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BUDDHISM

REPORT BY GROUP IV:


Mr. Urrete, Mr. Fernando, Ms. Bascara, Ms.Macni, Ms.Lugar, Ms.Pamulaya, Ms.Famisaran, and Ms.Alba

INTRODUCTION

Buddhism in Canada
BUDDHISM IS THE 12TH-LARGEST RELIGION IN CANADA.
BECAUSE OF IMMIGRATION, BUDDHISM IS ONE OF THE FASTESTGROWING RELIGIONS IN CANADA. BETWEEN THE CENSUS OF 1991 AND 2001, THE NUMBER OF CANADIAN BUDDHISTS INCREASED BY 84%, TO ABOUT 300 000 FOLLOWERS. MANY CANADIAN BUDDHISTS TRACE THEIR FAITH ORIGINS TO FAMILY ROOTS IN ASIAN COUNTRIES. THE LARGEST NUMBER OF BUDDHISTS LIVE IN ONTARIO AND BRITISH COLUMBIA. SINCE THE 1980S, HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA, HAS ALSO DEVELOPED A SUBSTANTIAL BUDDHIST COMMUNITY.

THE HISTORY OF BUDDHISM


BUDDHISM HAS ITS ROOTS IN NORTHERN INDIA AND HINDUISM. IT BEGAN AS A REFORM MOVEMENT WITHIN HINDUISM. SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA, THE FOUNDER OF BUDDHISM, SOUGHT A NEW WAY OF PRACTISING RELIGION.

The Life of the Buddha


SIDDHARTHA TRAVELLED FROM TEACHER TO TEACHER, BUT FAILED TO FIND ENLIGHTENMENT AS TO THE CAUSE AND CURE OF SUFFERING. HE CONCLUDED THAT NEITHER HIS OLD LIFE OF LUXURY NOR THE LIFE OF A RELIGIOUS ASCETIC WAS THE RIGHT WAY TO LIVE. HE BEGAN TO DEVELOP A MIDDLE WAY BETWEEN LUXURY AND ASCETICISM, GIVING UP GREED AND SELFISHNESS AS WELL AS HARSH DENIAL OF PLEASURE. SIDDHARTHA RESOLVED TO SIT IN MEDITATION UNTIL HE ATTAINED ENLIGHTENMENT. FOR 49 DAYS, HE MEDITATED AND HAD A STRUGGLE AGAINST THE EVIL GOD MARA. HE FINALLY ATTAINED THE GREAT ENLIGHTENMENT AND BECAME KNOWN AS THE BUDDHA. THE BUDDHAS ENLIGHTENMENT GAVE HIM A SPECIAL UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN SUFFERING AND HOW PEOPLE MIGHT ESCAPE THAT SUFFERING, ATTAIN COMPLETE PEACE, AND ENTER NIRVANA. THE BUDDHA DECIDED TO REMAIN ON EARTH TO SHARE HIS INSIGHTS INSTEAD OF IMMEDIATELY ENTERING NIRVANA. HE ACCEPTED DISCIPLES (MALE AND FEMALE) AND CONVERTED HIS FIVE ASCETIC COMPANIONS, WHO BECAME THE FIRST MONKS.

WHERE BUDDHISM IS PRACTISED


BUDDHISM ORIGINATED IN THE NORTHERN PART OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT. MOST BUDDHISTS TODAY LIVE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. BUDDHISM IS THE WORLDS 4TH-LARGEST RELIGION IN TERMS OF NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS.

BUDDHISM SPREADS THROUGH ASIA


THE IDEAS TAUGHT BY THE BUDDHA WERE SPREAD BY HIS DISCIPLES THROUGHOUT INDIA. BY 390 BCE, THERE WERE TWO DISTINCT GROUPS WITHIN BUDDHISM: THERAVADA AND MAHAYANA. BUDDHISM BECAME THE STATE RELIGION OF A POWERFUL EMPIRE IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT RULED BY EMPEROR ASOKA. ASOKA CONVERTED TO BUDDHISM, SENT OUT MISSIONARIES, AND CALLED ON A COUNCIL TO AGREE ON THE BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES. BUDDHIST MISSIONARIES TRAVELLED AS FAR WEST AS AFGHANISTAN, NORTH INTO TIBET AND MONGOLIA, SOUTH INTO WHAT IS NOW SRI LANKA AND INDONESIA, AND EAST THROUGH CHINA AS FAR AS KOREA AND JAPAN. OVER TIME, THE SPREAD OF ISLAM AND STRENGTHENING OF HINDUISM REDUCED THE INFLUENCE OF BUDDHISM IN INDIA, BUT IT WAS GROWING IN OTHER LANDS AND CULTURES. BEYOND ASIA, FOLLOWERS HAVE DEVELOPED WHAT SOME CALL WESTERN BUDDHISM. TODAY, THE MAJORITY OF CANADIAN BUDDHISTS FOLLOW THE MAHAYANA SCHOOL.

