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Table of Contents


1. land use planning concepts
2 what is land use planning
3. what is a land use plan
4. objectives of land use planning
5. two division of land use planning
6. land use categories and color coding
7. formulation of the general land use plan
8. environmentally critical areas


a. basic urban form conceptual frameworks
b. different shapes in land use patterns


a. what’s a model?
b. concentric-zone model
c. sector model
d. multiple nuclei model
e. urban realms model
Land Use Planning Concepts


Land is viewed as a shared natural

resource, much like air and water found
therein, to be conserved and cared for with
due regard for its effect on society as a
whole and for the conditions in which it will
be passed on to future generations.

Land is also viewed as a property - a

private commodity which can be owned,
used, bought or sold for personal comfort
and profit.
Land Plan ? ??resource
is a finite but
population continues to grow year after
year requiring more land for housing and
other urban uses, agricultural areas for
food production and more forest for timber
production and watershed protection.
Therefore, the need to allocate land
judiciously and discriminately
What is Land Use Planning ?
 It is the systematic approach / process for
identifying, classifying and locating urban land,
which is achieved by analyzing the socio-
economic needs of the population in
consideration of the physical and natural
attributes of a city / municipality

 Source: National Urban Development and Housing Framework

 Land use planning refers to the rational and
judicious approach of allocating available land
resources to different land using activities, (e.g.
agricultural, residential, industrial) and for
different functions consistent with the overall
development vision/goal of a particular locality.
 It entails the detailed process of determining the
location and area of land required for the
implementation of social and economic
development, policies, plans, programs and
 It is based on consideration of physical planning
standards, development vision, goals and
objective, analysis of actual and potential
physical conditions of land and development
constraints and opportunities.

Source: Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board

 Technical aspect- involves determining what
activities(agricultural, construction) a given piece
of land can support without causing damage to the
land itself in order it can be used across many
generations without jeopardizing.
 Political aspect – is concerned with the
commitment of decision makers and politicians to
ensure that there is strict compliance with the plan
and its implementation tools.
What is a LAND USE PLAN ???

An essential component of the

comprehensive development plan, it
designates the future use or reuse of
the land and the structure built upon
the land within a given jurisdiction’s
planning area and the policies and
reasoning used in arriving at the
decisions in the plan
It projects public and private
land uses in accordance with the
planned spatial organization of
economic and social activities and the
traffic of goods and people
Objectives of Land Use Planning

1. To promote the efficient utilization, acquisition

and disposition of land as a limited resources;
a) Make sure there is enough for our future
generations to use and enjoy while
addressing the needs of the present times
2. To influence, direct and harmonize decisions
and activities of the public and the private
sectors affecting the use, management and
disposition of lands;
Objectives of Land Use Planning

3. Reconcile land use conflicts between and

among individuals and government
agencies relating to present needs and
anticipated demands for land;
4. Promote desirable and efficient patterns of
land uses and prevent premature and
wasteful development and minimize the
cost of public facilities, services and
Objectives of Land Use
5. Protect and preserve valuable agri-
cultural areas consistent with the need to
promote industrialization;

6. Maintain ecological balance thru Control of

development in critical areas such as flood
plains and watershed areas;

7. Integrate programs and projects on land

resources development among land
development agencies;
Objectives of Land Use
8. Conserve areas of ecological, aesthetic and
historical values and maintain and protect
natural open areas and areas of significant
9. Promote and implement a shelter plan
• Thru Identification of sites suitable for
housing; and
9. Promote an efficient circulation system
Overview of the Process

 It utilizes the planning methodology which includes:

data gathering, problem identification and
situational analysis; goals / objectives formulation;
generation of alternative spatial strategies;
evaluation and selection of preferred strategy;
formulation of the plan; adoption, review and
approval; and implementation and monitoring

 Source: National Urban Development and Housing

Two Division of Land Use
 General Land Use Planning – deals primarily with the non-
urban large scale uses such as: croplands, forests, pasture
lands, mining/quarrying areas and swamplands, with
areas occupied by structures treated collectively as “built
–up” areas”
 Urban Land Use Planning – concerned with the location,
intensity and amount of land development required for
the various space-using functions such as residential,
commercial, industrial, institutional, recreation and other
activities found in the urban areas.
Land Use
 General Land use: Urban Land uses:
Four Major
○ Built-up Industrial
○ Agriculture Institutional
○ Forest Parks/playgrounds
○ Special use Infrastructure/utilities
Determination of Land Supply for Urban
Land supply is the land area available within the
city/municipality for urban expansion. Basically, this is left after
deducting the areas considered for protection/preservation and
conservation such as the Network of Protected Agricultural
Areas (NPAAs), National Intergrated Protected Areas System
(NIPAs), existing built-up areas, etc.

