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A-INTERFACE

GENERAL INFORMATION

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Interfaces to MSC/VLR
GMSC EIR F-I/f C-I/f MAP MSC/VLR VLR MSC E-I/f MAP MAP D-I/f MAP MSC/VLR MSC G-I/f VLR MAP VLR MSC/VLR MSC

HLR

Iu-I/f
Gs-I/f RNS RNC Iur-I/f RNC RANAP SGSN BSSAP+

A-I/f BSSAP BSS BSC

Node B

Node B

BTS

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TS GSM 48.001 General Aspects


48.002 48.004 48.006 48.008 48.020 Interface Principles Layer 1 - Specification Signaling Transport Mechanism Layer 3 Specification Rate Adaptation on the BSS-MSC Interface

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TS GSM 48.002 INTERFACE PRINCIPLES


Principles which 48.0x technical specification series are based, e.g.
BSS (BSC+BTS) is considered as a whole 1 or more 2048 kbit/s digital transmission Layered signalling Channel bit rate 64 kbit/s at MSC boundary, considering net radio path traffic channel rate less than 16 kbit/s (transcoders)

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MSC Functions
Terrestrial channel allocation Blocking of terrestrial channels TCH channel release DCCH channel release Channel coding decoding Interworking function (data calls) Traffic measurements Handover Mobility management Call control Encryption

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Signaling protocol reference model


Applications e.g. call control

DTAP Direct Transfer Application Part DTAP BSSMAP + BSSMAP BSS Management Application Part = Distribution Function BSSAP BSS Application Part

SCCP

MTP Physical Layer


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Messages and logical difference

Network

MS

MSC/VLR

DTAP/NAS

SMS Message

BSS/RNS
Initial MS/UE message BSSMAP RANAP

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TS GSM 48.004 LAYER 1 SPECIFICATION


Defines structure of physical layer for supporting traffic channels
32 * 64 kbit/s time slots (E1) 24 * 64 kbit/s time slots (T1) Refers to CCITT recommendations and ANSI specifications

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TS GSM 48.006 SIGNALLING TRANSPORT MECHANISM FOR MSC-BSC INTERFACE


Defines the subsets of MTP, and SCCP and its use
MTP provides a mechanism giving reliable transfer of signaling messages SCCP provides a referencing mechanism to identify a particular transaction relating to for instance a particular call. The SCCP can also be used to enhance the message routing

MTP
E1 links: CCITT Recommendations Q.701, Q.702, Q.703, Q.704, and Q.707 T1 links: ANSI Specifications T1.111 with stated exceptions

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SCCP
E1 links: CCITT Recommendations Q.711, Q.712, Q.713, and Q.714 T1 links: ANSI Specifications T1.112.1-4 with stated exceptions Not used SCCP functions: error detection, receipt confirmation, flow control

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Use of the SCCP


User function is BSSAP One signaling connection per active mobile station having one or more transactions for the transfer of layer 3 messages BSSMAP: Both connectionless and connection-oriented procedures DTAP: Connection-oriented procedures Distribution Function Distribution Data Unit: Discrimination Parameter, bit D D=0: BSSMAP message D=1: DTAP message

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ADDRESSING
SSN + SPC or SSN only No global title is used

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TS GSM 48.008 LAYER 3 SPECIFICATION

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GENERAL
Specifies Layer 3 procedures used on BSS-MSC interface for control of GSM services Call control and mobility management messages and procedures (DTAP) are described in GSM TS 04.08/3GPP TS 24.008 BSSMAP

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MAIN PARTS
BSSMAP procedures Message formats and coding Signalling element coding Signalling diagrams

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BSSMAP PROCEDURES
General information Successful/unsuccessful operation Abnormal conditions

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MESSAGE FORMATS AND CODING


Short description Information element Reference Direction Type (mandatory, optional) Length

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SIGNALLING ELEMENT CODING


Short description Structure of the IE
element identifier length value

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SIGNALLING DIAGRAMS
Sequence diagrams for the BSSMAP procedures Related to an unique procedure

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Connectionless BSSMAP messages between BSC and MSC/VLR


Block Blocking Acknowledge Unblock Unblocking Acknowledge Circuit Group Block Circuit Group Blocking Acknowledge Circuit Group Unblock BSC Circuit Group Unblocking Acknowledge Paging Reset Reset Acknowledge Reset Circuit Reset Circuit Acknowledge Unequipped Circuit
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MSC/VLR

