 2002

h = 0

h = 0

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Oil Sand Core Expansion


Radially
Schematic Diagram of Expansion of an 89 mm Core

Axially
Core has expanded from 120.7mm to 127mm diameter and is now acting like a piston in a cylinder

90-91 mm

95 mm

89 mm

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Corrugated surface characteristic of thinlybedded and laminated fine-grained sands of variable oil saturation

Oil-poor to oilfree silty sands, expansion much less than other material

Oil-rich sample expands to completely fill the liner

Ironstone band, no expansion

PVC liner

127 mm

Oil sand

Cores separate readily along cracks which form between zones of differing expansion potential

Gas pressure inside liner

Observed Expansions of 89mm Core: Ironstone 89 mm Basal clays, clayey silts 89-91 mm Oil-poor to oil-free silty sands 90-93 mm Fine-grained oil-rich sand 91-95 mm Coarse-grained oil-rich sand 94-95 mm

ref. Dusseault (1980) Fig. 5 & 6

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Quality Control Oil Sand Cores

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

CT-Scan Evidence of Damage in Heavy Oil Cores


Courtesy of Glen Brook, Nexen and Apostolos Kantzas, U of Calgary

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Venezuelan Core Damage

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Oil sands core from the Faja del Orinoco, depth of about 900 m. Massive core expansion from gas exsolution.

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Core General Statement


Is this core Geomechanics tests? ANY CORE isuseful better for than no core. However, with poor core condition, all we can realistically expect is a qualitative assessment, grain size, clay mineralogy, fluids, perhaps some rough index tests of strength and deformability. However, dry shale core no strength tests
Best is high-quality intact core collected just for geomechanics tests. Obtain, preserve and transport the core carefully. Test it soon, test it appropriately, but be aware that there is always some damage
1-D Measuring Rock Properties

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Use of Time-Lapse Seismics


Seismic Attributes Relative Change Matrix

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

T po Sg D

as T goes up, Qp drops


as goes up, Qp increases etc.
Modified from Doug Schmitt, UofA, 2004

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MS & Integrated Monitoring


Microseismic data can be collected and used to update a Whole Earth Rock Properties Model (Mechanical Earth Model - MEM) based on combined lab, log, geological and seismic data. This is an example of microseismic sources located in a cyclic steam Shell Oil, stimulation process in Peace River, Alberta (Shell Oil).
1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Peace River

In geomechanics, because of massive uncertainly and scale issues, we exploit whatever data sources we can. We try to regularly update our MEMs with new logs, new core, new seismic data, better geological models, and other information. Also, remember that the properties can change, especially with large , p, or T.

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Testing Heterogeneous Materials?

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

These materials respond radically different to stress: one flows, the other fractures. How might we incorporate such behavior in our testing and modeling for a natural gas storage cavern? Original specimen - Post-test appearance

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Inherent Anisotropy

Different directional stiffness is common!


Bedding

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

planes Oriented minerals (clays usually) Oriented microcracks, joints, fissures Close alternation of thin beds of different inherent stiffness (laminated or schistose) Imbricated grains Different stresses = anisotropic response Anisotropic grain contact fabric, etc.
stiffer less stiff

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Stiffness Anisotropy
Apparent axial stiffness - M

M s

L L
L

Vertical core

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

30

60

90

Bedding inclination

30

60

90

e.g.: shales, laminated strata

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Cracks and Grain Contacts


E1 E2

Microflaws can close, open, or slip as s changes


E1

E3
1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Flaws govern rock stiffness

The nature of the grain-to-grain contacts and the overall porosity govern the stiffness of porous SS

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Issues to Remember

1-D Measuring Rock Properties

Natural lithological heterogeneity Wide range of properties (e.g.: compressibility or Chalk vs. low-f limestone) Scatter of experimental data Log data lab test correlations (variance) Core damage and quality control Issues of scale (especially in fractured rocks) Representativeness and GMU delineation We must cope with all of these sources of uncertainty