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2014/2/25

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HSPA Data Transmission Performance Improvement


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Huawei Confidential

HSDPA

HSDPA Basic Concepts and Process of Identifying Data Transmission Problems


HSUPA Basic Concepts and Process of Identifying Data Transmission Problems

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Basic Concepts Protocol Structure of HSDPA User Plane


The data transmission protocol layers consist of the physical layer, MAC layers (MAC-hs/ehs layer and MAC-d layer), RLC layer, PDCP layer, TCP/IP layer, and application layer. Figure 2-1 shows the involved NEs and the relationships among layers. On the RAN side (excluding the UE), the physical layer, MAC layer, and RLC layer are involved. The TCP/IP layer is adjacent to the PDCP layer and the RLC layer. Therefore, the TCP/IP layer may also be affected by the RAN in some scenarios
FTP servers, streaming servers, and websites.

PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol


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Basic Concepts Data Frame Structure of HSDPA User Plane Protocol


The rate at each layer is classified into the PDU rate and the SDU rate. The PDU rate includes the overhead of the current layer, whereas the SDU rate does not include the overhead of the current layer. Therefore, the SDU rate of a layer equals to the PDU rate of the upper layer.
(s)RBs for UE1 (s)RBs for UE2 PDU structure
RLC SDU

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC Header

Payload

MAC-d

MAC-d

RLC Header

Payload

MAC-c

U-RNTI

RLC Header

Payload

Iub-FP

Iub-FP MAC-ehs

Iub-FP
MAC-ehs Header U-RNTI RLC Header Payload

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Basic Concepts CQI Report Principles


The UE measures the Ec/No of the Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) and adds a Measurement Power Offset (MPO) as the Ec/No estimation value of the HS-PDSCH. HS-PDSCH Ec/No (estimation value) = Ec/No cpich + MPO That is, the UE assumes that the NodeB transmits the HS-PDSCH according to CPICH Power + MPO. Then, add the SF gain 10 * log16 to obtain the SNR of the HS-PDSCH. SNR HS-PDSCH = HS-PDSCH Ec/No + SF gain 10 * log16

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Basic Concepts CQI Report Principles


The CQI is obtained according to the relationship between the SNR and CQI of the simulated HS-PDSCH. Generally, the difference between the CQI and SNR is a constant (4 or 4.5 dB). CQI formula (for the HSDPA excluding 64QAM) : CQI = CPICH Ec/No + MPO + 10 * log16 + 4.5 = SNRcpich + MPO + 4.5 = SNRhs-pdsch (based on assumed power) + 4.5 (depending on the UE implementation) MPO = min(13, Pcell-Pcpich - MPO constant) dB

The MPO constant is 2.5 by default.

The previous formula shows that CQI increase by 1 when SNR HS-PDSCH increase by 1. With 64QAM: when the CQI is greater than 25, CQI increases by 1 when SNR increases by 2 dB. In this case:

CQI = SNRcpich + MPO + 4.5 if CQI <= 25 or CQI = 25 + (SNRcpich + MPO + 4.5 - 25)/2

if CQI > 25

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1.

Basic Concepts UE Capabilities


Maximum number of HSDSCH codes received
5 5 5

HS-DSCH category

Minimum inter-TTI interval


3 3 2

Maximum number of bits of an HS-DSCH transport block received within an HS-DSCH TTI 7298 7298 7298

Supported modulations without MIMO operation or dual cell operation

Supported modulations with MIMO operation and without dual cell operation

Supported modulations with dual cell operation

Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 Category 9 Category 10 Category 11 Category 12 Category 13 Category 14 Category 15 Category 16

5
5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

2
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

7298
7298 QPSK, 16QAM 7298 14411 14411 20251 27952 3630 QPSK 3630 35280 QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM 42192 23370 QPSK, 16QAM 27952 Not applicable (dual cell operation not supported) Not applicable (MIMO not supported)

Category 17
Category 18 Category 19 Category 20 Category 21 Category 22

35280 23370 42192 27952


35280

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

QPSK, 16QAM QPSK, 16QAM

QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM 42192 23370 QPSK, 16QAM 27952 -

Category 23

15

35280
42192 Huawei Confidential

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QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

Basic Concepts Code Assignment (1/3)


The code assignment algorithm is involved in both RNC and NodeB. RNC: Manual assignment : set the number of codes to be assigned. Automatic assignment : set the maximum number of codes and minimum number of codes to be assigned. NodeB: Enable or disable the NodeB dynamic code function. We will introduce different combinations of the two algorithms. The number of channels used by the cell is set by default (four HS-SCCHs with HSUPA activated): Manually assign five codes on the RNC Disable the dynamic codes on the NodeB : => The HS-DSCH uses a maximum of 5 SF16 and a minimum of 5 SF16. Enable the dynamic codes on the NodeB: => The HS-DSCH uses a maximum of 14 SF16 and a minimum of 5 SF16

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Basic Concepts Code Assignment (2/3)


Automatically assign a maximum of ten codes and a minimum of five codes on the RNC

Disable the dynamic does on the NodeB: => The HS-DSCH uses a maximum of 10 SF16 and a minimum of 5 SF16. Enable the dynamic does on the NodeB: => The HS-DSCH uses a maximum of 14 SF16 and a minimum of 5 SF16.