Connection oriented BSSMAP messages between BSC and MSC/VLR


Assignment Request Assignment Complete Assignment Failure Queuing Indication

Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete Cipher Mode Reject BSC MSC/VLR

Classmark Request
Classmark Update Clear Command Clear Complete

Clear Request Complete Layer 3 Information


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Connection oriented BSSMAP messages between BSC and MSC/VLR

Handover Performed

Handover Required Handover Required Reject Handover Request Handover Request Acknowledge BSC Handover Command Handover Detect Handover Complete Handover Failure
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MSC/VLR
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Connection oriented BSSMAP messages between BSC and MSC/VLR

Connection Oriented Information Connection Oriented Information

Perform Location Request Perform Location Response MSC/VLR BSC MSC Invoke Trace Trace Invocation SAPI n Reject
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DTAP Messages for Mobility Management


Authentication Request
Authentication Response Authentication Reject CM Service Request

CM Service Accept
CM Service Reject CM Service Abort BSC MS Identity Request Identity Response Location Updating Accept Location Updating Reject IMSI Detach Indication TMSI Reallocation Command TMSI Reallocation Complete

MSC/VLR

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/// BSSAP

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FS A-Interface Application Parts in MSC/VLR Server


Main A-Interface FS 1/15517-1/APT 21026/2 Lists the sections The use of SCCP - Addressing - CO and CL services BSSAP message and IE structure

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FSs for Signalling Procedures


A-Interface, Section A: Location Updating, IMSI Attach and IMSI Detach Procedures A-Interface, Section B: Basic Call Control Procedures A-Interface, Section C: Call Related Supplementary Service Procedures A-Interface, Section D: Call Independent Supplementary Service Procedures A-Interface, Section E: Parallel Transaction Procedures A-Interface, Section F: Short Message Service Procedures A-Interface, Section G: Base Station System Management Application Part Procedures A-Interface, Section P: Location Services Procedures
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A/Iu-Interface, Section R: UMTS to GSM Inter-System Handover Procedures A/Iu-Interface, Section S: GSM to UMTS Inter-System Handover Procedures

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FSs for Formats and Coding of Messages


A-Interface, Section H: Base Station System Management Application Part, BSSMAP, Message Formats and Coding A/Iu-Interface, Section I: DTAP and RANAP/NAS, Message Formats and Coding for Mobility Management A-Interface, Section J: Direct Transfer Application Part, DTAP, Message Formats and Coding for Short Message Service A/Iu-Interface, Section K: DTAP and RANAP/NAS, Message Formats and Coding for Call Control and Call Related Supplementary Service Procedures A-Interface, Section L: Direct Transfer Application Part, DTAP, Message Formats and Coding for Call Independent Supplementary Service Procedures A-Interface, Section M: Supplementary Service Protocol A-Interface, Section Q: Location Services Protocol Formats and Coding
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FS A-interface, Section G: BSSMAP Procedures


Specifies BSSMAP signalling sequences between MSC/VLR Server and BSS/UE All supported BSSMAP procedures Time supervisions

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FS A-interface, Section H: BSSMAP Message Formats and Coding


Lists all supported messages, IEs Describes Error handling Additionally compared with TS 48.008
GSM phase information notes about the use of IEs

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ERROR HANDLING
In case of inconsistent message length between delivered message length according to SCCP and BSSAP header message length, the BSSAP header message length has higher priority Messages with faulty BSSAP header are ignored. Messages are ignored if they are not consistent with the Signalling Type (CL, CO), with the direction, or with the recipients state Not recognized or not implemented messages are ignored. The information elements are classified into conditional, essential, non-essential, and transparent types:

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Messages containing an unrecognisable or unexpected IE before the last essential IEs are rejected with the cause 'Invalid message' if a reject message exists. If no reject message exists the message is ignored Messages containing an unrecognisable IE or unexpected IE, after the last essential IEs have been received, are accepted Messages with a missing essential information element are rejected with the cause 'Invalid message' if a reject message exists. If no reject message exists the message is ignored Messages with a missing non-essential IE are accepted

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If the MSC/VLR receives a message and diagnoses a missing conditional IE or an unexpected conditional IE or when it receives a message containing at least one syntactically incorrect conditional and non-transparent IE which is required to be present, then the message will be rejected with the cause 'Invalid Message' if a reject message exists. If no reject message exists the message is ignored Messages that have an essential and non-transparent IE with field having an incorrect value are rejected if applied with the cause 'Invalid message'. If no reject message exists, the message is ignored Messages that have a non-essential IE with fields having incorrect value are accepted. IE is ignored Transparent IEs are not checked

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MMS FUNCTION SPECIFICATIONS


Administration and Handling of A-Interface Lines in MSC/VLR
The purpose of this function is to give the operation and maintenance staff the ability to define and supervise Ainterface lines The A-interface lines are the channels on the trunk between the MSC/VLR Server and the BSC The A-interface line can be configured according to ITU-T specifications or ANSI specifications.

