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HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

FROM MANISH AGGARWAL

Introduction
Electric drive vehicles have been around for a long time. They continue to ignite the imagination of many number of people and have gathered support across a variety of industries. One early version developed in 1912 can be seen in the Ford Museum in Dearborn Michigan. This technology has three essential components: power units, energy storage systems and propulsion units. Power units could include fuel cells, conventional internal combustion engines and turbine engines. Energy storage devices could be batteries or flywheel systems, and propulsion units can come in the form of electric motors.

Objectives

1. 2. 3. 4.

Definition of a Hybrid System Main Hybrid Systems Components Classification of Hybrids Types of Hybrid Drivetrain

Source: www.hybridcenter.org

Hybrid Systems Definition

Definition
A hybrid is the combination of two or more different things, aimed at achieving a particular objective or goal

Hybrid Vehicle
A hybrid electric vehicle combines an internal combustion engine and an electric motor powered by batteries, merging the best features of today's combustion engine cars and electric vehicles.

Source: www.hybridcenter.org

So, what is Hybrid anyways .,??


A hybrid electric vehicle(HEV) augments an electric vehicle with second source of power referred to as the alternative power unit (APU). A hybrid can achieve the cruising range and performance advantages of conventional vehicles with the low noise, exhaust emissions and energy independence of electric vehicles.
Accordingly, the hybrid concept, where the alternative source of energy is gaining acceptance and is overcoming some of the problems of pure electric vehicles.

ABOUT HEVS
HEVs offer the efficiency of electric-powered vehicles without having to recharge by using conventional engines and fuels. Efficiencies are gained from motor down-sizing and regenerative braking. Inherent flexibility allows use for numerous applications.

HEV MODEL

How does battery have power.,??

When the gasoline kicks on, it also turns a generator to generator electricity to recharge a battery.
If some battery starts to get low, the gasoline engine will sometimes come on even under normal conditions to recharge the battery.

COMPONENTS OF HEV
ELECTRIC DRIVE MOTORS To provide the power for propulsion. Converts the electric energy to mechanical energy (motion) to drive the hybrid vehicle. The two possible configurations of electric drive motors to hybrid vehicle. Single electric motor connected to the wheels through the drive train and multiple electric motors, one located at thwe each wheel. AUXILARY POWER UNITS Supplies the baseline power required to the vehicle, recharges the batteries and power accessories such as the air conditioner and heater.

COMPONENTS OF HEV (CONTD.)

The APU can consist of a mechanical type engine or a fuel cell. GENERATORS Used to convert mechanical power to electrical power when used in series hybrid.
ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS Peak power required in hybrid vehicles is met devices like batteries and capacitors of a flywheel. Stores energy and readily release energy when it is needed.

HYBRID WORKING:
>The battery is charged via kinetic energy recovery system by regenrative braking system . This battery uses the captured energy to power the electric motor while the vehicle is at low speed. When the hybrid reaches a certain speed ususally about 40 miles per hour, the online computer activates the gasoline motor that the power the vehicle which lead to excellent fuel efficiency.

HYBRID STRUCTURE
Two types of hybrid vehicle configurations Parallel hybrids Series hybrids Parallel hybrid systems, which are most commonly produced at present, have both an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric motor coupled. If they are joined at an axis in parallel, the speeds at this axis must be identical and the supplied torques add together.

Series hybrids have also been referred to as range-extended electric vehicles (REEV) where they are designed to be run mostly by the battery, but have a petrol or diesel generator to recharge the battery when going on a long drive

PLUG IN HYBRIDS

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV), or plug-in hybrid is a hybrid vehicle which utilizes rechargeable batteries, or another energy storage device, that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source (usually a normal electric wall socket).
A PHEV shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle, having an electric motor and an internal combustion engine (ICE); and of an all-electric vehicle, having a plug to connect to the electrical grid.

PLUG IN HYBRIDS
Some newer hybrids can be plugged in at home to recharge the battery so you do not need to use gasoline to do it. This makes it even more fuel efficient.

Some Models of HEVs


Honda Insight Hybrid Toyota Prius Hybrid Chevrolet Volt Hybrid Ford Escape Hybrid GMC Sierra Hybrid Lexus 400h Tata Indigo Manza diesel hybrid (to be launched)

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF HYBRID VEHICLES

ADVANTAGES : >lower fuel usage >lower emission >less wear on engine components >tax benefits
DISADVANTAGES: >high cost >acceleration is not exhilating >battery cost is high >less speed > Unskilled laboured is there for reparing

CONCLUSIONS
Using the concept of Hybridization of cars results in better efficiency and also saves a lot of fuel in todays fuel deficit world. A hybrid gives a solution to all the problems to some extent. If proper research and development is done in this field, hybrid vehicle promises a practical, efficient, low pollution vehicle for the coming era. One can surely conclude that this concept and the similar ones to follow with even better efficiency & conservation rate are very much on the anvil in todays energy deficit world.

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