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Cellular Concepts And Frequency allocation

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


RADIO IN LOCAL LOOP LIMITED AVAILABILITY OF RF SPECTRUM

CELLULAR PRINCIPLE
INTERFERENCE PROBLEM INTERFERENCE AND SYSTEM CAPACITY FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN TRUNKING EFFICIENCY CELLULAR ENVIRONMENT CAPACITY CONSIDERATIONS FUTURE TRENDS

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


FERQUENCY SCARCITY PROBLEM

Tel Ex.

WIRED NETWORK

100,000 50 Khz = 5 Ghz (NOT POSSIBLE) Hence Individual RF Loop is not extended But a Common group of channels is shared

Bandwidth requirements
The amount of frequency required depends on 1) The No. of subscriber to be served in the geographical service area( GSA) 2) The traffic that each user is expected to have. 3) The channel bandwidth required for an active duplex communication.

An example
-Let us examine the spectrum required to serve 1000 subscriber/sq.km in a base station of 3 km cell radious. -Expected traffic that each user is say-----0.15 Erlang. -Assuming that 32 kbps ADPCM voice coading is used, the communication involving voice data, signaling data & other overheads etc would required atleast 100KHz channel width for duplex communication .

Solution.

Total area to be served will be


II r2 =3.14*3*3 =30 Sq.Km Approxi.---------------(1)

Total no.of subscriber that the base station of 3km cell radious must serve will be
1000subscriber/sq.km* 30 Sq.Km = 30,000subs-----------(2)

With 0.15 Erlang traffic per subscriber,the no of channel (on demand) required will be 30,000subs * 0.15 Erlang traffic per sub =4500 channels ------(3) There fore, Frequency spectrum required with 100khz channel width for duplex voice communication will be 4500 channels* 100khz =450000KHz =450 MHz

Thus a frequency bandwidth of 450 MHz can serve only 30,000 subs in abase station of 3Km cell radious. Imagine the bandwidth required for 5,00,000 Subs in a mobile network? Is it possible to allocate such alarge frequency spectrum to each cellular operator ?

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

WHICH IS IMPOSSIBLE TO BE ALLOCATED HENCE FREQUENCY REUSE IS A MUST TO COVER THE TOTAL SERVICE AREA WITH A LIMITED AVAILABLE RF RESOURCES HENCE THE NEED FOR A CELLULAR PRINCIPLE

Cellular concept was introduced during 70s by Bell Lab USA


1 G :- Analog Cellular Systems NMT 1981 Europe

AMPS
TACS

1983
1985

USA
Europe & China

2 G:- Digital Cellular Systems DAMPS GSM 1991 1991 USA World-wide

CDMA

1993

USA & Korea

3G:- Digital Cellular Systems CDMA 2000 I X, IMT 2000 etc.

Essential Principals of Cellular concepts 1. Low power 2. Frequency re-use 3. Cell splitting 4. Hand off

Geographical Separation:- Driven by1. C/ I Ratio 2. Fade Margin

3. Co-channel separation

The Cellular Approach


SIMULTANEOUS RE USE OF SAME FREQUENCIES AT DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS SERVES MORE COVERAGE AREA REQUIRES LESS RF BW TO COVER A GIVEN AREA FREQ. REUSE INTRODUCES INTERFERENCE INTERFERENCE LIMITED SYSTEMS COMPROMISE BETWEEN SPEECH QUALITY & SYSTEM CAPACITY

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS WHAT IS A CELL ?


A base station (transmitter) having a number of RF channels is called a cell Each cell covers a a limited number of mobile subscribers within the cell boundaries ( Coverage area)

Typical Cell Radius Aprrox = 30 Km (Start up), 1 KM (Mature)

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


CELL RADIUS (KM) 1 3 10 25 COVERAGE AREA(KM2) No. Of SUBS. No. of CHANNELS REQD. 8 38 @ 360 @ 2,000

3.14 28.3 314 1960

100 900 10,000 60,000

ASSUMPTIONS

Traffic /User = 30 mE

GOS = 1%

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

OMNI DIRECTIONAL CELLS

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

2 7 3

GIVEN FREQ. RESOURCE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1
6 5 4

A CLUSTER OF CELLS

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


* The set of channels available in the system is assigned to a group of cells called a cluster * No. of cells in a cluster determines the repeat pattern N. N may be 1,3,4,7,9,12 etc.

