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# SPATER

## AE1303 AERODYNAMICS -II

SPATER
ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
Continuity Equation

( ) 0 =
c
c
uA
x

( ) ( ) 0
t
=
c
c
+
c
c
uA
x
A
SPATER
ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
EULER EQUATION

( ) 0 =
c
c
uA
x

x
p
x
u
u
u
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c

1
t
SPATER
ONE DIMENSIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
2
2 2 2
2
1 1 1
u P u P + = +
Momentum Equation
Energy Equation
0
2
2
T C
u
T C
p p
= +
SPATER
Oblique Shock Waves
The oblique shock waves typically occurs when a
supersonic flow is turned to itself by a wall or its
equivalent boundary condition.
All the streamlines have the same deflection angle u at
the shock wave, parallel to the surface downstream.
Across the oblique shock, M decreases but p, T and
increase.

SPATER
Expansion Waves
The expansion waves typically occur when a
supersonic flow is turned away from itself by a
wall or its equivalent boundary condition.
The streamlines are smoothly curved through
the expansion fan until they are all parallel to the
wall behind the corner point.
All flow properties through an expansion wave
change smoothly and continuously. Across the
expansion wave, M increases while p, T, and
decreases.
SPATER
Source of Oblique Waves
For an object moving at a supersonic speed, the object
is always ahead of the sound wave fronts generated by
the object. This cause the sound wave fronts to
coalesce into a line disturbance, called Mach wave, at
the Mack angle relative to the direction of the beeper.

The physical mechanism to form the oblique shock wave
is essentially the same as the Mach wave. The Mach
wave is actually an infinitely weak shock wave.

M
1
sin
1
=
SPATER
Oblique Shock Relations
The oblique shock tilts at a wave angle | with
respect to V
1
, the upstream velocity. Behind the
shock, the flow is deflected toward the shock by
the flow deflection angle u.
Let u and w denote the normal and parallel flow
velocity components relative to the oblique shock
and M
n
and M
t
the corresponding Mach numbers,
forces the following relations:

2 2 1 1
u u =
2 1
w w =
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1
u
h
u
h + = +
2
2 2 2
2
1 1 1
u p u p + = +
SPATER
Oblique Shock Relations (contd.)
So and M
n1
and M
n2
all satisfy
the corresponding normal shock relations,
which are all functions of M
1
and |,
because

1
2
1
2
1
2
, ,
T
T
p
p

| sin
1
1
M M
n
=
) sin(
2
2
u | = M M
n
SPATER
Oblique Shock Relations (contd.)
--M relation
(

+ +

=
2 ) 2 cos (
1 sin
cot 2 tan
2
1
2
2
1
|
|
| u
M
M
1. For any given free stream Mach number M
1
, there is
a maximum u beyond which the shock will be detached.
2. For any given M
1
and u < u
max
, there are two |s. The
larger | is called the strong shock solution, where M
2
is
subsonic. The lower | is called the weak shock solution,
where M
2
is supersonic except for a small region near
u
max
.
3. If u =0, then | = t/2 (normal shock) or |= (Mach wave).
SPATER
Straight Oblique Shock Relations (contd.)
For a calorically perfect gas,
2 ) 1 (
) 1 (
2
1
2
1
1
2
+
+
=
n
n
M
M

) 1 (
1
2
1
2
1
1
2

+
+ =
n
M
p
p

SPATER
Supersonic Flow Over Cones
The flow over a cone is inherently three-
dimensional. The three-dimensionality has the
relieving effect to result in a weaker shock wave
as compared to a wedge of the same half angle.
The flow between the shock and the cone is no
longer uniform; the streamlines there are curved
and the surface pressure are not constant.
SPATER
Shock Wave Reflection
Consider an incident oblique shock on a lower
wall that is reflected by the upper wall at point.
The reflection angle of the shock at the upper
wall is determined by two conditions:
(a) M
2
< M
1
(b) The flow downstream of the reflected shock
wave must be parallel to the upper wall.
That is, the flow is deflected downward by u.

SPATER
Pressure-Deflection Diagram
The pressure-deflection diagram is a plot of the
static pressure behind an oblique shock versus
the flow deflection angle for a given upstream
condition.
For left-running waves, the flow deflection angle
is upward; it is considered as positive. For right-
running waves, the flow deflection angle is
downward; it is considered as negative.
SPATER
Intersection of Shock Waves of
Opposite Families
Consider the intersection of left- and right-running
shocks (A and B). The two shocks intersect at E and
result in two refracted shocks C and D. Since the shock
wave strengths of A and B in general are different, there
is a slip line in the region between the two refracted
waves where
(a) the pressure is continuous but the entropy is
discontinuous at the slip line;
(b) the velocities on two sides of the slip line are in the
same direction but of different magnitudes;