Formula: Land Supply For Urban Expansion = TLA – (PCA + BU)

Where: TLA = total land area of city/municipality, in hectares

PCA = protection/preservation and conservation areas, in
BU = built-up areas, in hectares
Area (Has.)

a. Total Land Area (TLA) of City/Municipality = 50,000

b. Preservation and Conservation Areas (PCA)* = 35,000

b.1 NIPAS (5,000)
b.2 NIPAAs (15,000)
b.3 Environmentally Constrained Areas (5,000)
b.4 Other Environmentally Critical Areas (10,000)
Identified in Pres. Proc. No. 2146

c. Existing Built-up Areas (BU) = 10,000

d. Land Supply For Urban Expansion = a – (b + c)

= 50,000 – (35,000 + 10,000)
= 50,000 – 45,000
= 5,000 Has.

* Refer to Section G. 1.4 (d.2) for details

Classification of Urban Uses
 Residential-amount of land depends on the of which new
households are formed and on inmigration.
 Commercial areas- category includes all types of
wholesale, retail and service activities serving areas
larger than neighborhoods.
 Included in this category are the ff:
-Major Central Business Districts in urbanized areas
-Minor Central Business District in less urbanized areas
-Highway Service Centers or Commercial Strips such as
highway gas stations, traveler's inn and restaurants
 Institutional Areas- covers the major public and semi-public uses
like educational, cultural, religious, health, protective and
government services
 Industrial uses- includes manufacturing, refining, fabricating,
assembly, storage, parking and other incidental uses including
food processing, cottage industry, sawmills, rice mills, steel mills,
chemical processing plants, etc.
-also included are the proposed industrial estates/subdivision
 Parks/Playgrounds and other Recreational Areas- the space
requirement may be computed with the use of space standards
based on population or area of the municipality or city
 Open Space- so called “non-functional open
spaces” and includes lands reserved for
greenbelts and buffer zones; and other vacant
lands reserved for specific or functional purposes
Constraints to Development
-identify different constraints such as soil conditions,
flooding, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other
natural condition
-mapping guidelines- illustrates the physical obstacles
to development such as subsidence and flooding risk
Land Use Related Problem
 Evaluate the land use related problems such as
flooding, deforestation, conversion of prime
agricultural lands, pollution, incompatible uses, etc.
Factors for Designation of Functional Areas

 The identified population needs and requirement for various

development purposes
 Land requirement in terms of adequacy of land for food
production, settlement expansion, etc.
 The location of the different land use categories as follows:
-other land use unique to the city or municipality
 Recognized need to protect and preserve critical
areas for conservation and preservation
 Development Areas- include croplands (paddy, rice,
coconut, sugar cane, orchard, diversified crops,etc.) and
livestock production (feeding operations, or open
grazing); settlement areas such as growth centers and
ethnic reserves; military reservation and other urban uses
which required relatively large areas like industrial
estates and utilities
 Conservation and Preservation Areas
-maintain the desired ecological balance and area
-to protect the integrity of sensitive/critical ecosystem
-to preserve their natural or unique characteristic;
Formulation of the General Land
Use Plan
 Land Capability Classification
- indicates the suitability of areas for cultivation according to
soil conservation management requirements. Factors
considered in the identification of land capability classes are
soil erosion potential/flooding and soil condition limitations.