The policy of RNC manual assignment + NodeB dynamic code enabled is recommended for the existing network. RNC automatic assignment + NodeB dynamic code disabled is recommended if networks do not support the NodeB dynamic codes.

Over one SF16 codes are used by the Common Control Channels => maximum of 14 SF16 can be used for HSDPA

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Basic Concepts Code Assignment (3/3)


To ensure that 15 codes can be used by the accessed DPA user, you need to modify the configurations of the channels (Eg disable HSUPA, only 2 HS-SCCHs in one TTI..)
SRB over DCH : Each accessed HSDPA user consumes an associated DPCCH using one SF256 SRB over HSDPA : F-DPCH is multiplexed by all users => save codes

Default configuration for codes usage by common channels in the


The CCH uses one SF32, Four HS-SCCHs, each one use one SF128 => one SF32, The E-RGCH and E-HICH multiplexes one SF128, The E-AGCH uses one SF256.

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Basic Concepts EL2 Principles (1/3)


Before the R7 which introduces the L2 enhancement, RLC PDU size was configured to a fixed size. Generally, the RLC SDU size configured on the network is small : The typical value of RLC SDU size is 320 bits or 640 bits. Although the RLC window size supports a maximum of 2048 For the following example : RLC PDU size is 640 bits, the RLC window size is 2048 RLC PDUs, and the RTT delay of the sender from transmitting data to receiving the ACK message in AM mode is 100 ms.

The maximum transmission rate is 640 bits * 2048/0.1s = 13.1 Mbit/s.

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Basic Concepts EL2 Principles (2/3)


64QAM, MIMO, 64QAM+MIMO, and DC+64QAM technologies are introduced in R8. The theoretical peak rate of service data transmission can reach 21.6 Mbit/s, 28.8 Mbit/s, and 43.2 Mbit/s respectively.
If the RLC PDU size is too large, no complete RLC PDU can be correctly transmitted to the UE when the channel quality is poor; therefore, normal data transmission cannot be performed and the coverage is reduced. If the RLC PDU size is too small and the RLC window size is increased to improve the data transmission rate, many RLC PDUs are multiplexed in one MAC-hs PDU when the user channel quality is good; therefore, much redundant information is brought in the RLC PDU data heads, and the data transmission efficiency of the air interface is reduced.

To fully match the data transmission capability of the air interface, improve the data transmission efficiency, the L2 enhancement is introduced.

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Basic Concepts EL2 Principles (3/3)

The maximum RLC PDU is set to 302 bytes (2416 bits) in EL2 by default

The L2 enhancement mainly affects RLC layer, MAC layer, and user plane FP data transmission of Iub interface on the RNC. The variable PDU size of downlink AM is introduced at the RLC layer. The MAC-ehs is introduced at the MAC layer. The 64QAM, MIMO, and DC-HSDPA features must be supported by EL2 enhancement.

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Basic Concepts Theoretical Rates of Layers (1/2)


Relationships among the throughput of layers : TCP/IP layer: Data packets at this layer are received from the application layer. The TCP/IP layer matches data packets based on the MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit ) size. Generally, the MTU size is 1,500 bytes, which is equal to 12,000 bits. The header overhead of 40 bytes (320 bits) is added to each MTU. PDCP layer: Data transmission is considered as transparent transmission at this layer, and therefore no overhead is added. RLC layer: This layer matches data packets of the PDCP layer based on the RLC SDU size. The overhead of 16 bits is added to each SDU to form an RLC PDU. Then, the RLC PDU is transmitted to the MAC-d layer.

MAC-d layer: Data transmission is considered as transparent transmission at this layer, and therefore no overhead is added.

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Basic Concepts Theoretical Rates of Layers (2/2)


MAC-hs/ehs layer: At this layer, a proper TBS is selected to match the data of the upper layer and actual resources of the air interface. In non-EL2 mode, the overhead of the MAC-hs layer consists of the fixed 21-bit header overhead and the padding overhead of the TBS tail. In EL2 mode, the overhead of the MAC-ehs layer consists of the fixed 8-bit header overhead and additional 16-bit header overhead required by each MAC-ehs SDU (RLC PDU).

