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Audio, Video and Animation

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Multimedia Components
Audio

Cds

Graphics

Video
Animation
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How useful is audio ?


Convey meaning provide extra channel of info to audience Different learner, different learning strategies (live web lecture) Add sense of realism, sensation Directing attention to important events Facilitate communication
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What is a sequencer ?
The musical equivalent of a word processor Data entry (generally by playing instrument) Editing manipulating Complex and for high-end Generally aimed at musicians
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Voice
Voice is analogue waves Voice is audio narration (whispers, cries, shouts, etc) Expressed in decibels (db)
dB 195 170 70 30 Watts 25-40m 100,000 0.00001 0.000000001
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Examples Saturn rocket Jet engine Voice Whispers


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Terms related to audio


Volume is peak of the wavelength Frequency is the distance between the audio waves If 1000 waves are repeated in a second 1000 Hz or 1 KHz Sampling is the process of digitizing analogue signals
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Terms related to audio


There are 3 main sampling rate for audio 11, 22.05 and 44.1 KHz Sample size is either 8 or 16bit Channel is either stereo or mono

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Comparison
Comment CD Quality Close to CD Voice quality Sampling Sample rate size 44 KHz 22 KHz 11 KHz 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit Bytes 10 MB 5 MB 2.5 MB

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Audio Examples
Caution and Warning
Bell or alarm will be activated when exceed limit Sound when an error occurs in computers Fire-engines

Music and special effects


Background sound and effects for launching ceremony

The use of voice/sound for narration (multimedia presentation)


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Basic features

Audio editing software: SoundForge XP, SoundEdit, GoldWave Record and playback Cut/copy/paste Paste-mix Level (amplitude) control Fade-in and fade-out Format change More advanced features like producing effects (reverb, chorus, delay)
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Audio File Formats

.aiff universal Macintosh format .au - Unix .midi electronics equipment .wav - windows .rm real audio, streaming Mp3 extension of mpeg, audio layer 3
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Audio File Calculation


Formula
File size = sampling rate X recording duration in second X (Sample size in bits/8) X number of channels Example: 10 seconds of recording at 22.05 kHz, 8 bit resolution and mono channel = 22050 x 10 x (8/8) x 1 = 220500 bytes
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What is video ?
Video definition :
a tool that can display the real situation in a place According to Agnew & Kellerman (1997) :

a digital media that shows a sequence of still pictures which produces illusion due to movements of the pictures
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According to Shelley & associates (1997) : it consists of photo images that are displayed at 15 to 30 frames per second to produce motion at real time

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Analog video: continuous value sets that uses microwaves to produce moving images like what is watch on TV

it cannot be played on a computer when enlarged, it does not influence the video quality
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Digital video:

consists discrete values between 0 and 1 it is played on a computer and pixel-based


when enlarged, video quality drops
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Types of video:

live free video (video-cam connected live to CRT monitor)


videotape (video content is linear, in series, searching is difficult and not computercontrolled)

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Types of video:

videodisk
-Constant Angular Velocity (CAV) and Constant Linear Velocity (CLV) -CAV can display still frames and sequenced movements
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Types of video: videodisk -CLV plays 1 hour of video on each sides

-CAV & CLV used widely in multimedia application -Stand-alone, suitable for teachers presentation
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Types of video: digital video -Compact disc and played with CD-ROM/DVD-ROM

-Can be networked to play certain clips (video-ondemand)

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Importance of video in education : explains abstract concepts shows motion/animation shows the real situation provides interactions and responses (interactive videos)

gives affective teaching


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Some common video file formats : .avi .mpg .mov .ra .gif (animated gif)

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Video clips capturing :


is done using a video capture card internal card or external Ex: Snazzi latest product uses flash RAM to store video clips. They are transferred to PC via USB port Ex: Digital Camera
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Video clips editing : is a process of displaying the clip and select certain section to be cut marked by mark in (start) and mark out (end) Example of software : ifilmedit 4.0 and QuickTime Player
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Video clips rendering : is a process of re-sequencing all video frames to produce a single video clip other multimedia elements can be added such as text, graphic and audio

Software (Ulead Video System, Adobe Premier)


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What is animation ?
To create movements (animate) through a series of graphics is animation. The animation software will transform the graphic movements into a series of frames

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The concept of animation is to :

Bring to life
Creating motion

Breathe life into


Inspirit

inspire
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Earlier form of animation : Shadow puppets clay model sand cartoons

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2-D animation software : Animator Pro Rio Animator Animator Toons

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3-D animation software : 3-D Studio Topas Playmotion Flying fonts Lightwave 3D-FX
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Example of 3D animation

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Basically, there are two types of animation :

Path animation
Movement of objects in a fixed path Cell animation Movement of objects in a fixed cell (container)
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Authoring software that are capable of producing path and cell animation : Toolbook Assistant
Toolbook Instructor

Flash
Director

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Factors to consider before producing animation for authoring :

Output format of the animation (animated gif or avi movie or etc)


Is the animation suitable for web ? (swf of Flash or gif) How good is the quality of the animation ? (graphical software factor or animation software)
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