SPATER
Intersection of Shock Waves of
the Same Family
As two left running oblique shock waves A and B
intersect at C , they will form a single shock
wave CD and a reflected shock wave CE such
that there is slip line in the region between CD
and CE.
SPATER
Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves
M
2
> M
1
. An expansion corner is a means to
increase the flow mach number.
P
2
/p
1
<1,
2
/
1
<1, T
2
/T
1
< 1. The pressure,
density, and temperature decrease through an
expansion wave.
The expansion fan is a continuous expansion
region, composed of of an infinite number of
Mach waves, bounded upstream by
1
and
downstream by
2
.
SPATER
Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves (contd.)
Centered expansion fan is also called Prandtl-
Meyer expansion wave.
where
1
= sin
-1
(1/M
1
) and
2
= sin
-1
(1/M
2
).
Streamlines through an expansion wave are
smooth curved lines.
Since the expansion takes place through a
continuous succession of Mach waves, and ds =
0 for each wave, the expansion is isentropic.

SPATER
Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves (contd.)
For perfect gas, the Prandtl-Meyer
expansion waves are governed by

Knowing M
1
and u
2
, we can find
M
2

) ( ) (
1 2 2
M M v v u =
SPATER
Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves (contd.)
Since the expansion is isentropic, and
hence To and Po are constant, we have

2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
M
M
T
T

+
=

1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1

(
(
(

+
=

M
M
p
p
SPATER
Shock-Expansion Method
-Flow Conditions Downstream of the Trailing Edge
In supersonic flow, the conditions at the trailing edge
cannot affect the flow upstream. Therefore, unlike the
subsonic flow, there is no need to impose a Kutta
condition at the trailing edge in order to determine the
airfoil lift.

However, if there is an interest to know the flow
conditions downstream of the T.E., they can be
determined by requiring the pressures downstream of
the top- and bottom-surface flows to be equal.
SPATER
Conditions Downstream of the T.E.
-An Example
For the case shown, the angle of attack is less than the wedges half
angle so we expect two oblique shocks at the trailing edge.
In order to know the flow conditions downstream of the airfoil, we
start a guess value of the deflection angle of the downstream flow
relative of the free stream.
Knowing the Mach number and static pressure immediately
upstream of each shock leads to the prediction of the static
pressures downstream of each shock.
Then through the iteration process, g is changed until the pressures
downstream of the top- and bottom-surface flow become equal.

SPATER
Total and Perturbation Velocity Potentials
Consider a slender body immersed in an inviscid,
irrotational flow where

We can define the (total) velocity potential u and the
perturbation velocity potential | as follows:

'
'
'
w V
v V
u V V
z
y
x
=
=
+ =

z
y
x
V
z
V
y
V
x
=
c
u c
=
c
u c
=
c
u c
'
'
'
w
z
v
y
u
x
=
c
c
=
c
c
=
c
c
|
|
|
SPATER
Velocity Potential Equation
For a steady, irrotational flow, starting from the
differential continuity equation

we have

In terms of the velocity potential u(x,y,z), the above
continuity equation becomes

0 ) ( = V +
c
c
V
t

0 ) ( = V V
0
2
2
2
1 1 1
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= u
u u
u
u u
u
u u

u
|
|
.
|

\
|
u
+ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
u
+ u
|
|
.
|

\
|
u

yz
z y
xz
z x
xy
y x
zz
z
yy
y
xx
x
a a a
a a a
SPATER
Linearized Velocity Potential Equation
By assuming small velocity perturbations such that

we can prove that for the Mach number ranges
excluding

1
'
,
'
,
'
<<

V
w
V
v
V
u
2 . 1 8 . 0 s s

M
5 >

M
0 ) 1 (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

z y x
M
| | |
0
' ' '
) 1 (
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

z
w
y
v
x
u
M
the transonic range:
the hypersonic range:
SPATER
Linearized Pressure Coefficient
For calorically perfect gas, the pressure coefficient C
p

can be reduce to

For small velocity perturbations, we can prove that

Note that the linearized C
p
only depends on u.
) 1 (
2
2
1
2
2
=

p
p
M
V
p p
C
p

=
V
u
C
p
' 2
SPATER
Prandtl-Glauert Rule for Linearized Subsonic Flow
(2-D Over Thin Airfoils)
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1

=
M
C
C
M
C
C
M
C
C
M
C
C
o
o
o
o
m
m
d
d
l
l
p
p
SPATER
C
p
of 2-D Supersonic Flows Around Thin Wings
For supersonic flow over any 2-D slender airfoil,

where u is the local surface inclination with respect to the
free stream:
1
2
2

M
C
p
u
o u
o u
+ =
=
dx
dz
dx
dz
l
l
u
u
SPATER
C
l
of 2-D Supersonic Flow Over Thin Wings
For supersonic flow over any 2-D slender airfoil,
1
4
2

M
c q
l
C
l
o
SPATER
C
m
of 2-D Supersonic Flow Over Thin Wings
For supersonic flow over any 2-D slender airfoil, the
pitching moment coefficient with respect to an arbitrary
point x
o
is

The center of pressure for a symmetrical airfoil in
supersonic flow is predicted at the mid-chord point.

1
2
2
,

M
C
LE m
o