Physical layer: The rate at this layer is 3.84 Mchip/s. The rate indicates the rate of the MAC-hs/ehs layer, that is, TBS/2 ms.

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Basic Concepts Calculation of Theoretical Rates (1/4)


Example for UE CAT14 CAT14 supports EL2 and 64QAM (MAC-ehs entity) The maximum TBS used in CAT14 is 42192 bits
Maximum number of bits of an HS-DSCH transport block received within an HS-DSCH TTI

1) The maximum rate of the MAC-hs layer is: 42192 bits /2 ms = 21.096 Mbit/s
2) At the RLC layer (EL2) : - The maximum RLC PDU is set to 302 bytes (2416 bits) in EL2 by default - If 42192 (minus fixed 8 bits overhead for EL2) => 42184 bits - Nb of RLC PDU (Mac-ehs SDU) => int (42184/2416) = 17 PDU - 17 PDUs of 2416 bits can be carried and 16-bit overheads are introduced (EL2). 42184 bits (2416 bits * 17) (16 * 17) = 840 bits. - After subtracting the introduced 16-bit overhead, the PDU that can be carried is 824 bits. The maximum PDU rate at the RLC layer is: (2416 bits * 17 + 824 bits)/2 ms = 20.95 Mbit/s

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Basic Concepts Calculation of Theoretical Rates (2/4)


3) At the TCP/IP layer the maximum PDU rate is equal to the SDU rate at the RLC layer,
transparent transmission between the MAC-d layer and the PDCP layer The overhead of 16 bits is added to each SDU to form an RLC PDU

which is: [(2416 - 16) bits * 17 + (824 16) bits] /2 ms = 20.8 Mbit/s.

4) If the MTU size (Maximum Transfer Unit ) is set to 1500 bytes At the TCP layer, the rate at the application layer is: 20.8 Mbit/s * [(1500 40)/1500] = 20.25 Mbit/s. If there are only 14 HSPDSCH codes, the maximum TBS used in CAT14 is 38576 bits: In this case, the maximum rates of the MAC-hs layer, RLC layer, TCP/IP layer, and application layer are 19.29 Mbit/s, 19.16 Mbit/s, 19.03 Mbit/s, and 18.52 Mbit/s respectively.

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Basic Concepts Calculated of Theoretical Rates (3/4)


Downlink UE Throughput During RNC Real-Time Performance Tracing Real-time performance tracing from RNC give the Downlink UE throughput at the MAC-d layer (that is, the SDU rate at the MAC-hs layer) or the PDU rate at the RLC layer.

Downlink Throughput Displayed in DU Meter (monitor TCP IP throughout) Downlink throughput displayed in DU meter can be considered as the SDU rate at the RLC rate.

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Basic Concepts Calculation of Theoretical Rates (4/4)


IBLER / SBLER/ RBLER
The 1st BLER is called initial BLER (IBLER). SBLER indicates the sum BLER, regardless of the initial TBS transmission or HARQ retransmission. Residual BLER (RBLER) indicates the BLERs for TBs still incorrectly transmitted after all the HARQ retransmissions at the MAC-hs layer.

Example:
The maximum number of HARQ retransmission is 4, three TBSs must be transmitted: The first TB is correctly transmitted during the initial transmission. The second TBS is retransmitted correctly after an initial transmission. The third TB is retransmitted incorrectly for four times.
IBLER, the initial transmission of the first TB is successful and the initial transmissions of the second and third TBs fail. Therefore, IBLER = 2/3 = 66.67%. SBLER, the first TBS is transmitted only once with zero transmission failure. The second TBS is transmitted twice with one transmission failure. The third TBS is transmitted five times with transmission failure five times. Therefore, SBLER = (0 + 1 + 5) /(1+2+5) = 75%. RBLER, the first TB is correctly transmitted during the initial transmission. The second TB is retransmitted correctly after an initial transmission. The third TB fails to be retransmitted for four times. Therefore, RBLER = 1/3 = 33.33%.

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Process of identifying stationary test-based HSDPA data transmission problems


Identify stationary test-based HSDPA data transmission problems Dial-up succeeds while transmission fails Y N

3.2.1 Identify who transmission fails


N Can data transmission be started Y Y

Is data transmission OK?


N

3.2.2 Check RAN problems

RAN problems?
Y N

3.2.3 N Check and clear alarms

3.2.4
Check cells HSDPA status

3.2.5
Check access signaling

3.2.6 Check licenses

3.2.7
Check the DCCC setting

3.2.14 Check bandwidth on the IU-PS interface 3.2.15 Check packet loss on the Iub interface

Is the problem identified?


N

3.2.8
Check downlink power resources

3.2.9 Check downlink code resources

3.2.10
Check the number of online users in a cell

3.2.11 Check radio quality

Is the problem identified?