Administration of BSC Data in MSC/VLR


This function allows the operation and maintenance staff to administer BSC data by means of exchange commands

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The administration of BSC data includes the following commands Definition of BSC Change of BSC capabilities Connection of alternative route to a BSC Disconnection of alternative route from a BSC Removal of BSC Printing of BSC data

Administration of Cell Data in MSC/VLR Server


For this function, two function specifications exist. The function specification to be ordered depends on the ordering information. Either administration of cell data is supported or administration of both location area data and cell data is supported.

Assignment of Radio Channels in MSC/VLR Server


The Function Specification describes the radio channel assignment and release procedures for signaling channel assignment and traffic channel assignment over A-interface

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Circuit Pools for A-interface in MSC/VLR


This function groups, by means of commands, circuits supporting the same channel type characteristics into circuit pools in the MSC/VLR server. It enables the MSC/VLR Server to interwork with BSC which control different transcoder and rate adaptor units (TRAU) connected to different A-interface lines This function selects a circuit in an adequate circuit pool at channel assignment or handover when it is ordered by the MSC/VLR Server or when it is requested by the BSC due to circuit pool handling reasons.

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FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
A-Interface Line Terminal Functions
The A-interface line terminal functions allow the seizure and release of an A-interface line (device) towards a BSS. The function also takes care of the administration of A-interface lines The A-interface line terminal functions handle BSSAP messages, concerning A-interface lines (block, unblock, circuit group block, circuit group unblock, reset circuit, unequipped circuit) The type of signaling used for the A-interface is ITU-T or ANSI signaling for the SCCP and Message Transfer Part (MTP)layers The A-interface line terminal functions take care of the handling of transmission concerning A-interface lines (A-law or U-law idle pattern sending, 24-channel(T1) or 32-channel(E1) Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Interface or SDH/STM-1 interface)
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Administration of BSCs
Administration of BSCs is a part of the administration of Base Station subsystem data in MSC/VLR Server

Administration of Cells
The administration of the cells is performed by means of seven commands, if the Location Area (LA) administration is supported, and four commands, if the LA administration is not supported. The LA administration involves the definition of a LA before the definition of the cells to be connected to it, and removal of a LA after all cells are removed from this LA

Administration of Circuit Pools for A-Interface


This function is responsible for the administration of the circuit pools for A-interface

Assignment of Radio Channels in MSC/VLR


This function handles the assignment request, and possible repetition assignment request due to circuit pool handling, of a traffic channel or a dedicated signalling channel, when requested by other functions
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MM Transaction Establishment in MSC/VLR


The MM transaction establishment function establishes the transaction of internal AXE links between the upper layer (CM) and the lower layer (RR). It distributes messages and signals coming from the link in both directions, to the proper user function

MM Connection Management
The MM connection management function establishes, maintains and releases internal links between the upper layer (CM) and the lower layer (RR), after a first transaction has been established. It distributes messages and signals coming from the link in both directions, to the proper user function

MM Traffic
Takes part for instance packing and unpacking of MM messages

Monitoring of Mobile Subscribers, A-interface Lines and Iu Connections in MSC/VLR


This function describes the implementation of monitoring in the MMS subsystem.
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Packing and Unpacking of Messages on RR Level


The function packs and unpacks all BSSAP messages related to the radio resources level

RR & SCCP Connection Management


This function is responsible for the following actions: Establishment and release of SCCP and Rrconnections Distribution of BSSMAP messages received from SCCP to the appropriate user function Forwarding of Direct Transfer Application Part (DTAP) messages received from SCCP to the 'MM connection management' function Sending of BSSMAP messages from user functions or DTAP messages from function 'MM-connection management'to SCCP Sending, reception and distribution of connectionless messages Handling of process at reception of a RESET message from a BSC
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BLOCKS
DIPST (Digital Path Supervision and Test)
The Function block DIPST contains functions for Digital Path (DIP) administration and maintenance, as well as hardware and clock reference administration