RITUALS
BUDDHISTS BELIEVE RITUALS HELP THEM ACHIEVE ENLIGHTENMENT, EITHER IN THE PRESENT LIFE OR IN THE FUTURE. RITUALS ALSO BOND THEM WITH THE BUDDHIST COMMUNITY (SANGHA). THE MAIN RITUALS ARE MEDITATION, WORSHIP AT HOME OR AT A TEMPLE OR SHRINE, RITUALS MARKING MILESTONES IN LIFE, AND FESTIVALS.

MEDITATION
THE BUDDHA USED THE HINDU TECHNIQUES OF MEDITATION TO GAIN ENLIGHTENMENT. AS BUDDHISM SPREAD, MEDITATION TECHNIQUES FROM OTHER TRADITIONS WERE ADDED TO THE HINDU METHODS PRACTISED BY EARLIER BUDDHISTS. MEDITATION QUIETS THE MIND SO THE MEDITATOR CAN MORE FULLY ENTER THE SPIRITUAL WORLD. BUDDHISTS WHO MEDITATE CAN BRING ABOUT A STATE OF MINDFULNESS (AWARENESS ONLY OF THE PRESENT MOMENT) BY FOCUSING ON THE ACT OF BREATHING. MEDITATORS CAN ALSO FOCUS ON A VISUAL OBJECT, SUCH AS A FLAME, A SACRED DIAGRAM, OR A MANDALA. THEY CAN RECITE OR CHANT A WORD OR PHRASE, CALLED A MANTRA, SUCH AS THE MAHAYANA OM MANI PADME HUM MANTRA (HAIL THE JEWEL IN THE LOTUS).

Buddhism Sacred Texts

Tripitaka or Pali Canon


Means "Three Baskets First Buddhist Scriptures. The words of Buddha as memorized and chanted by generations of monks. Sacred Text of Theravada Buddhism.

-- Three Baskets -Expression Three Baskets originally referred to three containers containing the scrolls on which the Buddhist scriptures were originally preserved. 1. Vinaya pitaka 2. Sutta Pitaka 3. Abidhamma Pitaka

Vinaya Pitaka (Basket of Discipline)


Is the textual framework upon which the monastic community (Sangha) is built. The Vinaya Pitaka is made up of rules of discipline laid down for regulating the conduct of the Buddha's disciples who have been admitted as bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns) into the Order. These rules embody authoritative injunctions of the Buddha on modes of conduct and restraints on both physical and verbal actions. They deal with transgressions of discipline, and with various categories of restraints and admonitions in accordance with the nature of the offence.

Sutta Pitaka (Basket of Discourse)


Sutta-pitaka contains grouped collections of sermons and sayings of the historical Buddha and his chief disciples. There are more than 10,000 suttas in the Sutta-pitaka.

Discourses were mostly intended for the benefit of bhikkhus (monks), and deal with the practice of' the pure life and with the exposition of the Teaching. There are also several other discourses which deal with the material and moral progress of the lay disciples.
Sutra Pitaka are grouped by in length in five nikayas (collections). 1. Digha Nikaya -- the "collection of long discourses" 2. Majjhima Nikaya -- the "collection of middle-length discourses" 3. Samyutta Nikaya -- the "collection of connected discourses" 4. Anguttara Nikaya -- the "collection of further-factored discourses" 5. Khuddaka Nikaya -- "collection of little texts

Abhidhamma Pitaka (Basket of Special Doctrine or Further Doctrine )


Higher Teaching or Special Teaching; it is unique in its complexity, analytical approach, vastness of scope and encouraging to one's liberation. Approach is more thorough, more penetrating, breaking down each earthly or mental component into the ultimate, the most specific unit.