N

3.2.16 Check packet losses on the IUPS interface and TCP mechanism 3.2.17 Check and isolate UE faults

Contact CN engineers to locate the fault, which Y must be supported by the RAN

Replace the UE or driver program

3.2.13
Check the bandwidth on the lub interface

3.2.18 Check CPU usage of laptops

3.2.12
Check if RLC downlink window is full Y

Is the problem identified?


Y

Is the problem identified?


N

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Process of identifying Drive Test test-based HSDPA data transmission problems


Identify DT test-based HSDPA data transmission problems Perform static test of data transmission on a near point, check whether any problem exists N 3.2.4 Check and clear alarms, especially, cell-level alarms 3.2.5 Check cells HSDPA status 3.2.7 Check the license, especially the NodeB-level license 3.2.10 Check downlink power resources in each cell 3.2.11 Check downlink code resources in each cell 3.2.14 Check the bandwidth of the lub interface on each NodeB Y Handle with the problem

Perform DT in idle period (with few online users)

Does call drop or handover failure (or not timely) exist N

Handle with the problem

Does abnormal point exist (with high CQI but low throughput) N

Handle with the problem

Is the problem solved

Optimize RF coverage and improve the average CQI Y Is the problem solved N 3.2.19 Collect data and report problems

END

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Flowchart of analyzing HSDPA cell performance problems


There is an optimization scheme. The item cannot be evaluated at present. END N Identify HSDPA cell performance problems Does the average single-user throughput reach the required BER on the air interface? Y Is the BER on the air interface high? N Optimize the coverage Y Is the CQI poor? N Perform expansion Y Are there many UEs? N Y Is the power usage high?

Perform Iub expansion

Is the Iub transmission usage high? N

Optimize the transmission

Is the transmission quality of the Iub path poor? N

Is the RLC retransmission ratio high

Check power control parameters

Is the residual BER on the air interface high? N UE problems Perform expansion Y

Is the code usage high? N

Global or upperlayer problems

Is upper-layer data insufficient?

Does the theoretical cell rate meet the requirement?

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N Other problems END

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Analysis on HSDPA cell performance problems


Step (1) Bit error rate (BER) on the air interface in the cell (2) Power usage of the cell (3) (4) Optimize the coverage. Perform the following operations based on the CQI: If the CQI is poor, optimize the coverage. If the CQI is normal, add carriers. Usage of the Iub transmission bandwidth Expand the Iub transmission bandwidth. Perform the following operations based on the IP path transmission quality on the Iub interface: RLC retransmission rate If the transmission quality is poor, optimize transmission. If the transmission quality is normal, check the residual bit errors on the air interface. For the cells with many bit errors on the air interface, check power control parameters. (5) Code resource usage Add code resources. Check whether the theoretical rate of the cell meets the requirement. If the theoretical rate meets the requirement, the upperlayer data sources are insufficient. Go to step (5). Go to step (4). Go to step (3). Go to step (2). Evaluation Item Evaluation Result and Handling Suggestion High Low

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HSDPA

HSDPA Basic Concepts and Process of Identifying Data Transmission Problems


HSUPA Basic Concepts and Process of Identifying Data Transmission Problems

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Basic Concepts Protocol Structure of HSUPA User Plane


Figure below shows the protocol structure of HSUPA data services. Different from the R99 user plane, a MAC entity MAC-e/es is added at the MAC-d layer on the HSUPA user plane.

DTCH DCCH

DCCH DTCH

MAC-d

MAC-d

MAC-es / MAC-e MAC-e MAC-e EDCH FP

MAC-es

EDCH FP

PHY

PHY

TNL

TNL

TNL

TNL

UE

Uu

NodeB

Iub

DRNC

Iur

SRNC

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Basic Concepts Data Frame Structure of HSUPA User Plane Protocol


MAC-es header overhead: TSN : Transmission Sequence Number (6 bits) MAC-e header overhead: DDI : Data Description Indicator (6 bits) N: Number of Mac-d PDU in a logical channel (6 bits) SI system information : SI bits and padding bits in the end
MAC-d PDUs coming from one Logical Channel
RLC MAC-d
DCCH DTCH DTCH

RLC PDU:

Header

DATA

MAC-d PDU

MAC-d PDU

MAC-d PDU

MAC-d PDU:

DATA

MAC-d Flows

DDI1
Numbering Numbering

N1

TSN1 MAC-es SDU MAC-es SDU

MAC-es SDU

Numbering

MAC-es PDU:

TSN

DATA

DATA

N1 MAC-es SDUs of size and LCh indicated by DDI1 MAC-es PDU1

MAC-es/e

Multiplexing
DDI N

MAC-e PDU:
DDI N DDI DATA MAC-es PDU DATA
Padding (Opt)