* Smaller the repeat pattern smaller the distance between


co-channels leading to a higher co-channel interference

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


2 7 1 6
R

3 7 4 5
D

2 3 1 6 4 Given Freq Resource

12 3 456 7
Frequency Reuse Pattern N=7

CELLULAR

PRINCIPLE

N=7

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS CO-CHL INTERFERENCE


Co Chl Interference is a Function of Q Q =D / R R

Higher Q

Reduced Co-Chl Interference

Lower Q

Increased Co-Chl Interference

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS CO - Chl Interference


Q = D /R = 3N N =Cluster Size R = Size (Radius of Cell) D = Distance between two Co- Chl Cells Higher Q Less Interference Higher N More Cluster Size Less RF freq/cell Less Traffic Handling Capacity of the system Higher Interference Increased System Handling Capacity

N 1 3 4 7 9 12

Q=D/R 1.73 3.00 3.46 4.58 5.20 6.00

LOWER Q

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS CO - Chl Interference


S / I 12dB For Digital Cellular Mobile Systems

Q = D/R = 3N = 6 ( S/ I) For a propagation constant of 4

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS Co- Chl Interference Reduction Technique


Use Directional Antennas Instead of Omni Directional Antennas

Antenna Front to Back Coupling Reduces Potential Interference


Potential Interferers Reduced from 6 to 2 in a three sector cell

f3
1 3 * Omni Directional
2

f3 1 f1 3 *
2

f1

f2 Three Sectored Cell

f2 Three Sectored Cell

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


WORST CASE Co- Chl Interference f3

1
3 * 2 f1

f2 Three Sectored Cell


Q= 4.6 ,N=7 , S/I=14 db (Omni) S/I= 24.5 dB (Three Sectored)

Q= 4.6 ,N=7 , S/I=14 db (Omni) S/I= 29 dB (Six Sectored)

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN f3 1 3 *
f1

f2 Three Sectored Cell GSM = 4/12 ; 4 Cell Pattern & each cell with 3 sectors

DAMPS = 7/21 ; 7 Cell Pattern & each cell with 3 sectors


CDMA = 1/3 ; 1 Cell Pattern & each cell with 3 sectors

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN
A three sectored cell configuration Single location Antennas looking in three directions

FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN

CELL / SECTOR

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN

4/12

7/21

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

Cell Layout (4-Cell, 3-Sectored)


1A 1B 1C 4A 4B 4C 2C 3A 3B 2A 2B 2C 4C 4A 4B 4C 3C 3C 3C 2A 2B 4C 1A 1B 3A 3B 1C 4A 4B 3A 3B 3C 2A 2B 2C 3A 1A 1B 1C 1A 1B

1C
4A 4B

3B

= BTS = BSC

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS

Frequency Assignment
1A - 1,13,25,37,49,61,73,85,97,109,121 2A - 2,14,26,38,50,62,74,86,98,110,122 1B - 5,17,29,41,53,65,77,89,101,113
1C - 9,21,33,45,57,69,81,93,

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS Start Up Cells With Larger Diameter Mature Cells With Smaller Diameters

Cells in city centre Smaller diameters


Cells in Sub-urban areas Larger diameters

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


FREQUENCY REUSE PATTERN FUNDAMENTALS

Q = D/R = 3N = 6 ( S/ I)
HIGHER N IMPROVES S/I HIGHER N REDUCES Traffic Chls /Cell Reduced Traffic Handling Capacity of the system
Increased RF Chs /Cell Further Increase in Traffic Handling Capacity of the System

Sectorization of Cells Reduced Interference

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


Extract from Traffic Table Number GoS of Access Channels 0.5%

Erlang B Model

1.0%

2%

5 10 20 33 50 56 99 100

1.13 3.96 11.1 21.5 36.0 41.2 80.0 80.9

1.36 4.46 12.0 22.9 37.9 43.3 84.1 85.0

1.66 5.08 13.2 24.6 40.3 45.9 87.0 88.0

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


TRUNKING EFFICIENCY

Sr.No Number of Erlang Access Capacity Channels

Number of users served

1 2 3 4 5

5 10 20 50 100

1.66 5.08 13.2 40.3 88.0

16 50 132 403 880

G O S 2%

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


TRUNKING EFFICIENCY The Number Of Users Served In A Cell Are Directly Proportional To The Access Channels Allocated In A Cell

More The Number Of Access Channels In A Cell Further Increase In The System Handling Capacity
TRUNKING EFFICIENCY 10 10

20

50 subs

50 subs

It is better to have a single cell than to split into two with half the number of access channels

132 Subs

CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS


An Example Assume Number of Voice Channels = 395, Average Call Duration = 2 Minutes , GoS = 2%

Using Traffic Tables we get :


Freq Voice Reuse Chls/Cell Pattern Calls/Cell/hour S/I dB

4 7 12

99 56 33

2610 1376 739

14 18.7 28.3

Frequency Re-use
In a given country with, say, two different GSM networks will each use half the 124 (i.e. 62) GSM900 carriers Clearly, even using TDMA technology this is an extremely small number of carrier frequencies to support a GSM network in a complete country All cellular networks address this problem by what is termed frequency re-use

Frequency Re-use
Frequency re-use means that the same set of carrier frequencies being used in one cell can be re-used in the network in a different cell However, the cells re-using the same carriers must not be adjacent as they would interfere with one another In practice, these cell must be distant from one another Typical re-use distance is 2.5 to 3 times the cell radius