Mahayana Sutra
Sacred Text of Mahayana Buddhism. This texts has deep wisdom and spiritual value. Theravada Buddhists disregard the Mahayana scriptures entirely. Theravada Buddhists believe them to be later inventions of monks striving to change the original teachings of Buddha, and consider the Mahayana sutras is untrue. Categories : 1. Diamond Sutra 2. Heart Sutra 3. Lotus Sutra

Diamond Sutra (Diamond-cutting perfection of wisdom sutra)


Its teaching will cut like a diamond blade through worldly illusion to illuminate what is real and everlasting.
Diamond that cuts through afflictions, ignorance, illusion, or delusion.

Heart Sutra (Discourse on the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom)


Pure distillation of wisdom Is wiping away on everything we hold most dear: our troubles, the world as we know it, even the teachings of the Buddha himself.

Lotus Sutra (Lotus of the Good Law or True Doctrine Sutra)


Represents the final, highest teaching, and surpass the previous teaching. All Vehicles Are One Vehicle - the buddha vehicle, through which all beings become buddhas. The Lotus Sutra stresses the importance of faith and devotion as means to realization of enlightenment. A distinctive feature of the Lotus Sutra is the use of parables.

DIAMOND SUTRA

HEART SUTRA

LOTUS SUTRA

Buddhist Beliefs

Sacred Narratives
Life story of Gautama Siddhartha Buddha's sermons The story in Lotus Sutra tells of a rich man and his young sons who lived in a huge old crumbling house with only one exit.

Ultimate Reality and Divine Beings


Universe had been created and destroyed over and over again over vast periods of time. Cycles of creation and destruction. Ultimate reality is samsara endless existence but all of these there is an end. Wheel of Life and Death - depicts the universe as a series of concentric circles all within the grasp of Mara, the lord of death. Several realms for gods of different types and several different hells, as well as an animal realm and a realm for humans, are contained within the wheel.

Wheel of Life and Death

Human Nature and the purpose of existence


Birth and Rebirth

When the rebirth comes to person he/she can improved or become better his life again.

Suffering and the Problem of Evil


Arising - Humans tend to long for what they do not have, or to wish for their lives to be different than they are they often fail to fully appreciate what they do have. Suffering Some pains are inevitable in life. Path - follow the eight noble paths (right understanding, right intention, right speech, right action, right occupation, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.) Cessation - After of all sufferings there will be an good and pleasant life. Evil - Greed, Anger, and Delusion

Eight Noble Paths


1.) Right Understanding: the existence of suffering; the cause of suffering; the end of suffering; and the end of pain. 2.) Right Intention: reject the pleasures of the body. Change your lifestyle so that you harm no living creatures and have kind thoughts for everyone. 3.) Right Speech: do not gossip, lie or slander anyone. 4.) Right Action: do not kill, steal or engage in an unlawful sexual act. 5.) Right Occupation: avoid working at any job that could harm someone. 6.) Right Effort: heroically work to eliminate evil from your life. Through your own effort develop good conduct and a clean mind. 7.) Right Mindfulness: make your self aware of your deeds, words and thoughts so that you can be free of desire and sorrow. 8.) Right Concentration: train your mind to focus on a single object without wavering so as to develop a calm mind capable of concentration.

Afterlife and Salvation


Nirvana - to extinguish, such as extinguishing the flame of a candle. This "extinguishment" is not understood by Buddhists to mean annihilation, however. Rather, it is thought of as passing into another kind of existence. Must obey the eight noble paths.

Buddhism in Canada
BUDDHISM IS THE 12TH-LARGEST RELIGION IN CANADA.
BECAUSE OF IMMIGRATION, BUDDHISM IS ONE OF THE FASTEST-GROWING RELIGIONS IN CANADA. BETWEEN THE CENSUS OF 1991 AND 2001, THE NUMBER OF CANADIAN BUDDHISTS INCREASED BY 84%, TO ABOUT 300 000 FOLLOWERS. MANY CANADIAN BUDDHISTS TRACE THEIR FAITH ORIGINS TO FAMILY ROOTS IN ASIAN COUNTRIES. THE LARGEST NUMBER OF BUDDHISTS LIVE IN ONTARIO AND BRITISH COLUMBIA. SINCE THE 1980S, HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA, HAS ALSO DEVELOPED A SUBSTANTIAL BUDDHIST COMMUNITY.

THE HISTORY OF BUDDHISM


BUDDHISM HAS ITS ROOTS IN NORTHERN INDIA AND HINDUISM. IT BEGAN AS A REFORM MOVEMENT WITHIN HINDUISM. SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA, THE FOUNDER OF BUDDHISM, SOUGHT A NEW WAY OF PRACTISING RELIGION.