MAC-e header

HARQ processes

DDI1 N1

MAC-es PDU1

DDI2 N2

MAC-es PDU2

DDIn Nn

MAC-es PDUn

L1

DATA

1.Simplified architecture showing MAC inter-working in UE. The left part shows the functional split while the right part shows PDU construction
Mapping info signaled over RRC
PDU size, logical channel id, MAC-d flow id => DDI

DDI1 N1 DDI2 N2

DDIn Nn DDI0 MAC-es PDU1 MAC-es PDU2


(Opt)

MAC-es PDUn

SI (Opt)

Padding (Opt)

MAC-e PDU

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Basic Concepts Factors Affecting the Uplink Load


Number of Users in the Cell Check the number of users in the cell in real time on the RNC LMT. The uplink load is shared by all users. When the number of users increases, the available load of each user is reduced, therefore affecting the throughput. On the other hand, the HSUPA scheduling can only control the load of the HSUPA scheduling users. If many non-HSUPA scheduling users exist in the cell, the available load of the HSUPA scheduling user is affected, therefore affecting the actual rate of the HSUPA scheduling users. If the actual load is less than or equal to 75%, the HSUPA user throughput should be higher than to MAX(GBR, 1 RLC PDU rate). If the actual load is greater than 75% and less than 95%, the HSUPA user throughput is equal or les than MAX(GBR, 1 RLC PDU rate). If the actual load is greater than 95%, the HSUPA user throughput is hard to reach the 1.Simplified architecture showing MAC inter-working in UE. The left part shows the functional split while the right part shows PDU construction GBR but may meet 1 RLC PDU rate.

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Background Noise Setting of the Cell


You can set the background noise of the cell in two methods: manual setting and automatic update. If the background noise set on the RNC LMT is different with the background noise of the actual cell, the cell throughput is affected. If the set value of the background noise is greater than the value of the actual background noise

The system stability may be reduced. The actual throughput of the cell is greater than the throughput related to the target value of Rot.
When the set value of the background noise is smaller than the actual value, The actual throughput of the cell is smaller than the throughput related to the target value of RoT.

Check the setting of the background noise and monitor the number of cell users in real time on the RNC LMT: Run LST UCELLCAC on the RNC LMT to query the background noise configuration in the cell In test network : if the query result shows that the background noise set in the cell is different from the actual background noise Run MOD CELLCAC on the RNC LMT to modify the configuration background noise In Commercial network : do not modify the configured background noise directly, otherwise, the uplink coverage may shrink. => It is recommended that field engineers check the cause of the high background noise.

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Basic Concepts Factors Affecting the Uplink Load


External Interference : External interference involves neighboring interference and foreign interference If a burst of interference occurs, the load of the cell rises instantly causing the throughput fluctuation of HSUPA users. => Check the RTWP of the cell when no user exists or identify the problem by using frequency sweep.

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Basic Concepts Uplink CE Consumption Rules


Rate (kbit/s) 8 16 32 64 128 144 256 384 608 1450 2048 2890 Number of CEs Consumed 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 8 8 16 32 32 Corresponding Credits Consumed 2 2 2 2 4 4 8 16 16 32 64 64

Direction

SF

UL UL UL UL UL UL UL UL UL UL UL UL

64 64 32 32 16 16 8 4 4 2SF4 2SF2 2SF2

UL

5760

2SF2+2SF4

48

96

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To support HSUPA, 3GPP TS 25.306 defined nine UE categories. These UEs support different peak rates at the MAC layer, ranging from 711 kbit/s to 23 Mbit/s.

E-DCH Category Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7

Max. Capability Combination 1 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF4 2 x SF2 2 x SF2

E-DCH TTI

Max. Data Rate (Mbit/s) MAX EDCH MAX EDCH TBS (10ms) TBS (2ms) MAC Layer MAC Layer Air Interface 10 ms TTI 2 ms TTI 7110 14484 14484 20000 20000 20000 20000 57400 1150000 289000 14000 0.71 1.44484 1.44484 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.40 2.89 5.74 11.50 0.96 1.92 1.92 3.84 3.84 5.76 11.52

10 ms only 10 ms and 2 ms 10 ms only 10 ms and 2 ms 10 ms only

2 x SF4 + 2 x SF2 10 ms and 2 ms 2 x SF4 + 2 xS F2 10 ms and 2 ms

Category 8
Category 9

2 x SF4 + 2 xS F2
2 x SF4 + 2 xS F2

2 ms
2 ms

20000
20000

1150000
2300000

2.0
2.0

11.50
23.00

11.52
23.04

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Basic Concepts calculated of Theoretical Rates


