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# Cellular Concepts And Frequency allocation

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

RADIO IN LOCAL LOOP LIMITED AVAILABILITY OF RF SPECTRUM

CELLULAR PRINCIPLE
INTERFERENCE PROBLEM INTERFERENCE AND SYSTEM CAPACITY FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN TRUNKING EFFICIENCY CELLULAR ENVIRONMENT CAPACITY CONSIDERATIONS FUTURE TRENDS

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

FERQUENCY SCARCITY PROBLEM

Tel Ex.

WIRED NETWORK

100,000 50 Khz = 5 Ghz (NOT POSSIBLE) Hence Individual RF Loop is not extended But a Common group of channels is shared

Bandwidth requirements
The amount of frequency required depends on 1) The No. of subscriber to be served in the geographical service area( GSA) 2) The traffic that each user is expected to have. 3) The channel bandwidth required for an active duplex communication.

An example
-Let us examine the spectrum required to serve 1000 subscriber/sq.km in a base station of 3 km cell radious. -Expected traffic that each user is say-----0.15 Erlang. -Assuming that 32 kbps ADPCM voice coading is used, the communication involving voice data, signaling data & other overheads etc would required atleast 100KHz channel width for duplex communication .

Solution.

## Total area to be served will be

II r2 =3.14*3*3 =30 Sq.Km Approxi.---------------(1)

Total no.of subscriber that the base station of 3km cell radious must serve will be
1000subscriber/sq.km* 30 Sq.Km = 30,000subs-----------(2)

With 0.15 Erlang traffic per subscriber,the no of channel (on demand) required will be 30,000subs * 0.15 Erlang traffic per sub =4500 channels ------(3) There fore, Frequency spectrum required with 100khz channel width for duplex voice communication will be 4500 channels* 100khz =450000KHz =450 MHz

Thus a frequency bandwidth of 450 MHz can serve only 30,000 subs in abase station of 3Km cell radious. Imagine the bandwidth required for 5,00,000 Subs in a mobile network? Is it possible to allocate such alarge frequency spectrum to each cellular operator ?

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

WHICH IS IMPOSSIBLE TO BE ALLOCATED HENCE FREQUENCY REUSE IS A MUST TO COVER THE TOTAL SERVICE AREA WITH A LIMITED AVAILABLE RF RESOURCES HENCE THE NEED FOR A CELLULAR PRINCIPLE

## Cellular concept was introduced during 70s by Bell Lab USA

1 G :- Analog Cellular Systems NMT 1981 Europe

AMPS
TACS

1983
1985

USA
Europe & China

2 G:- Digital Cellular Systems DAMPS GSM 1991 1991 USA World-wide

CDMA

1993

## 3G:- Digital Cellular Systems CDMA 2000 I X, IMT 2000 etc.

Essential Principals of Cellular concepts 1. Low power 2. Frequency re-use 3. Cell splitting 4. Hand off

## Geographical Separation:- Driven by1. C/ I Ratio 2. Fade Margin

3. Co-channel separation

## The Cellular Approach

SIMULTANEOUS RE USE OF SAME FREQUENCIES AT DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS SERVES MORE COVERAGE AREA REQUIRES LESS RF BW TO COVER A GIVEN AREA FREQ. REUSE INTRODUCES INTERFERENCE INTERFERENCE LIMITED SYSTEMS COMPROMISE BETWEEN SPEECH QUALITY & SYSTEM CAPACITY

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS WHAT IS A CELL ?

A base station (transmitter) having a number of RF channels is called a cell Each cell covers a a limited number of mobile subscribers within the cell boundaries ( Coverage area)

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

CELL RADIUS (KM) 1 3 10 25 COVERAGE AREA(KM2) No. Of SUBS. No. of CHANNELS REQD. 8 38 @ 360 @ 2,000

## 100 900 10,000 60,000

ASSUMPTIONS

Traffic /User = 30 mE

GOS = 1%

2 7 3

## GIVEN FREQ. RESOURCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1
6 5 4

A CLUSTER OF CELLS

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

* The set of channels available in the system is assigned to a group of cells called a cluster * No. of cells in a cluster determines the repeat pattern N. N may be 1,3,4,7,9,12 etc.