Buddhism Sacred Text


Buddhism is the 12th-largest religion in Canada. Because of immigration, Buddhism is one of the fastest-growing religions in Canada. Between the census of 1991 and 2001, the number of Canadian Buddhists
increased by 84%, to about 300 000 followers. Many Canadian Buddhists trace their faith origins to family roots in Asian countries. The largest number of Buddhists live in Ontario and British Columbia. Since the 1980s, Halifax, Nova Scotia, has also developed a substantial Buddhist community.

The History of Buddhism


Buddhism has its roots in northern India and Hinduism. It began as a reform movement within Hinduism. Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, sought a new way of practising
religion.

Buddhist Beliefs

Buddhist Beliefs

RITUALS AND WORSHIP OF BUDDHISM

SACRED TIME
Early Buddhists sought to escape from time. Their goal was nirvana, which is beyond experience and thus not a form of sacred time. the ultimate goal of early Buddhism was to escape from samsara. To attain nirvana was to extinguish any sense of self or individual experience; hence there was no sentient being remaining to experience a sacred time beyond ordinary time. There are two senses of nirvana: a thisworldly state when all attachments have been eliminated, and the non-state that occurs after death, when rebirth ceases

SACRED SPACE
Buddhist sacred spaces include stupas, containing relics of the Buddha or other monks, and the monastic complexes that grow up around them. Some mountains are also considered sacred. Stupas -Ancient Indian burial or reliquary monument; often contain relics or other sacred objects.

RITES AND CEREMONIES


Buddhist ritual calendars vary widely, but all usually include celebrations of the Buddha's birthday and the New Year. Other ceremonies typical of Buddhism are pilgrimages and rituals surrounding death. In many Buddhist countries, the ritual calendar includes events that are celebrated in conjunction with other religions and/or national traditions.

WORSHIP AND DEVOTION IN DAILY LIFE


The specifics of daily life for Buddhists vary considerably, depending on the country, the sect, and the individual. For the most part, monks still follow the strict rules of the vinaya as laid down by the early Buddhists many centuries ago. They vow not to lie, steal, kill, use intoxicants, or engage in sexual activity. Four actions will result in expulsion from the monastery: murder, stealing, sexual intercourse, and lying about spiritual attainments. Other infractions require some kind of punishment, and also must be confessed to the assembled monks.

SYMBOLISM
Early Buddhist symbols include the Buddha's footprint, the dharma wheel, and the stupa. Other symbols include mudras, mandalas, and monk's robes. Different Buddhist countries also have their own unique symbols.

dharma wheel- Composed of eight spokes attached to a center hub and united by an outer rim, the dharma wheel symbolizes the "turning of the wheel of the law" that occurred when the Buddha preached his first sermon. Mudras - Symbolic hand gestures. Mandalas - are works of sacred art in Tantric (Tibetan) Buddhism

DHARMA WHEEL
MUDRAS

MANDALAS

Two main divisions of Buddhism:

Theravada (Hinayana) Mahayana Buddhism

THE HINAYANA AND THE MAHAYANA SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM:


The most important division of Buddhism on religious principles was into the Hinayana or Theravada and the Mahayana.

PHILOSOPHY

The Four Noble Truths


THE FIRST NOBLE TRUTH ABOUT SUFFERING: Life is full of suffering.

The Four Noble Truths


THE SECOND NOBLE TRUTH ABOUT THE CAUSE OF SUFFERING :
The Second Noble Truth teaches that the cause of suffering is craving or thirst.

The Four Noble Truths


THE THIRD NOBLE TRUTH ABOUT THE CESSATION OF SUFFERING: -The Buddhas teachings on the four noble truth are sometimes compared to a physician diagnosing an illness and prescribing a treatment. - The third noble truth holds out for a cure. .

The Four Noble Truths


THE FOURTH NOBLE TRUTH OF THE PATH THAT FREES US FROM SUFFERING : -Here the Bhudda as physician prescribes the treatment for our illness -The fourth truth is that the Noble 8-fold Path is the path which leads to the end of suffering.

