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# Data Communications & Networking

Physical Layer

## Multilevel :- to increase the data speed

The goal is to increase the number of bits per baud by encoding a pattern of m data elements into a pattern of n signal elements. M data elements produce 2m data patterns L different levels can produce Ln combination of signal patterns. If 2m =Ln each data pattern encoded in to one signal pattern. If 2m <Ln data pattern occupy only a subset of signal pattern. Subset can be carefully designed to prevent baseline wandering, to provide synchronization, and to detect errors. If 2m >Ln each encoding is not possible, bcoz some of data patterns can not be encoded.

Note

Such scheme is called as mBnL In mBnL schemes, a pattern of m data elements is encoded as a pattern of n signal elements in which 2m Ln.

Signal patterns for 2T(Ternary=3 voltage levels +ve, 0 ,-ve: T2 =9 possible signal patterns with three signal levels)

+ve

-ve

+ve 0

0 -ve

## Multitransition: MLT-3 scheme

Differential encoding scheme with more than two transition rules A scheme that maps one bit to one signal element If next bit is 0, no transition, if next bit is 1 and current level is not 0, the next level is 0, if next bit 1 and current level 0, the next level is opposite of the last nonzero level.

## Summary of line coding schemes

Note

Block coding is normally referred to as mB/nB coding; it replaces each m-bit group with an n-bit group.

## Substitution in 4B/5B block coding

Example
We need to send data at a 1-Mbps rate. What is the minimum required bandwidth, using a combination of 4B/5B and NRZ-I or Manchester coding? Solution
First 4B/5B block coding increases the bit rate to 1.25 Mbps. The minimum bandwidth using NRZ-I is N/2 or 625 kHz. The Manchester scheme needs a minimum bandwidth of 1 MHz. The first choice needs a lower bandwidth, but has a DC component problem; the second choice needs a higher bandwidth, but does not have a DC component problem.

Scrambling
Biphase schemes are not suitable for long distance communication bcoz of its wide bandwidth requirement Block coding with NRZ is not suitable because of DC component. Bipolar AMI on the other hand has a narrow bandwidth and doesnt create DC component, but long sequence of 0s upset synch problem. scrambling used to solve above problem of AMI, system need to insert required pulses based on the defined scrambling rule.

## AMI used with scrambling

B8ZS bipolar with 8-zero substitution Two cases of B8ZS scrambling technique

## HDB3(High density bipolar 3 zeroes) scrambling technique

Rules:-000V if earlier substitution is odd else B00V

## Different situations in HDB3 scrambling technique

Note

HDB3 substitutes four consecutive zeros with 000V or B00V depending on the number of nonzero pulses after the last substitution.

ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Delta Modulation (DM) Self study

TRANSMISSION MODES
The transmission of binary data across a link can be accomplished in either parallel or serial mode. In parallel mode, multiple bits are sent with each clock tick. In serial mode, 1 bit is sent with each clock tick. While there is only one way to send parallel data, there are two subclasses of serial transmission: asynchronous, synchronous,

Parallel transmission

Serial transmission

Note

In asynchronous transmission, we send 1 start bit (0) at the beginning and 1 or more stop bits (1s) at the end of each byte. There may be a gap between each byte.

Note

Asynchronous here means asynchronous at the byte level, but the bits are still synchronized; their durations are the same.

Asynchronous transmission

Note

In synchronous transmission, we send bits one after another without start or stop bits or gaps. It is the responsibility of the receiver to group the bits.

Synchronous transmission

Analog Transmission

Modulation of Digital Data Digital-to-Analog Conversion Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Phase Shift Keying (PSK) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Bit/Baud Comparison

Digital-to-analog modulation

## Types of digital-to-analog modulation

Note: Bit rate is the number of bits per second. Baud rate is the number of signal units per second. Baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate.

Example 1
An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal unit. If 1000 signal units are sent per second, find the baud rate and the bit rate

Solution
Baud rate = 1000 bauds per second (baud/s) Bit rate = 1000 x 4 = 4000 bps