RLC PDU UL throughput : = Total size of all RLC PDUs transmitted at the RLC layer within a measurement period / Measurement period Total size of all RLC PDUs transmitted at the RLC layer : - involves the PDUs transmission and retransmission. - Data transmitted by the MAC-d layer including the header overhead of the RLC PDU with total size of 16 bits. Measurement period : all the time whether data is transmitted or not. Relationship between the RLC PDU UL throughput and the MAC-e PDU available rate: RLC PDU UL throughput = MAC-e PDU available rate * (1 - MAC-e PDU header overhead ratio)

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Basic Concepts calculation of Theoretical Rates


RLC SDU Throughput UL = Total size of all RLC SDUs transmitted at the RLC layer within a measurement period /Measurement period Total size of all RLC SDUs transmitted at the RLC layer : = Total bits of RLC PDUs of retransmitted bits and RLC PDU header overhead (16bits in total). The relationship between the RLC SDU Throughput UL and the RLC PDU Throughput UL : RLC SDU throughput UL RLC PDU UL throughput * (1 - RLC PDU retransmission rate UL) * RLC PDU header overhead ratio.

Uplink Throughput involved in RNC Radio Performance Monitoring


MAC SDU rate (the input rate at the MAC layer) also called the RLC PDU rate (the output rate at the RLC layer) involves the retransmitted data at the RLC layer. MAC-d SDU rate = (TB-Size * Number of TBs) / TTI

HSUPA CAT3, MAC SDU size = 336 bits: MAC-d SDU rate = int(14484/336) * 336/10 = 1.4448 Mbit/s
HSUPA CAT6, MAC SDU size = 336 bits: MAC-d SDU rate = int(11484/336) * 336/2 = 5.712 Mbit/s

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Basic Concepts HSUPA Theoretical Rates of Layers


CAT3
1) Throughput at the physical layer: (3840000/4) * 2 (SF4) = 1.92 Mbit/s

2) Data rate at the MAC-e layer:

Maximum TBS at the MAC-e layer /10 ms = 14484 * 1000/10 ms = 1.448 Mbit/s

Number of MAC-d PDUs per MAC-e PDU = Maximum TBS at the MAC-e layer (bits) / MAC-d PDU size(bits) Number of MAC-d PDUs (MAC-d PDU size = 336 bits) = int(14484/336) = 43, RLC payload rate : CAT3 theoretical rate = (RLC payload size * Number of TBs) / TTI RLC SDU size = MAC-d PDU - MAC header - RLC header = 336 -16 = 320 bits CAT3 theoretical rate (MAC-d PDU size is 336 bits) = (320 * 43) /10 = 1.376 Mbit/s.

The MAC SDU rate monitored on the LMT = int(14484/336) * 336/10 = 1.448 Mbit/s. The maximum throughput at the application layer the RLC payload rate / (1 + 10% of HARQ retransmission) = 1.36 Mbit/s

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Basic Concepts HSUPA Theoretical Rates of Layers


CAT5 Throughput at the physical layer: (3840000/2) * 2 (SF2) = 3.84 Mbit/s Data rate at the MAC-e layer: Maximum TBS at the MAC-e layer * 1000/10 ms => 20000 * 1000/10 = 2 Mbit/s Number of MAC-d PDUs per MAC-e PDU = Maximum TBS at the MAC-e layer (bits)/MAC-d PDU size (bits) Number of MAC-d PDUs = int(20000/336) = 59 CAT5 theoretical rate (RLC payload rate) = (RLC payload size * Number of TBs)/TTI RLC SDU size = MAC-d PDU - MAC header - RLC header = 16 bits If the MAC-d PDU size is 336 bits, the CAT5 theoretical rate is 59 * 320/10 = 1.888 Mbit/s The MAC SDU rate monitored on the LMT is: int(20000/336) * 336/10 = 1.9824 Mbit/s. The maximum throughput at the application layer the RLC payload rate/(1 + 1% of HARQ retransmission) = 1.87 Mbit/s

CAT6SRB OVER E-DCH Throughput at the physical layer: (3840000/2) * 2 (SF2) + (3840000/4) * 2 (SF4) = 5.76 Mbit/s Data rate at the MAC-e layer: Maximum TBS at the MAC-e layer * 1000/2 ms => 11484 * 1000/2 = 5.742 Mbit/s Number of MAC-d PDUs per MAC-e PDU = Maximum TBS at the MAC-e layer (bits)/MAC-d PDU size (bits) Number of MAC-d PDUs = int(11484/336) = 34 CAT6 theoretical rate (RLC payload rate) = (RLC payload size * Number of TBs)/TTI RLC SDU size = MAC-d PDU - MAC header - RLC header = 16 bits If the MAC-d PDU size is 336 bits, the CAT6 theoretical rate is 34 * 320/2 = 5.44 Mbit/s. The MAC SDU rate monitored on the LMT is: int(11484/336) * 336/2 = 5.712 Mbit/s. The maximum throughput at the application layer the RLC payload rate/(1 + 10% of HARQ retransmission) = 4.945 Mbit/s

