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McFarlane: Novel to Film

Film a narrative medium, visual images, showing, de-emhasises the authors voice Fiction a literary precursor, mental images, authorial intervention, telling Adaptation matching o the cinematic sign system to a prior achievement o some other semiotic system through the process o trans ormation

!rans er
!here is a di erence "eteen FF A narrative can "e easily tran erred, enunciation cannot #tory - a chain o events arranged in chronological order plot - distinctive way in which story is made strange, creatively de ormed,

Fidelity criticism %to the letter, spirit o the wor&'%

!ransposition minimum o inter erence (ommentary original te)t is altered in some way, reinterpreted Analogy another wor& o art, deconstructed, violated te)t Narrative a series o events casually lin&ed, a set o

Narrative Functions
%*olland +arthes% ,- .istri"utional trans ara"le, actions, doings ,events- !wo su"groups: A- cardinal ris&y moments, endings, +- catalysers supportive, small actions, events, enrich the te)ture /- 0ntegrational relating characters: A- indices proper atmosphere, psych- identity

1ong shots versus close-ups

2inds o narration
3ersonal narrator in iction - : A- - su"4ective camera point o view shots copy what a character can see +- voice over past tense, words spo&en accompany images !he omniscient novel: authorial narrator5direct speech o

!he way the actors loo&, move, they are costumed- 3ositioned, how they are photographed, their gestures, modi ication o space, putting in the scene all the elements placed "e ore the camera and within the rame o the ilm including their visual arrangement and composition: setting, decor, props, actors

N-Frye a colla"orative wor& %camera, speech, gesture, written language, music, colour, optical processes, lightening, costumes,- Films &now more and in advance Film does not suggest, it states #tories are "orn rom other

A restricted consciousness %central re lectors% !he camera may view the action over the shoulder o a character in the oreground o a shot, giving the viewer "oth, the characters point o view, and a slightly wider point o view which includes the character-

#hot the smallest unit #cene num"er o characters #e8uence - discourse

.enmar& is a prison .o not spread compost upon the weed --devided rom hersel and her air 4udgement 0 must "e cruel only to "e &ind 6ave you eyes' 9, my prophetic soul: --the very coinage o your mind

6amlet /
A poisoned oil My lord, 0 thin& 0 saw him yesternight Fear it 9phelia, ear it my dear sister .o you "elieve his tenders as you call them' - 0 do not &now what 0 should thin&---0 shall o"ey, my lord- *evenge his oul and most unnatural murder

6amlet ;
-- <ou are a ishmonger.enmar&s a prison 3yrrhus, 3riam !o sleep, perchance to dream,ay theres the ru" =et thee to a nunnery- !he lady doth protest too much methin&s-

6amlet >
#he desires to spea& with you in her closet 6amlet, thou hast thy ather much o ended <ou promised me to wed--- And thou hadst not come to my "ed .rowned' 9, where'

?nunciated enunciation
,-?nunciated - utterance as mani ested in a stretch o te)t, coherent set o events enacted in a series o syntagmatic units, as the sum o its narrative unctions /- ?nunciation characteri$es the process that creates releases, shapes the utterance, the way in which the utterance is mediated-

?nunciation /
Film lac&s literary mar&s o enunciation such as person and tense, "ut the ways in which shots are angled, ramed and related to each other the enunciatory processes are inscri"ed ?nunciation @ e)pressive apparatus that governs the presentation and reception o the narrative-

matching o two semiotic systems, appropriation o a meaning rom a prior te)t, replacing o illusion o reality "y another Not trans era"le units are adapted-

#ir 1aurence 9livier

,ABC-,ADA Amateur theatricals (hoir "oy ,A>B-E-1eigh 91. E0( Far pilot ,A>D-G#irG ,AH/-Nat-!heatre

Laurence Sterne /1713-1768/ Ireland, Yorkshire, Cambrid e, Suttonon-the-!orest, "inster Cath#, $ohn %all Ste&enson /Skelton Castle/,'li(abeth Lumle), L)dia# *aintin , music, books, +lirtin /'li(abeth ,ra-er, catherine/, ra&e rob# Sermons o+ "r# Yorick, $ournal to 'li(a . Sentimental $ourne)

/he Li+e and 0-inions o+ /ristram Shand)

/ristram 1 narrator 2alter Shand) 1 -hiloso-h) ") 3ncle /ob) 1 militar) +orti+ications, 4ound in the roin, 2adman 4ido4, Cor-oral /rim, -arson Yorick, dr#Slo-,0badiah, narratees5 'u enius, dear $enn)

Shand) - 6
7 books5 1# +amil) and +riends introduced 6# militar) e8-eriences o+ /ob) and /rim 3# /ristram9s deli&er) :# Sla4kenber ius, Latin treatise on noses ;# <obb), re+lections on death

Shand) - 3
6# Le!e&res9stor), /ob)9s armour 4ith 2adman 7# /ristram9s tra&els in !rance 8# /ob) and 2adman 7# . tale o+ mad "aria di ressions

Shand) - :
:8 1 I could not stifle this distinction in favour of Don Quixotes horse.. 82 How could you, Madam, e so inattentive in readin! the last cha"ter#.. 88 $ut I for!et my uncle %o y, whom all this while we have left &noc&in! the ashes out of his to acco'"i"e.

Shand) - ;
87 -##0bser&e, I determine nothin u-on this### 131 - ## o, -oor de&il, et thee one, 4h) should I hurt thee= 1 /his 4orld surel) is 4ide enou h to hold both thee and me#

Shand) - 6
1;7 - ##+or it should ha&e been told a hundred and +i+t) -a es a o, but that I +oresa4 then that 4ould be o+ more ad&anta e here than else4here#

0scar 2ilde /18;:-17>>/ ,ublin - *aris

,ecadence, aestheticism5 anti?ictorian, arts are inde-endent, ser&e to no ideolo ), ha&e no didactic -ur-ose, -ost-romantic roots# *reoccu-ation 4ith -ersonal e8-erience, sel+ anal)sis, -er&ersit), death, sadness, des-air# /he -osition o+ the artist is su-erior# ' ocentrism, the cult o+ beaut)#

2alter *ater /1837-187:/ Canterbur), 08+ord, London

2ilde5 /he +irst dut) in li+e is to be as arti+icial as -ossible# 2hat the second dut) is no one has )et disco&ered# @eaction a ainst materialism# !iction /no&el, tales, no&ellas/ *oetr) ,rama /7 -la)s/

@ichard 'llmann5 0scar 2ilde

!action - the em-irical mode, true to the +act !iction 1 culti&ates beaut), aims to deli ht, or culti&ates oodness and aims to instruct !abulation 1 the no&el e8-loitin more than one o+ the modes, the no&el about itsel+, the ame no&el, the -u((le n#