Soil condition includes its characteristics such as

droughtiness, fertility, stoniness, salinity, alkalinity,
acidity, depth, presence of toxic substance, etc.
The degree of limitations ranges from no or slight
limitations, moderate, serious to severe, to very serious
or very severe.
The different land capability classes are as follows:
Class A – very good land; can be cultivated safely, requiring only simple but
good farm management practices.
Class B – good land; can be cultivated safely, require easily applicable
conservation practices.
Class C – moderately good land, must be cultivated with caution; requires
careful management and complex conservation practices.
Class D – fairly good land; must be cultivated with extra caution; requires
careful management and complex conservation practices for safe
cultivation. Most suitable for pasture or forest.
Class L – level to nearly level; too stony or very wet for cultivation; limited to
pasture or forest with careful soil management.
Class M – steep land; very severely eroded; shallow; not for cultivation; limited
to pasture or forest with careful management.
Class X – level land; wet most of the time and cannot be economically
drained; suited for fishpond or recreation.
Class Y – very hilly and mountainous, barren and rugged; should be reserved for
recreation and wildlife or for reforestation.
 Soil Suitability
A soil suitability study shall be conducted to
determine the appropriateness of agricultural
lands for specific crops. At present, the Bureau
of Soils and Water Management has prepared
Crop Development and Soil conservation
Planning Guide Maps for various crops.
Environmentally Critical Areas
Land development should consider the limitations posed by these
hazards. These areas include the ff:
 Weather and Water  Volcanic Hazards
Related Hazards - lava flow
- tropical cyclone winds - airfall
- tropical cyclone rains - pyroclastic flows
- storm surge - lahar
- drought - edifice failure
 Earthquake Induced  Erosion
- soil erosion
- ground shaking - river bank erosion
- ground rupture - coastal wave erosion
- liquefaction and lateral
- landslides
- tsunami
Environmentally Critical Areas
 other Environmentally Critical Areas covered by the Presidential
Proclamation No. 2146
- areas set aside as aesthetic potential tourist spots;
- areas of unique historic, archeological or scientific interest;
- areas which are traditionally occupied by cultural minority communities
or tribes;
- areas classified as prime agricultural lands;
- recharge areas of aquifers;
- water bodies characterized by one or any combination of the following
-tapped for domestic purposes
-within the controlled and/or protected areas declared by
appropriate authorities
- support wild life and fishery activities
- coral reef characterized by one or any combination of the ff. conditions:
- with 50% and above live coraline cover
- spawning and nursery grounds for fish
- act as natural breakwater of coastline
Land Use Pattern
Basic Urban Form Conceptual
 Trend Extension

-resembles the Dispersed Sheet urban

form of Kevin Lynch, which he described
as having “maximum flexibility, personal
comfort, independence and where local
participation is highly possible”
- Trend extension is the result of
individuals building anywhere according
to their own preferences and
convenience with minimal government
- development is spread evenly over a Dispersed Sheet
wide continuous tract, very accessible to
open land, and transport is designed as
continuous grid.
- no vivid or memorable image of the city
and costly provision of public service.
Land Use Pattern
 Linear Urban Form
- a.k.a Ribbon or Strip development
- characterized by concentration of
development along both sides of major
transportation routes such as roads,
navigable rivers or other form of
transport network Strip/Linear Development
- generally start on a one-lot-deep into a
grid system.
- also resembles what Kevin Lynch
refers to as the Urban Star which is
characterized by a strong urban core
with secondary centers of moderate
densities, distributed along main radials
- very strong visual image

Urban Star
Land Use Pattern
 Multi-Nodal Urban Form
- re-directs development away
from the urban core or city center
toward identified urban growth
areas or nodes.
- approximates Lynch’s Galaxy
form, which is characterized by
clusters of development with each
cluster having its own
specialization. Galaxy form
- the major center provides
specialized facilities and services
to its nodes and acts as it external
linkage to other centers of the city
or municipality. The nodes
support the major center as its
captive market while providing
neighborhood facilities and
services to its area of influence.

Centric and Nodal form

Land Use Pattern
-Under the Centric and Nodal form, a number of
additional mixed-use growth areas will be developed
outside the Poblacion area existing center of
- another related nodal-central type of development
is Radial and Circumferential. It shows a
development channel fanning out from a given
center where points of activities are interconnected
by radial and circumferential road systems which are
potential development corridors.