## * Smaller the repeat pattern smaller the distance between

co-channels leading to a higher co-channel interference

2 7 1 6
R

3 7 4 5
D

## 2 3 1 6 4 Given Freq Resource

12 3 456 7
Frequency Reuse Pattern N=7

CELLULAR

PRINCIPLE

N=7

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS CO-CHL INTERFERENCE

Co Chl Interference is a Function of Q Q =D / R R

Higher Q

Lower Q

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS CO - Chl Interference

Q = D /R = 3N N =Cluster Size R = Size (Radius of Cell) D = Distance between two Co- Chl Cells Higher Q Less Interference Higher N More Cluster Size Less RF freq/cell Less Traffic Handling Capacity of the system Higher Interference Increased System Handling Capacity

N 1 3 4 7 9 12

LOWER Q

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS CO - Chl Interference

S / I 12dB For Digital Cellular Mobile Systems

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS Co- Chl Interference Reduction Technique

Use Directional Antennas Instead of Omni Directional Antennas

## Antenna Front to Back Coupling Reduces Potential Interference

Potential Interferers Reduced from 6 to 2 in a three sector cell

f3
1 3 * Omni Directional
2

f3 1 f1 3 *
2

f1

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

WORST CASE Co- Chl Interference f3

1
3 * 2 f1

## f2 Three Sectored Cell

Q= 4.6 ,N=7 , S/I=14 db (Omni) S/I= 24.5 dB (Three Sectored)

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN f3 1 3 *
f1

f2 Three Sectored Cell GSM = 4/12 ; 4 Cell Pattern & each cell with 3 sectors

## DAMPS = 7/21 ; 7 Cell Pattern & each cell with 3 sectors

CDMA = 1/3 ; 1 Cell Pattern & each cell with 3 sectors

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN
A three sectored cell configuration Single location Antennas looking in three directions

CELL / SECTOR

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN

4/12

7/21

## Cell Layout (4-Cell, 3-Sectored)

1A 1B 1C 4A 4B 4C 2C 3A 3B 2A 2B 2C 4C 4A 4B 4C 3C 3C 3C 2A 2B 4C 1A 1B 3A 3B 1C 4A 4B 3A 3B 3C 2A 2B 2C 3A 1A 1B 1C 1A 1B

1C
4A 4B

3B

= BTS = BSC

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

Frequency Assignment
1A - 1,13,25,37,49,61,73,85,97,109,121 2A - 2,14,26,38,50,62,74,86,98,110,122 1B - 5,17,29,41,53,65,77,89,101,113
1C - 9,21,33,45,57,69,81,93,

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS Start Up Cells With Larger Diameter Mature Cells With Smaller Diameters

## Cells in city centre Smaller diameters

Cells in Sub-urban areas Larger diameters

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN FUNDAMENTALS

Q = D/R = 3N = 6 ( S/ I)
HIGHER N IMPROVES S/I HIGHER N REDUCES Traffic Chls /Cell Reduced Traffic Handling Capacity of the system
Increased RF Chs /Cell Further Increase in Traffic Handling Capacity of the System

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

Extract from Traffic Table Number GoS of Access Channels 0.5%

Erlang B Model

1.0%

2%

5 10 20 33 50 56 99 100

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

TRUNKING EFFICIENCY

1 2 3 4 5

5 10 20 50 100

G O S 2%

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

TRUNKING EFFICIENCY The Number Of Users Served In A Cell Are Directly Proportional To The Access Channels Allocated In A Cell

More The Number Of Access Channels In A Cell Further Increase In The System Handling Capacity
TRUNKING EFFICIENCY 10 10

20

50 subs

50 subs

It is better to have a single cell than to split into two with half the number of access channels

132 Subs

## CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

An Example Assume Number of Voice Channels = 395, Average Call Duration = 2 Minutes , GoS = 2%

## Using Traffic Tables we get :

Freq Voice Reuse Chls/Cell Pattern Calls/Cell/hour S/I dB

4 7 12

99 56 33

## 2610 1376 739

14 18.7 28.3

Frequency Re-use
In a given country with, say, two different GSM networks will each use half the 124 (i.e. 62) GSM900 carriers Clearly, even using TDMA technology this is an extremely small number of carrier frequencies to support a GSM network in a complete country All cellular networks address this problem by what is termed frequency re-use

Frequency Re-use
Frequency re-use means that the same set of carrier frequencies being used in one cell can be re-used in the network in a different cell However, the cells re-using the same carriers must not be adjacent as they would interfere with one another In practice, these cell must be distant from one another Typical re-use distance is 2.5 to 3 times the cell radius