DIPHID (Digital Path Historical Data)


The function block contains functions for historical data administration

ET (Exchange Terminal function)


Function block ET handles the hardware supervision of Exchange Terminal Circuit (ETC) and takes part in the supervision of DIP. It also handles the connection/disconnection of the Exchange Module (EM) and Switching Network Terminal (SNT)

ETDIF (Exchange Terminal - Device InterFace)


ETDIF is an interface block between a Device Owner, in this case MALT, and SNT owner ET. This function is needed for ET155
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MALT (Mobile Telephony A-interface Line Terminal)


MALT owns the A-Interface lines, it handles the selection and the release of devices, performs actions as blocking, deblocking and reset of the devices according to the reception of messages from the BSS. The block can send BSSAP messages to acknowledge or initiate actions. For remote A-interface MRALT and MRALTM are the corresponding blocks.

MALTC (Mobile Telephony A-interface Line Terminal Coordinator)


MALTC co-ordinates together with MBSCA the administration of alternative routes (of different device types) to a BSC. The block is also involved in traffic handling by co-ordinating the selection of alternative routes at seizure of A-interface line, when the main route is congested.

MLABT (Mobile Telephony Line Terminal Label Translation)


MLABT handles the translation of the BSS pointer and Circuit Identity Code (CIC) into a device number and a device block.

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MMMMH (Mobile Telephony Mobility Management Message Handler)


MMMMH performs the packing and unpacking of all BSSAP messages related to the mobility management level

MMMSAMH (Mobile Telephony Mobility Management Satellite Application Message Handler)


The function block MMMSAMH performs analysis,packing and unpacking of Global Satellite System specific MM IEs

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MRRM complex (Mobile Telephony Radio Resources Management, /MRRM, MRRMASG, MRRMHO/)
MRRM supervises the establishment and the release of the signaling connections between the MSC/VLR server and the BSC, and handles the messages At the reception of the messages, MRRM checks and distributes the different messages to the appropriate user function. The transparent messages (DTAP) are forwarded to the block MMM. The BSSMAP messages, received from MSCCO in connectionoriented mode or from MSCCL in connectionless mode are distributed to the appropriate function on RR level which will initiate the unpacking of the message and take the appropriate action In the connection oriented mode, MRRM receives the sending signals from the upper layer for DTAP messages or from MRRMH for BSSMAP messages and forwards them to MSCCO.

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-In the connectionless mode at message sending stage, MRRM does not act -The block is also involved in several BSSMAP procedures during the assignment of a terrestrial line, the BSC recording initiation process, the ciphering process, the handover and the global reset.

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MRRMH (Mobile Telephony Radio Resources Message Handler)


MRRMH is used for unpacking of incoming BSSMAP messages at message reception and for packing of outgoing BSSMAP messages at message sending

MRRRSMH (Mobile Telephony Radio Resources Regional Satellite Application Message Handler)
The function block MRRRSMH is responsible for the analysis, packing and unpacking of Regional Satellite application specific Ies included in RR layer messages

MRRSAMH (Mobile Telephony Radio Resources Satellite Application Message Handler)


The function block MRRSAMH is responsible for the analysis, unpacking and packing of Global Satellite System Specific RR IEs

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MSCCL (Mobile Telephony SCCP Connectionless Signaling)


MSCCL is used to provide the connectionless message service between the MSC/VLR server and the BSC. It handles the interface between MMS and CCS (SCCP) subsystems

MSCCO (Mobile Telephony SCCP Connection Oriented Signaling)


MSCCO transfers connection oriented messages between the MSC/VLR server and a BSC.

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Remote A-interface
Introduced in MSC R10

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What is the aim of this function?


Simply said: to use stand alone (Cello) media gateway for GSM
Site
MSC Server GCP HLR

Site
TSC/ GMSC Server GCP

MAP MAP BICC CS2

TDM: BSS
BTS BSC

MGW SGW

ATM or IP Connectivity Network

MGW SGW

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MMS blocks for local and remote BSC connection


Local BSC Trunk Int. MLABT ET DIPST MALTC MALT DIPHID ETDIF

Remote BSC Trunk Int. MLABT MRALT TAF

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