Cell Clusters
Cells in a cellular network are generally grouped together into cell clusters Cellular networks are generally designed as a repeated cluster pattern The number of cells in a cluster (typically 4,7, 12 or 21) is a trade-off between the traffic capacity in the cluster and its interference with the adjacent cluster of cells (where the same frequencies will be re-used)

Trunking
In addition to frequency re-use, cellular network utilise the concept of trunking to support a very large number of subscribers using a much smaller number of channels (i.e. carriers) This is achieved due to the fact that MS access to a traffic channel in all cells is by demand assignment They must first negotiate with the network over a signalling channel to gain access to a traffic channel for the duration of a call As with all trunked systems, there is always the possibility that subscribers will not be able to access the network due to the limited number of traffic channels available

Trunking
They must first negotiate with the network over a signalling channel to gain access to a traffic channel for the duration of a call As with all trunked systems, there is always the possibility that subscribers will not be able to access the network due to the limited number of traffic channels available

Techniques Power Control Channel Coding Interleaving Equalization Slow Frequency Hopping Antenna Diversity

CELLULAR ENVIRONMENT -COUNTER MEASURES

BASIC COMPONENTS OF CELLULAR MOBILE SYSTEM

1. Mobile Station
2. Base Station 3. Mobile Switching Center 4.Public Switched Telephone Network

MOBILE COMMUNICATION

BASIC RADIO
INFORMATION

b/s

Hz

BASE BAND
BASE BAND

MODULATOR
MODULATOR

TRANS/RECE

TRANS/RECE
Cellular Principle

Speech Coder 32Kb/s,13Kb/s or LESS

Spectrum &C/No
Q P S K or

N=1,3,4,7

Its Variants

MOBILE COMMUNICATION

..

MOBILE SWITCH

BASE BASE STATION CONTROLLER

MOBILE SUBSCRIBER

TYPICAL ARCHITECTURE

GSM CAPACITY CONSIDERATIONS


1
1

With 2 % GoS 2.94 E 2.94E/25mE=120 Subs 8 Access Channels 1--Signaling 7- Voice

120 Subs/Sector 3 = 360 Subscribers

GSM CAPACITY CONSIDERATIONS


1 1 1 4 4 4 12

12 12

8 Access Channels 1--Signaling 7- Voice

32 Access Chls 3--Signaling 29- Voice

96 Access Chls 9--Signaling 87- Voice

120 3 = 360 Subs

3200 3 = 9600Subs 840 3 = 2520 Subs

Cellular network structure


Lower, middle & Upper cell # The lower cell layer with rather small cells (micro cells) # The middle cell layer with medium size cells (macro cells ) # The upper cell layer with large cells (Umbrella cells )

Lower cell.
# It increases coverage quality & are located in areas, where subscribers have communities of interest (hot Spot) as well as areas that standard cells cannot penetrate (dead spot ) # Small radious-100mtrs -1km

#Antennas- typically deployed below roof lavel,low height, 7-10mtrs above ground level,or mounted on street light &flag poles.
# Frequency reuse- very extensive due to low transmit power & the fact that buildings are used as isolation.

# Slow or stationary mobiles are served by the cells of the lower layer.

Middle cell
# Medium fast mobiles are served.

# This layer consist of macro- cells.

Upper cell.
# It covers areas that are large compare to middle cells.

# It serves fast moving mobiles.


# It has also known as Umbrella cell.

Public Land Mobile Network


INDIA has adopted GSM standard for PLMN. Digital Cellular System. Operates at 900 MHz. International Roaming facility. Power class 0.8 to 20W. Cell Radius upto 35 Kms. Maximum mobility speed 250 Km/hr.

Communication - Mobile
Subscriber Line (2W) Inter-Exchange Junction

BSC BTS
Telephone Exchange
Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)

MS

GSM RADIO INTERFACE


Most Important Inerface

Full Compatibility between mobile stations of various Manufacturers & Networks of different vendors to help roaming
To increase spectral efficency -- Large number of simultaneous calls in a given bandwidth -- Frequency Reuse -- Interference -- Use of Interference Reduction Techniques

GSM

Specifications - I Frequency Bands GSM 900 Mhz DCS 1800 MHz GSM 450 Mhz ?

GSM

Specifications - I
GSM 900 Mhz
Mobile to Cell (UP-LINK) 890 to 915 MHz
935 to 960 MHz Cell to Mobile (DOWN -LINK) GSM 1800 Mhz Mobile to Cell (UP-LINK) Cell to Mobile (DOWN -LINK) -

1710 to 1785 MHz 1805 to 1880 MHz

GSM - MULTIPLE ACCESS


GSM uses both FDMA & TDMA
FDMA Access along Freq. axis Each RF carrier 200khz apart Total 124 RF Channels available. One or more carrier assigned to each base station Absolute Radio Freq Carrier Number (ARFCN) 0 & 123 not used untill it is co-ordinated with Non -GSM operators in adjacent freq. bands. In most cases 124 RF Channels are used 0 1 2 3 4 5

123

...
Freq
890.2 890.4 890.6 890.8 891.0 915

Mhz.

MOBILE COMMUNICATION

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