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Bell ringer

What gases make up the atmosphere?

Gas and Atmosphere

stratosphere

earth

Troposphere
+

Mesosphere

Thermospere

Air is made up of 74% Nitrogen, 23% Oxygen, 1% water apor and a!out 2% other gases" Air is a so#ution, meaning a## of its gases are e en#y mixed" To understand how air !eha es, we must understand how gases !eha e"
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Nitrogen Ox gen Water !apor "est

Kinetic Theory of Gases


The $ineti% theory has & main parts'
1" A## matter is made of parti%#es" 2" The parti%#es mo e in %onstant, random, straight(#ine motion" 3" A## %o##isions are %omp#ete#y e#asti%"

Kinetic Theory of Gases The $ineti% theory has & main parts'
4" There are no attra%ti e nor repu#si e for%es !etween the parti%#es" &" The $ineti% energy of the parti%#es %an !e found using the fo##owing e)uation' *+ , - m 2 *+( $ineti% energy m( mass ( e#o%ity

Properties of gases

A" +xpansion( gases %an expand to many times their origina# o#umes

." /#uidity( gases %an f#ow ery easi#y "

0" 1o#ume 2 gases ha e indefinite o#ume

1o#ume of gas is o#ume of %ontainer

3" 4hape 2 gases ha e indefinite shape or or or 5ases ta$e the shape of their %ontainer

+" 3ensity 2 gases ha e ery #ow densities 6 O2 , 7"771428g9m#, whi#e :2O , 1"77g9m#;

/" 0ompressi!i#ity( gases %an !e s)uee<ed together

.efore

After

5" 3iffusion 2 spontaneous mixing of parti%#es of two su!stan%es !e%ause of their random motion"

:" +ffusion ( pro%ess !y whi%h gas parti%#es under pressure pass through a sma## opening"

Describing Gases

Volume- Amount of space occupied by the gas

Pressure- Force against the sides of container

Temperature- Average Kinetic

nergy

!oncentration- "umber of particles per unit volume

#elationships bet$een Volume %V&' Pressure %P&'Temperature %T&' !oncentration %!&

As temperature increases Volume increases

As temperature increases' pressure increases

As pressure increases' volume decreases

c i r e h p s e r o u m s t s A e Pr

( atm

There is one atmosphere pressing do$n on your head

)nits of Pressure

( atm or atmosphere *+, mm -g %mercury& (.,/01 Pascals *+, torr

2arometer

Atmosphere presses do$n on mercury' as P increases' -g rises in tube.

-g

.e## ringer
=hat happens when we in%rease the pressure on a gas>

.oy#e?s @aw
3e e#oped !y Ao!ert .oy#e Ae#ates pressure and o#ume As the pressure on a gas in%reases, the o#ume de%reases 6in erses;" B111 , B212

+xamp#es'
0hips exp#oding Baper in !ott#e +ffer es%ing ta!#et

The air in a &"77 @ tan$ has a pressure of 1"27 atm" =hat is the new pressure of the air when the air is p#a%ed in a tan$ with a o#ume of C"7 @>

A 17"7 @ !a##oon %ontains :e gas at a pressure of D&& torr" =hat is the new pressure of the gas at 1&77 m@>

0har#es?s @aw
3e e#oped !y Ea%)ues 0har#es Ae#ates o#ume and temperature As the temperature of a gas in%reases, the o#ume in%reases 6dire%t;" 11T2 , 12T1

Ff a !a##oon has a o#ume of 7"7&7 @ at a temperature of 27 *, what wi## its o#ume !e at 12&*>

A 17"7 @ !a##oon %ontains :e gas at a temperature of &&G0" =hat is the temperature of the gas when the !a##oon has a o#ume of 1&77m@>

5ay(@ussa%?s @aw
3e e#oped !y Eoseph 5ay(@ussa% Ae#ates pressure and temperature As the temperature of a gas in%reases, the pressure in%reases 6dire%t;" B1T2 , B2T1

A tire has a pressure of 7"8& atm at a temperature of 33C *" =hat is the temperature if the pressure in%reases to 1"2& atm>

The air inside a hot air !a##oon has an initia# pressure of 88 $Ba at a temperature of 7&G0" As the !a##oon rises, the temperature drops to &7G0" =hat is the new pressure of the air>