Cell Clusters
Cells in a cellular network are generally grouped together into cell clusters Cellular networks are generally designed as a repeated cluster pattern The number of cells in a cluster (typically 4,7, 12 or 21) is a trade-off between the traffic capacity in the cluster and its interference with the adjacent cluster of cells (where the same frequencies will be re-used)

Trunking
In addition to frequency re-use, cellular network utilise the concept of trunking to support a very large number of subscribers using a much smaller number of channels (i.e. carriers) This is achieved due to the fact that MS access to a traffic channel in all cells is by demand assignment They must first negotiate with the network over a signalling channel to gain access to a traffic channel for the duration of a call As with all trunked systems, there is always the possibility that subscribers will not be able to access the network due to the limited number of traffic channels available

Trunking
They must first negotiate with the network over a signalling channel to gain access to a traffic channel for the duration of a call As with all trunked systems, there is always the possibility that subscribers will not be able to access the network due to the limited number of traffic channels available

Techniques Power Control Channel Coding Interleaving Equalization Slow Frequency Hopping Antenna Diversity

## BASIC COMPONENTS OF CELLULAR MOBILE SYSTEM

1. Mobile Station
2. Base Station 3. Mobile Switching Center 4.Public Switched Telephone Network

MOBILE COMMUNICATION

INFORMATION

b/s

Hz

BASE BAND
BASE BAND

MODULATOR
MODULATOR

TRANS/RECE

TRANS/RECE
Cellular Principle

## Speech Coder 32Kb/s,13Kb/s or LESS

Spectrum &C/No
Q P S K or

N=1,3,4,7

Its Variants

MOBILE COMMUNICATION

..

MOBILE SWITCH

## BASE BASE STATION CONTROLLER

MOBILE SUBSCRIBER

TYPICAL ARCHITECTURE

1
1

1 1 1 4 4 4 12

12 12

## Cellular network structure

Lower, middle & Upper cell # The lower cell layer with rather small cells (micro cells) # The middle cell layer with medium size cells (macro cells ) # The upper cell layer with large cells (Umbrella cells )

Lower cell.
# It increases coverage quality & are located in areas, where subscribers have communities of interest (hot Spot) as well as areas that standard cells cannot penetrate (dead spot ) # Small radious-100mtrs -1km

#Antennas- typically deployed below roof lavel,low height, 7-10mtrs above ground level,or mounted on street light &flag poles.
# Frequency reuse- very extensive due to low transmit power & the fact that buildings are used as isolation.

# Slow or stationary mobiles are served by the cells of the lower layer.

Middle cell
# Medium fast mobiles are served.

## # This layer consist of macro- cells.

Upper cell.
# It covers areas that are large compare to middle cells.

## # It serves fast moving mobiles.

# It has also known as Umbrella cell.

## Public Land Mobile Network

INDIA has adopted GSM standard for PLMN. Digital Cellular System. Operates at 900 MHz. International Roaming facility. Power class 0.8 to 20W. Cell Radius upto 35 Kms. Maximum mobility speed 250 Km/hr.

Communication - Mobile
Subscriber Line (2W) Inter-Exchange Junction

BSC BTS
Telephone Exchange
Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)

MS

Most Important Inerface

Full Compatibility between mobile stations of various Manufacturers & Networks of different vendors to help roaming
To increase spectral efficency -- Large number of simultaneous calls in a given bandwidth -- Frequency Reuse -- Interference -- Use of Interference Reduction Techniques

GSM

Specifications - I Frequency Bands GSM 900 Mhz DCS 1800 MHz GSM 450 Mhz ?

GSM

Specifications - I
GSM 900 Mhz
Mobile to Cell (UP-LINK) 890 to 915 MHz
935 to 960 MHz Cell to Mobile (DOWN -LINK) GSM 1800 Mhz Mobile to Cell (UP-LINK) Cell to Mobile (DOWN -LINK) -

## GSM - MULTIPLE ACCESS

GSM uses both FDMA & TDMA
FDMA Access along Freq. axis Each RF carrier 200khz apart Total 124 RF Channels available. One or more carrier assigned to each base station Absolute Radio Freq Carrier Number (ARFCN) 0 & 123 not used untill it is co-ordinated with Non -GSM operators in adjacent freq. bands. In most cases 124 RF Channels are used 0 1 2 3 4 5

123

...
Freq
890.2 890.4 890.6 890.8 891.0 915

Mhz.

MOBILE COMMUNICATION

THANK YOU