The Noble Eightfold Path


The Ariya-astangika Magga Eightfold Path: Samma Ditthi - Right Understanding/View Samma Sankappa - Right Thought/Resolve Samma Vaca - Right Speech Samma Kammanta - Right Action Samma Ajiva - Right Livelihood Samma Vayama - Right Effort Samma Sati - Right Mindfulness Samma Samadhi - Right concentration

5 PRECEPTS
Panca -five (5) and Sila - principles Basic principles of Buddhism The universal law

(a) The first stage of concentration is on reasoning and investigation regarding the truths. There is then joy of pure thinking. (b) The second stage of concentration is unruffled meditation, free from reasoning, etc. There is then a joy of tranquillity. (c) The third stage of concentration is detachment from even the joy of tranquillity. There is then indifference even to such joy but a feeling of bodily ease still persists. (d) The fourth stage of concentration is detachment from this bodily ease too. There are then perfect equanimity and indifference. This is the state of nirvana or perfect wisdom.

Five Precepts (Panca-sila)


I undertake the precept to abstain from taking of life. The being must be alive. There must be knowledge that it is a living being. There must be intention to cause its death. Action must be taken to cause its death Death must result from such action. If all these conditions are fulfilled, then the precept has been broken.

I undertake the precept to abstain from taking what is not given. An article belonging to another legally and blamelessly. Knowledge that the article belongs to another. There must be the intention to steal. Action must be taken to steal. By the action, the article must be taken.

I undertake the precept to abstain from sexual conduct. There must be a man or woman with whom it is improper to have sexual intercourse. There must be intention to have sexual intercourse with such a person. Action must be taken to have such an intercourse. There must be enjoyment from contact of the sexual organs.

I undertake the precept to abstain from false speech. The statement must be untrue. There must be an intention to deceive. An effort must be made to deceive. The other person must know the meaning of what is expressed.

I undertake the precept to abstain from taking intoxicants and drugs. There must be an intoxicant. There must be the intention of taking it. Action must be taken to ingest it. There must be actual ingestion of the intoxicant.

SOCIAL ASPECT

Six Groups of People


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Parents Teachers and mentors Wife and children Friends and associates Servants, employees or subordinates Religious men or monastics of the religion one

Their Duties
a. The duties of children to parents: 1. Having been raised by them, supporting them in return. 2. Helping them with their work. 3. Continuing the family line. 4. Behaving as is fitting for a family heir. 5. Performing acts of merit and dedicating the merits in their name when the parents have passed away.

b. The duties of a teacher to a student: 1. Training him to be a good person. 2. Teaching him so that he understands clearly. 3. Teaching him all the knowledge one has. 4. Praising him openly. 5. Providing him with a protection for when he must go out into the world (preparing the student to be able to get along in the world on his own).

Husband to wife (vice versa)


a. The duties of a husband to a wife: 1. Giving her the honor due to her station. 2. Not looking down on her. 3. Committing no adultery. 4. Giving her the authority of the household. 5. Providing her with occasional gifts of jewelry.

b. The duties of a wife to a husband: Seeing that the house is kept in order 2. Being helpful to relatives on both sides of the family. 3. Committing no adultery. 4. Protecting the wealth that her husband makes. 5. Being always diligent in her duties.

friends and friends


a. Our duties to our friends: 1. Being kind to them. 2. Speaking politely to them. 3. Conducting ourselves in a way that is beneficial to them. 4. Sticking with them in times good and bad. 5. Being faithful to them.

b. Our friends duties to us: 1. Protecting us when we are heedless. 2. Protecting our wealth when we are heedless. 3. Being a refuge to us when we are in danger. 4. Not deserting us when we are down. 5. Respecting our relatives.

employers and employees


a. The duties of an employer to his employees: 1. Giving them work commensurate with their strength and abilities. 2. Awarding them appropriate food and wages. 3. Looking after them when they are sick. 4. Sharing with them any special gains that accrue. 5. Giving them holidays from time to time.

b. The duties of an employee to an employer: 1. Rising to begin work before him. 2. Stopping work after him. 3. Taking only what is given by the employer. 4. Doing well the work appointed by the employer. 5. Spreading a good reputation of ones employer when the chance arises.

the monastics and the lay people


a. The duties of a layman to monk: 1. Performing any actions that affect the monks with goodwill. 2. Saying any words that affect the monks with goodwill. 3. Thinking any thoughts that affect the monks with goodwill. 4. Always opening ones door to receive them. 5. Providing them with the four supports [food, clothing, shelter and medicine].

b. The duties of a monk to a layman: 1. Protecting them from evil. 2. Teaching them and establishing them in goodness. 3. Assisting them with a benevolent mind. 4. Teaching them things they have never heard before. 5. Explaining things they have already heard. 6. Teaching them the way to heaven

CONCLUSION