Radial and
Land Use Pattern
 Concentric Urban Form
- this form reflects an outward expansion
of urban development from the city
center/core induced by the construction of
new circumferential and radial roads.
- the form pattern matches the Core City
of Kevin Lynch has the unique
characteristic of concentrating
development into one continuous body
originating from the center or core. Core City
- aiming to maximize land use in the
Poblacion or city center to provide more
open space outside, this urban form
redirects future development in and around
the Poblacion/city center, extending to the
adjoining barangays or barrios. As a result,
the direction of growth enlarges the urban

Concentric Development
Land Use Pattern
 Grid Form
- this system is made up of rectangular blocks
defined by parallel and intersecting streets. The
simplicity of this layout provides accessibility of plots
and/or structures, but conflict or movement could
arise due to numerous intersections.

Grid Development
Land Use Pattern-Shapes

Radiocentric Star
A large circle with Radiocentric form with
radial corridors of open spaces between
intense development the outreaching
emanating from the corridors of
center development

Usually with two
corridors of intense
development crossing Rin
A city g
the center; usually found
built around an
in small cities rather
open space
than in large
Land Use Pattern-Shapes
Linear Sheet
Usually the A vast urban area with
result of natural little or no articulation.
which restricts
growth; may
also be a

Articulated sheet
Branch A sheet accented by
one or more central
A linear span with clusters and several
connecting arms. subclusters.
Land Use Pattern-Shapes

A series of nearly equal sized cities in close

Constellation of cities around a main cluster
“Urban Growth &

Urban Land Use Models

 What’s a Model?
 Concentric Zone Model (Burgess)
 Sector Model (Hoyt)
 Multiple Nuclei Model (Harris & Ullman)
 Urban Realms Model (Vance; aka
“Pepperoni Pizza” Model)
What’s a model?
 Best synonym:
a model = “a representation”

 A textbook definition:

An idealized representation of a part of reality

which is constructed so as to demonstrate
certain of its properties.

--Yeates and Garner, The North American City

The Concentric-Zone
 Proposed by Burgess – A sociologist at the
University of Chicago:
1925 book titled The City

 Based on a study of land use patterns and social

group dynamics in Chicago

 Geographically the city was visualized like 5 or 6

major rings, such as from a cross-section of a
 A model with five zones.
Concentric-Zone Model
1A CBD Proper
1B Fringe of CBD 5
2 Zone in Transition
or ‘Gray Zone’
3 Lower Income Housing 3
4 Higher Income Housing
5 Commuters’ Zone
CBD warehousing, truck
= “Central Business
& railroadDistrict”
>>things that service CBD
In Chicago: “Theuses;
Mixed residential
cannot afford and commercial
extreme uses
land bldgs,
Suburban Dept stores,
areas office
Older residential
values of CBD area;
may homes
need of
called this hotels,
ring: theaters
“Zone of
satellite down to low-
Important have trickled
theoretical under-pinnings
cities Workers’
>> things Housing”
that service entire
for Industrial
thisThese Businesses
provided byand light
streetcar metro
haved May
area haveout
moved moved
economists such as print
Alonso shops
from Zone 2 boarding houses as
MuthZone of slums,
(whotoborrowed rooming Thunen’sstartnewly
begin assimilate,
arrived immigrants
Concentric-Zone Model
 A model with five zones.
Zone 1
○ The central business district (CBD)
○ Distinct pattern of income levels out to
the commuters’ zone
○ Extension of trolley lines had a lot to do
with this pattern)
Concentric-Zone Model
Zone 2
○ Characterized by mixed pattern of
industrial and residential land use
○ Rooming houses, small apartments, and
tenements attract the lowest income
○ Often includes slums and skid rows,
many ethnic ghettos began here
○ Usually called the transition zone
Concentric-Zone Model
Zone 3
○ The “workingmen’s quarters”
○ Solid blue-collar, located close to
factories of zones 1 and 2
○ More stable than the transition zone
around the CBD
○ Often characterized by ethnic
neighborhoods — blocks of immigrants
who broke free from the ghettos
○ Spreading outward because of pressure
from transition zone and because blue-
collar workers demanded better housing
Concentric-Zone Model
Zone 4
○ Middle class area of “better housing”
○ Established city dwellers, many of whom
moved outward with the first streetcar
○ Commute to work in the CBD
Concentric-Zone Model
Zone 5
○ Consists of higher-income families
clustered together in older suburbs
○ Located either on the farthest extension
of the trolley or commuter railroad lines
○ Spacious lots and large houses
○ From here the rich pressed outward to
avoid congestion and social
heterogeneity caused by expansion of
zone 4
Concentric-Zone Model
 Theory represented the American city in a
new stage of development
Before the 1870s, cities such as New York
had mixed neighborhoods where
merchants’ stores and sweatshop
factories were intermingled with mansions
and hovels
Rich and poor, immigrant and native-born,
rubbed shoulders in the same
Concentric-Zone Model
 In Chicago, Burgess’s home town, the great
fire of 1871 leveled the core
The result of rebuilding was a more
explicit social patterning
Chicago became a segregated city with a
concentric pattern
This was the city Burgess used for his
The actual map of the residential area
does not exactly match his simplified
concentric zones
Classic Industrial City
Konx and Pinch 2000 – Urban Social Geography
Industrial City 1945-
The Post-industrial
What are the main characteristics of
a CBD?

