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Many water contaminants such as bacteria, algae, oils, clays, silica, carbon black, phosphates, nickel, lead, & chromate are held in suspension within a water column by electrical charges.
Electrocoagulation moves the electrons through the water between positive & negative plates. This causes a surface charge on the plates. Positive and negative partials attach to the plate surface magnetically. When the polarity is reversed the magnetically attached particles are re-pelled into the water flow.

The electron flow stops and reversed direction when the polarity is reversed. The chamber must have sufficient residence time or volume to allow the water to be treated even though the power is off for 1/30 of a second during polarity reversing. Electrocoagulation is a surface reaction. When considering which electrocoagulation chamber to purchase, determine the surface area within the chamber per gpm. Recent design developments for power supplies and reactor cells have resulted in electrocoagulation having lower operating costs and higher flow rates and moved this technology to the forefront of water treatment.

Description of Electro coagulation process Electro coagulation is the process of destabilizing suspended, emulsified or dissolved contaminants in anaqueous medium by introducing an electrical current into the medium. The electrical current provides the electromotive force to drive the chemical reactions. When reactions are driven or forced, the elements or compounds will approach the most stable state. Electro coagulation utilizes direct current to cause sacrificial electrode ions to remove undesirable contaminants either bychemical reaction and precipitation or by causing colloidal materials and then be removed by electrolytic flotation.The electro coagulation system has proven with a variety of wastewaters.

These waters are paper pulp mill waste, metal plating, tanneries, canning factories, steel mill effluent, slaughter houses, chromate, lead and mercury laden effluents, as well as domestic sewage. These wastewaters will be reduced to clear, clean, odorless and reusable water. Especially domestic sewage treated by electro coagulation, will be better than the raw water from which it had originated.

Electrocoagulation for water treatment Electrocoagulation is a water treatment technique, in which metal electrodes are dissolved electrochemically to induce coagulation of colloidal contaminants, obviating the addition of liquid Al3 or Fe3 coagulants, as required by conventional coagulation methods. The objectives are to achieve a better understanding of the physico-chemical processes in this type of electrochemical reactor, to develop a comprehensive computer model as a tool for its improvement, and to create an optimised version of the whole electrocoagulation process. This will enable improved performance from a pilot plant for the treatment of natural waters.

Working principle Dissolution of metal ions from an electrode by applied potential Simultaneous evolution of H2 gas bubbles Destabilisation of suspension coagulation H2 bubbles promote flotation, but also sedimentation may occur Pair(s) of Fe or Al parallel plate electrodes separated by a few mm

Schematic of basic electrocoagulation process

Outline Investigation of dissolution kinetics of aluminium and iron by rotating ring-disc electrodes and in a bench-scale electrochemical reactor Theoretical modelling of the electrochemical dissolution process and the formation and growth of particles Investigation of coagulation performance in dependence of process parameters in laboratory and pilot plant scale Design, construction and trial of an optimised process

How electrocoagulation works

Electrocoagulation cells consist of pairs of parallel metal plate electrodes separated by a few millimetres with a low voltage applied at high current densities. The current flowing between the electrodes destabilises electrical charges, which maintain suspensions of particulates, e.g. clays, and emulsions/micro-emulsions of hydrocarbons and insoluble organic compounds. The particulates coagulate together into flocs. The hydrocarbons and insoluble organic compounds coalesce into larger droplets and rise in the cells. Electrochemical reactions at the electrodes produce very fine H2 and O2 gas bubbles and highly chemically reactive hydroxyl OH- and superoxide HO2- radicals.

The gas bubbles promote the flotation of coagulated solids and coalesced hydrocarbons, etc. The hydroxyl and superoxide radicals cause precipitation of hydroxides of heavy metals & breakdown of many soluble organic molecules. Special Features of the Electro coagulation process Chemical Free, Non Biological Uses Hybrid Mono & Bipolar Technology Modular In Construction Custom Designed Easily Expandable Designed For Continuous Operation Can be Retrofitted In the existing facility
Small Foot Print

Functions of Electro coagulation Process Removes : Organics Suspended Solids Turbidity Algae Odour Fats, Oil and Grease Heavy Metals Colour & Disinfects Water Advantages of Electrocoagulation Processes 1. A Chemical Free, Non Biological Process. 2. Eliminates Procurement, Transportation, Storage, Preparation And Use of Hazardous And Expensive Chemicals.

3. High Contaminant Removal. 4. Reduces Dependence on External Source For Water Supply for various Uses. 5. Improves Health of Water Body where Treated Water is Discharged, Reducing Pollution & Making it Eco Friendly. 6. Saves Water, Energy and Chemicals. 7. Far less Skill Required In Operation and Maintenance. 8. Far less Moving Parts, Reducing Plant Down Time. 9. Needs Less Floor Space with Small Foot Print. 10. Noiseless Operation. 11. Low Capital, Operating And Life Cycle Cost Better Performance To Cost Ratio.