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Fig.

52-2

Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology

Introduction to Ecology
Populations

Population ecology
Abundance Dynamics Density, dispersion, demographics, interrelationships with other populations

Population density
The number of individuals per unit area or volume

Pattern of dispersion
Refers to how individuals are spaced relative to one another

(a) Random dispersion


Fig. 52-1a, p. 1128

Pattern of dispersion
Patchiness in resources Family groups Reduce risk of predation

(b) Clumped dispersion


Fig. 52-1b, p. 1128

Pattern of dispersion
Aggressive interactions Competition

(c) Uniform dispersion


Fig. 52-1c, p. 1128

Population dynamics
4 primary factors that influence population size
Births Deaths Immigration Emigration

How do these factors affect the rate at which populations change?

Fig. 53-3

Births

Deaths

Births and immigration add individuals to a population.

Deaths and emigration remove individuals from a population.

Immigration

Emigration

Fig. 53-3

Births

Deaths

Births and immigration add individuals to a population.

Deaths and emigration remove individuals from a population.

Immigration

Emigration

Life History
The age at which reproduction begins
How often the organism reproduces How many offspring are produced during each reproductive cycle

evolutionary outcomes reflected in the development, physiology, and behavior of an organism based on trade-offs

A survivorship curve is a graphic way of representing the data in a life table

1,000

Number of survivors (log scale)

100

Females 10 Males

1
0 2 4 6 Age (years) 8 10

relatively constant death rate

Fig. 53-6

1,000

Number of survivors (log scale)

100 II 10

III
1 0 50 Percentage of maximum life span 100

Fig. 53-9

(a) Dandelion

(b) Coconut palm

Dynamics - Population growth

Number of bacteria (N)

Hours

r = unchecked population growth


Fig. 52-2, p. 1130

2006: 6.5 billion

Human population (billions)

Black Death

Time (years)
Fig. 52-13, p. 1139

Carrying capacity of the environment (K)

Number of individuals (N)

Time
Fig. 52-3, p. 1131

The Logistic Model and Life Histories


Life history traits favored by natural selection may vary with population density and environmental conditions K-selection, or density-dependent selection, selects for life history traits that are sensitive to population density r-selection, or density-independent selection, selects for life history traits that maximize reproduction

Factors influencing population size


Density-dependent
Density of population alters the affect of an environmental condition

Density-independent
Effect of an environmental factor is not affected by the density of a population

Density-dependent factors

Density-dependent factors
Competition interaction in which individuals try to use the same resource
Intraspecific Interspecific

Density-independent factors

Metapopulations
Environments are heterogeneous
Resources are patchy Several small populations rather than 1 large

Not all patches are equal


Less desirable may result in lower b or higher d More productive may lead to higher b and lower d

Fig. 52-12, p. 1138