How many characteristics of a CBD can you

spot in the next four slides?
What typical
cs of a CBD
are shown
The Tallest here?
Buildings Why? Public Buildings eg.
Corn Exchange /
Town Hall

Busy – lots of

Purpose built
shopping centres
providing undercover
shopping experience

Big Department
Stores and National
Chain Stores – why?
What typical
cs of a CBD
are shown
What typical
cs of a CBD
are shown
here? Public Buildings eg.
Corn Exchange / Town
Some of the oldest Hall

Very accessible –
public transport &
traffic management
required due to
Historic/ old street congestion.
pattern – often some
narrow streets
Entertainment – e.g.

Entertainment e.g.

What typical
cs of a CBD
are shown
Entertainment e.g. cinemas
here? (although increasingly these
are moving further out of
Also known as the Twilight or
Transition Zone
Zone 2 of the Urban Land-use Model – THE
Typical aerial view of an Inner City Area

Typical style of housing in the Inner City

When and Why did Inner City Areas Grow
up?• Developed during the 19th
century – due to rapid
expansion of industry (led to
the demand for workers)
• As more moved to the cities
– there was a demand for low
cost houses for the workers
• This resulted in high-density
cheap housing (fitting as
many houses as possible in a
small area
• People had to live close to
work due to lack of transport
What types of land-use are found in
Inner City areas?
19th Century Terraced Industry – large factories built during
the industrial revolution (now some
knocked down / converted)

Canals and Railways Main Roads (often now ring

roads taking traffic out of
Typical Characteristics of Inner City
• High Density Housing

• Mainly terraced (some back to

• Built in Long Straight Rows
• Front doors opening onto the

• Few Amenities (little or no

sanitation (often built with toilet in
Back Yard
• Mainly Ethnic Minorities,
students, older people and
unemployed (lower income groups)

• Mainly private / rented

Problems in Inner City Areas (since
1. Industrial Decline (see
/ 1950s)
7. Lack of Open Space
other notes)
8. Lack of Parking
2. High unemployment
3. Abandoned
Warehouses – eyesore 9. Atmospheric Pollution
and led to vandalism (factories / traffic)
4. High Crime Rates
5. Poor Quality Housing 10. Lots of heavy traffic
(for industry)
6. Overcrowding
Reasons for Growth of the
1. Better public transport and
increased car ownership meant
people could separate work from
where they live.
2. Building societies provided
mortgages making it easier to buy
3. People were better off and looking
for a better living environment.

