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Digital Communications EE 725

Instructor: Dr. Aamir Habib


aamir.habib@ist.edu.pk aamir_aamir_h@yahoo.com

Introduction of the Instructor


PhD from Vienna University of Technology in Electrical Engineering

Course Objective
This course is designed to prepare students for engineering work in the industry and for advanced graduate work in the area of digital communications. The course covers concepts and useful tools for design and performance analysis of transmitters and receivers in the physical layer of a communication system.

Text: Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications, B. Sklar, Prentice Hall, 2nd ed, 2001.

References:
(1) Communication Systems, 3rd Ed., Simon Haykin, John Wiley & Sons (2) Theory and design of digital communications systems by Tri T.Ha, Cambridge

Prerequisites

Required: Signals and Systems


Recommended: Probability and Stochastic Processes

Communication
Main purpose of communication is to transfer information from a source to a recipient via a channel or medium. Basic block diagram of a communication system:
Source Transmitter
Channel

Receiver

Recipient

Brief Description
Source: analog or digital Transmitter: transducer, amplifier, modulator, oscillator, power amp., antenna Channel: e.g. cable, optical fibre, free space Receiver: antenna, amplifier, demodulator, oscillator, power amplifier, transducer Recipient: e.g. person, (loud) speaker, computer

Types of information
Voice, data, video, music, email etc.

Types of communication systems


Public Switched Telephone Network (voice,fax,modem) Satellite systems Radio,TV broadcasting Cellular phones Computer networks (LANs, WANs, WLANs) Radars/EW (ECM, ECCM)

Information Representation
Communication system converts information into electrical electromagnetic/optical signals appropriate for the transmission medium. Analog systems convert analog message into signals that can propagate through the channel. Digital systems convert bits(digits, symbols) into signals Computers naturally generate information as characters/bits Most information can be converted into bits Analog signals converted to bits by sampling and quantizing (A/D conversion)

Why digital?
Digital techniques need to distinguish between discrete symbols allowing regeneration versus amplification Good processing techniques are available for digital signals, such as - Data compression (or source coding) - Error Correction (or channel coding) - Equalization - Security Easy to mix signals and data using digital techniques

Digital communications: Transmitted signals belong to a finite set of waveforms. The distorted signal can be recovered to its ideal shape, hence removing all the noise. Analog communications: Transmitted signals are analog waveforms, which can take infinite variety of shapes. Once the analog signal is distorted, the distortion cannot be removed.

Performance Metrics
Analog Communication Systems Metric is fidelity: want ^ m(t)m(t)
SNR typically used as performance metric

Digital Communication Systems


Metrics are data rate (R bps) and probability of bit error ^ b)) (Pb=p(b
Symbols already known at the receiver

Without noise/distortion/sync. problem, we will never make bit errors

Main Points
Transmitters modulate analog messages or bits in case of a DCS for transmission over a channel. Receivers recreate signals or bits from received signal (mitigate channel effects) Performance metric for analog systems is fidelity, for digital it is the bit rate and error probability.

Course Outline
Signal and Spectra Formatting and Baseband Modulation Baseband Demodulation/Detection Bandpass Modulation and Demodulation/Detection Link Budget Analysis Synchronization Source Coding Channel Coding Spread Spectrum Techniques Fading Channels

Tentative Grading Policy


Assignments: Project/Research Paper Quizzes Hour Exams : Final Exam:
Tue -1800 to 2100

15% 15% 15% 20% 35%