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Basic Concepts HSUPA Theoretical Rates of Layers


CAT6SRB OVER DCH Throughput at the physical layer: (3840000/2) * 2 (SF2) = 3.84 Mbit/s Data rate at the MAC-e layer: Maximum TBS at the MAC-e layer * 1000/2 ms => 5772 * 1000/2 = 2.886 Mbit/s Number of MAC-d PDUs per MAC-e PDU = Maximum TBS at the MAC-e layer (bits)/MAC-d PDU size (bits) Number of MAC-d PDUs = int(5772/336) = 17 CAT6 theoretical rate (RLC payload rate) = (RLC payload size * Number of TBs)/TTI RLC SDU size = MAC-d PDU - MAC header - RLC header = 16 bits If the MAC-d PDU size is 336 bits, the CAT6 theoretical rate is 17 * 320/2 = 2.72 Mbit/s. The MAC SDU rate monitored on the LMT is: int(5772/336) * 336/2 = 2.856 Mbit/s. The maximum throughput at the application layer the RLC payload rate/(1 + 10% of HARQ retransmission) = 2.473 Mbit/s

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Process of Identifying Stationary Test-Based HSUPA Problems


Identify stationary test-based HSUPA data transmission problems Dial-up succeeds while data transmission fails Y 3.2.1 Identify data transmission failure N

Is data transmission OK? N 3.2.4 Check and clear alarms 3.4.1 Y Check the minSF during the link setup or re-configuration N 3.4.2 Check UE capabilities 3.4.3 Check cell capabilities 3.4.4 Check the Assigned rate of the CN 3.4.5

Check RAN parameters

3.4.7 Check the DCCC algorithm

END

Is the problem solved? N 3.4.8 Is UE traffic volume restricted N 3.4.8 Check the RLC layer 3.4.7 N Is the UE transmission power restricted Y 3.4.7 Check UE location and outloop power control

3.4.8 Check the TCP layer and higher layers Y Is the problem caused by UE N Modify the laptop setting Y or replace the laptop Is the problem caused by laptop N Contact CN engineers to locate the fault, which Y must be supported by the RAN

Replace the UE or driver

Y Is the problem solved? N

Is the problem caused by server or CN N

Is the fault rectified N 3.4.9 Check uplink load resources 3.4.11 Check Iub resources

3.4.10 Check uplink CE resources

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Is the problem solved? Huawei Confidential Y

N 3.2.19 Collect data and report

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Process of Identifying DT Test-Based HSUPA Data Transmission Problems


Identify DT test-based HSUPA data transmission problems Perform stationary test of data transmission on a near point, check whether any problem exists N Y Identify stationary test-based data transmission faults

3.2.4 Check and clear alarms, especially, cell-level alarms

3.4.3 Check cell capabilities

3.4.12 Check the handover strategies and parameters

3.4.10 Check uplink CE resources on each NodeB

3.4.11 Check Iub resources on each NodeB

3.4.9 Check uplink load resources on each cell

Perform DT in idle period (with few online users)

Does call drop or handover failure (or not in time) exist N

Handle with the problem

Does abnormality exist (with high RSCP but low throughput) N

Handle with the problem

Is the problem solved? Y

Optimize the RF coverage

Is the problem solved? N 3.2.19 Collect data and report problems

END

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Process of Identifying Performance MeasurementBased HSUPA Data Transmission Problems


Evaluation item Identify HSUPA cell performance problems Y The item cannot be evaluated at present. END N Does the average single-user throughput reach the cell requirement? Y Are data sources insufficient? Y Is the UE in the Unhappy state? N Is the RTWP limited? Y Is the uplink load limited? N Perform expansion, use dynamic CEs, and optimize the GBR The power control of the control channel or UE is abnormal. Is MultiACk abnormal? N Power control parameters are incorrect. Out-loop power control problems Y Are CE resources limited?

N N Is the BLER on the air interface high?

Y N

Is the residual BLER high? N

Is the RLC retransmission ratio high?

The uplink RTWP is high or the UE is far away from the cell center.

Is the transmit power of the UE limited? N

Optimize the transmission quality

Is the Iub transmission quality poor? N Expand the Iub transmission bandwidth Y Are Iub resources limited?

