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Relieve muscular spasms and pain associated with traumatic injuries and spasticity from chronic debilitating disorders

Spasticity results from increased muscle tone from hyper excitable neurons caused by increased stimulation from the cerebral neurons or lack of inhibition in the spinal cord or at the skeletal muscles.

CENTRAL ACTING MUSCLE RELAXANTS


Are used in cases of spasticity to suppress hyperactive reflex and for muscle spasms that do not respond to anti-inflammatory agents, physical therapy or other forms of therapy. Centrally acting muscle relaxants acts on the spinal cord.

SPASTICITY
Is muscular hyperactivity that causes contractions of the muscles, resulting in pain and ,limited mobility. Ex. Of centrally acting muscle relaxants that treat spasticity are baclofen (Lioresal), dantrolene (Dantrium), and tizanidine (Zanaflex). Diazepam (Valium), a benzodiazepine has also been effective for treating spasticity

MUSCLE SPASMS
Various centrally acting muscled relaxants are used for muscle spasms, to decrease pain and increase range of motion. They have a sedative effect and should not be taken concurrently with CNS depressants such as barbiturates, narcotics, and alcohol Dizziness and drowsiness are common side effects. Examples of this group of centrally acting muscle relaxants are carisoprodol (soma), chlorzoxazone (Paraflex), cyclobenzaprine (flexeril), metaxalone (skelaxin), methocarbamol (Robaxin), and orphenadrine citrate (Norflex).

Diazepam (Valium)
Diazepam has many uses, one of which is to relive muscle spasms associated with paraplegia and cerebral palsy. contraindicated in narrow-angle glaucoma.

Meprobamate (miltown)
Has a muscle relaxant effect

baclofen (lioresal)
For muscle spasms casued by MS and spinal cord injury. Overdose may cause CNS depression. Drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, hypotension may occur.

Tizanidine (zanaflex)
To manage spasticity, especially for spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis.

Dantrolene sodium (dantrium)


For chronic neurologic disorders causing spasms, spinal cord injuries, stroke, MS. Start with low doses and increase every 4 to 7 day. Avoid taking with alcohol and CNS depressants.

Carisprodol (soma)

To relax skeletal muscles Blocks interneuronal activity Increase CNS depression with alcohol, narcotics, sedative-hypnotics, anti-histamines, tricyclic antidepressants. May increase risk for ventrivular fibrilation with calcium channel blockers. Contraindicated with severe renal or renal disease. Side effects are nausea, vomitting, dizziness, weakness, insomnia Adverse reactions are asthmatic attack, tachycardia, hypotension, diplopia.

Chlorzoxazone (paraton forte)

Cyclobenzaprine HCL (flexiril, cycloflex)

For acute of severe muscle spasms. Not effective for cerebral palsy. Take with food to decrease GI upset.

Methocarbamol (robaxin, marbaxin)

For short term treatment of muscle spasms Not effective for relieving cerebral or spinal cord disease. Take with food to reduce GI upset.
For acute muscle spasms, drug used for treatment of tetanus Has CNS depressant effects. Avoid taking alcohol or CNS depressants. Urine may be green, brown or black. Drowsiness that may occur usually decrease with continued drug use.

Metaxalone (skelaxin)
For acute painful muscle spasticity

Orphenadrine citrate (norflex, flexon)


For acute muscle spasm, can be toxic with mild overdose Used in combination with aspirin and caffeine. (norgesic)

Pancuronium bromide (pavulon)


Used in surgery for relaxation of skeletal muscle Considered to be five times as potent as tubocurarine chloride. Does not cause hypotension or bronchospasm

Succinylcholine Cl (anectine Cl. Quelion, sucostrin)


used in surgery with anesthesia for skeletal muscle relaxation Also used in endoscopy and intubation.

Vecuronium bromide (norcuron)


Used is similar as succinylcholine chloride. Can be used for clients with asthma, renal disease, or limited cardiac reserve Given after general anesthesia has been started.

Tubocurarine Cl
Adjunct to general anesthesia To induce skeletal muscle relaxation