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Audio, Video and Animation

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Multimedia Components



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How useful is audio ?

Convey meaning provide extra channel of info to audience Different learner, different learning strategies (live web lecture) Add sense of realism, sensation Directing attention to important events Facilitate communication
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What is a sequencer ?
The musical equivalent of a word processor Data entry (generally by playing instrument) Editing manipulating Complex and for high-end Generally aimed at musicians
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Voice is analogue waves Voice is audio narration (whispers, cries, shouts, etc) Expressed in decibels (db)
dB 195 170 70 30 Watts 25-40m 100,000 0.00001 0.000000001
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Examples Saturn rocket Jet engine Voice Whispers


Terms related to audio

Volume is peak of the wavelength Frequency is the distance between the audio waves If 1000 waves are repeated in a second 1000 Hz or 1 KHz Sampling is the process of digitizing analogue signals
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Terms related to audio

There are 3 main sampling rate for audio 11, 22.05 and 44.1 KHz Sample size is either 8 or 16bit Channel is either stereo or mono

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Comment CD Quality Close to CD Voice quality Sampling Sample rate size 44 KHz 22 KHz 11 KHz 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit Bytes 10 MB 5 MB 2.5 MB

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Audio Examples
Caution and Warning
Bell or alarm will be activated when exceed limit Sound when an error occurs in computers Fire-engines

Music and special effects

Background sound and effects for launching ceremony

The use of voice/sound for narration (multimedia presentation)

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Basic features

Audio editing software: SoundForge XP, SoundEdit, GoldWave Record and playback Cut/copy/paste Paste-mix Level (amplitude) control Fade-in and fade-out Format change More advanced features like producing effects (reverb, chorus, delay)
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Audio File Formats

.aiff universal Macintosh format .au - Unix .midi electronics equipment .wav - windows .rm real audio, streaming Mp3 extension of mpeg, audio layer 3
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Audio File Calculation

File size = sampling rate X recording duration in second X (Sample size in bits/8) X number of channels Example: 10 seconds of recording at 22.05 kHz, 8 bit resolution and mono channel = 22050 x 10 x (8/8) x 1 = 220500 bytes
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What is video ?
Video definition :
a tool that can display the real situation in a place According to Agnew & Kellerman (1997) :

a digital media that shows a sequence of still pictures which produces illusion due to movements of the pictures
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According to Shelley & associates (1997) : it consists of photo images that are displayed at 15 to 30 frames per second to produce motion at real time

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Analog video: continuous value sets that uses microwaves to produce moving images like what is watch on TV

it cannot be played on a computer when enlarged, it does not influence the video quality
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Digital video:

consists discrete values between 0 and 1 it is played on a computer and pixel-based

when enlarged, video quality drops
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Types of video:

live free video (video-cam connected live to CRT monitor)

videotape (video content is linear, in series, searching is difficult and not computercontrolled)

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Types of video:

-Constant Angular Velocity (CAV) and Constant Linear Velocity (CLV) -CAV can display still frames and sequenced movements
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Types of video: videodisk -CLV plays 1 hour of video on each sides

-CAV & CLV used widely in multimedia application -Stand-alone, suitable for teachers presentation
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Types of video: digital video -Compact disc and played with CD-ROM/DVD-ROM

-Can be networked to play certain clips (video-ondemand)

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Importance of video in education : explains abstract concepts shows motion/animation shows the real situation provides interactions and responses (interactive videos)

gives affective teaching

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Some common video file formats : .avi .mpg .mov .ra .gif (animated gif)

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Video clips capturing :

is done using a video capture card internal card or external Ex: Snazzi latest product uses flash RAM to store video clips. They are transferred to PC via USB port Ex: Digital Camera
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Video clips editing : is a process of displaying the clip and select certain section to be cut marked by mark in (start) and mark out (end) Example of software : ifilmedit 4.0 and QuickTime Player
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Video clips rendering : is a process of re-sequencing all video frames to produce a single video clip other multimedia elements can be added such as text, graphic and audio

Software (Ulead Video System, Adobe Premier)

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What is animation ?
To create movements (animate) through a series of graphics is animation. The animation software will transform the graphic movements into a series of frames

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The concept of animation is to :

Bring to life
Creating motion

Breathe life into


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Earlier form of animation : Shadow puppets clay model sand cartoons

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2-D animation software : Animator Pro Rio Animator Animator Toons

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3-D animation software : 3-D Studio Topas Playmotion Flying fonts Lightwave 3D-FX
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Example of 3D animation

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Basically, there are two types of animation :

Path animation
Movement of objects in a fixed path Cell animation Movement of objects in a fixed cell (container)
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Authoring software that are capable of producing path and cell animation : Toolbook Assistant
Toolbook Instructor


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Factors to consider before producing animation for authoring :

Output format of the animation (animated gif or avi movie or etc)

Is the animation suitable for web ? (swf of Flash or gif) How good is the quality of the animation ? (graphical software factor or animation software)
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