This has lead to conflict due to different land-

uses wanting to locate here (see diagram for
CBD Inner City Inner Suburbs
Outer Suburbs Industry

Tallest High Density Semi- Low density Rural-urban

Buildings detached housing fringe
Shops Housing Large Industry
Some detached
greenery houses
Entertainment Some old Retail Units
Gardens Garages
High Land Car parking
Values space
Sector Model
 Homer Hoyt, an economist, presented his
sector model in 1939
 Maintained high-rent districts were
instrumental in shaping land-use structure
of the city
 Because these areas were reinforced by
transportation routes, the pattern of their
development was one of sectors or wedges
Models: ‘sectors’ (Hoyt) and
‘multi centres’ (Harris and
Ullman) Sector Multi Centres
2 3 3
4 2 1
3 3
4 5
3 1 3 5 3 7
2 3 4
9 8

1 CBD 6 Heavy manufacturing

2 Wholesale and light manufacturing7 Sub business district
3 Low-class residential 8 Residential suburb
4 Middle-class residential 9 Industrial suburb
5 High-class residential
Sector Model
 The important factor is not distance from
CBD as in the concentric zone model, but
direction away from CBD

 Wedge-shaped land use zones: like

pieces of pie

 Does the “side” of town matter in

Sector Model (continued)
•As growth occurs, similar activities
stay in the same area and extend

•Good for accommodating growth

development axes; growth momentum
Concentric zone model requires
redevelopment to change the amount
of residential land use of different

•Why do land use areas take wedge

Follow older radial transport lines
High-class residential on higher ground
or along an environmental amenity
(e.g., wooded ravine)
Lower-class residential along “the
tracks” coming in and out of town
Sector Model (continued)

 This theory is particularly

good for residential land use

 Both the concentric zone and sector

models are monocentric representations
of urban areas

 How realistic are they for an auto-age

metropolis like Tucson?
Sector Model
 Hoyt suggested high-rent sector would expand
according to four factors
Moves from its point of origin near the CBD,
along established routes of travel, toward
another nucleus of high-rent buildings
Will progress toward high ground or along
waterfronts, when these areas are not used
for industry
Will move along the route of fastest
Will move toward open space
Sector Model
 As high-rent sectors develop, areas between
them are filled in
Middle-rent areas move directly next to
them, drawing on their prestige
Low-rent areas fill remaining areas
Moving away from major routes of travel,
rents go from high to low
 There are distinct patterns in today’s cities
that echo Hoyt’s model
 He had the advantage of writing later than
Burgess — in the age of the automobile
Sector Model
 Today, major transportation arteries are
generally freeways
Surrounding areas are often low-rent
Contrary to Hoyt’s theory
Freeways were imposed on existing urban
Often built through low-rent areas where
land was cheaper and political opposition
was less
Multiple Nuclei Model
 Developed by two geographers:
Chauncey Harris & Edward Ullman in
1945 based on Seattle, Washington
 Maintained a city developed with equal
intensity around various points
 The CBD was not the sole generator of
 Basic concept: cities don’t grow up
around a single core but have several
Multiple Nuclei
Multiple Nuclei Model
1. CBD
2. Wholesale & Light
3. Low-income Residential
4. Middle-Income Residential
5. High-Income Residential
6. Heavy Manufacturing
7. Outlying Business District
8. Residential Suburb
9. Industrial Suburb

Multiple Nuclei Model

 Equal weight must be given to:

An old community on city outskirts around
which new suburbs clustered
An industrial district that grew from an
original waterfront location
Low-income area that began because of
some social stigma attached to site
Multiple Nuclei Model
 Rooted their model in four geographic principles
Certain activities require highly specialized facilities
○ Accessible transportation for a factory
○ Large areas of open land for a housing tract
Certain activities cluster because they profit from
mutual association
Certain activities repel each other and will not be
found in the same area
Certain activities could not make a profit if they paid
the high rent of the most desirable locations
Multiple Nuclei Model
 More than any other model takes into account
the varied factors of decentralization in the
structure of the North American city
 Many criticize the concentric zone and sector
theories as being rather deterministic because
they emphasize one single factor
 Multiple nuclei theory encompasses a larger
spectrum of economic and social possibilities
 Most urban scholars feel Harris and Ullman
succeeded in trying to integrate the disparate
element of culture into workable model
Urban Realms Model
 Today: A new urban reality that is not totally
captured by any of the three standard pre-
1950s models

 Geographer James Vance in 1964 proposed

“Urban Realms” (aka “Pepperoni Pizza”)
model to describe Metropolitan L.A.

 La-La Land is a vast poly-nucleated region

linked by freeways and long-distance