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Other problems

Differential Huawei Confidential causes

Others

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Process of Identifying Performance MeasurementBased HSUPA Data Transmission Problems


Step Evaluation Item

(1)
(2) (3) (4)

Whether the UE is in the Happy state


Whether the uplink load is limited Whether CE resources are limited Whether the BLER of the air interface is high

Evaluation Result and Handling Suggestion Yes No Data sources are insufficient. Go to step (2). The RTWP is limited. Add CEs, enable the dynamic CE feature, and optimize the GBR. Check whether MultiACK is abnormal. Yes: Check whether the power control of the control channel or the UE is abnormal. No: Check whether power control parameters are correct. Perform the following operations based on the residual BLER: If the residual BLER is high, out-loop power control is abnormal. If the residual BLER is not high, check whether the transmit power of the UE is limited. If yes, the uplink RTWP is high or the UE is far away from the cell center. If no, check the quality of Iub transmission. If the quality of Iub transmission is poor, optimize the transmission quality. Expand the Iub transmission bandwidth. Go to step (3). Go to step (4). Go to step (5).

(5)

Check whether the RLC retransmission ratio is high

Go to step (6).

(6)

Whether Iub resources are limited

Check whether other problems occur.

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Basic Conceptscalculated of Theoretical Rates


Probe: Scheduled rate = Total size of all TBs received by the MAC-hs layer within a measurement period/Total duration for scheduling TBs within a measurement period The total size of all TBs received at the MAC-hs layer within a measurement period: involves the TBs that are correctly and incorrectly received. Total duration for scheduling TBs within a measurement period: includes only the time when TBs are received. For example, within a measurement period of 100 subframes (200 ms), if only 50 subframes contain data, the duration for receiving TBs with data within a measurement period is 100 ms. Served rate = Total size of all TBs received by the MAC-hs layer within a measurement period/Measurement period Total size of all TBs received at the MAC-hs layer within a measurement period involves the TBs that are correctly and incorrectly received. Measurement period indicates all the time when TBs are received and not received. The relationship between the served rate and the scheduled rate is as follows: Served Rate = Scheduled Rate * HS - SCCH success rate HS-SCCH success rate = Total duration for receiving TBs within a measurement period /Measurement period. The HS-SCCH success rate indicates the scheduling probability. MAC layer rate = Total size of TBs correctly received at the MAC-hs layer within a measurement period/Measurement period Total size of TBs correctly received at the MAC-hs layer within a measurement period only involves the TBs that are correctly received. Measurement period indicates all the time when TBs are received and not received. The relationship between the MAC layer rate and the served rate is as follows: MAC layer rate = Served rate * (1 - SBLER) SBLER = Total size of TBs incorrectly received within a measurement period/Total size of all TBs received within a measurement period. The SBLER indicates the BLER of TBs. To reflect user experience more approximately, the rate at the MAC layer is usually used.

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Basic Conceptscalculated of Theoretical Rates


Probe MAC-e PDU non-DTX rate = Total size of all TBs during non-DTXs/(Number of non-DTXs * TTI) Measurement period: The measurement period for a single log packet is 20 TTIs. The MAC-e PDU non-DTX rate is the actual MAC-e rate excluding the TB transmission during DTXs but including TB retransmission Total size of all TBs during non-DTXs involves the TBs that are initially transmitted and retransmitted. "Number of non-DTXs * TTI" indicates only the duration in which TBs are transmitted. For example, within a measurement period of 100 subframes (200 ms), if only 50 subframes contain data, the "number of non-DTXs * TTI" is 100 ms. MAC-e PDU served rate = Total size of all TBs during non-DTXs/(NUM_SAMPLES * TTI) The MAC-e PDU served rate is the MAC-e service rate including the TB transmission during DTXs and TB retransmission. Total size of all TBs during non-DTXs involves the TBs that are initially transmitted and retransmitted. NUM_SAMPLES * TTI indicates duration in which TBs are transmitted and not transmitted. For example, within a measurement period with 100 subframes (200 ms), if only 50 subframes contain data. However, the "NUM_SAMPLES * TTI" is still 200 ms. The relationship between the MAC-e PDU served rate and the MAC-e PUD non-DTX rate is as follows: Served rate = MAC-e PDU non-DTX rate * Non-DTX probability Non-DTX probability = Number of non-DTXs/NUM_SAMPLES * 100% MAC-e PDU available rate = Total size of all TBs during non-DTXs and when COMB_HIGH is ACK and ACK_NS/(NUM_SAMPLES * TTI) Total size of all TBs during non-DTXs and when COMB_HIGH is ACK and ACK_NS" involves only the TBs that are correctly transmitted. NUM_SAMPLES * TTI indicates all the time whether data is transmitted or not. The relationship between the MAC-e PDU available rate and the MAC-e PUD served rate is as follows: MAC-e PDU available rate "MAC-e PDU served rate" * (1 - SBLER) SBLER = (Number of non-DTXs Number of ACKs or ACK_NSs)/Number of non-DTXs * 100%

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