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# Deformation:

## STRESS & STRAIN

Deformation
Dilation: a change in volume
Translation: a change in place
Rotation: a change in orientation
Distortion: a change in form
Term for Stress & Strain
*) Important distinction between two quantities
SCALARS
temperature
speed
volume
time
length
VECTORS
force and stress
(on a surface)
temperature
acceleration
Earths
gravity
field
Earths
magnetic
field
velocity
Mantle
convection
flow
ocean
currents
Scalars vs. Vectors
VECTOR & COORDINATE SYSTEM
FORCES & VECTORS
Force is any action which alters, or tends to alter
Newton II law of motion : F = M a

Unit force : kgm/s
2
= newton (N) or dyne = gram cm/s
2
; N = 10
5
dynes
BASIC CONCEPTS
(a). Force: vector quantity with magnitude and direction
(b). Resolving by the parallelogram of forces
Modified Price and Cosgrove (1990)
Two Types of Force
Body Forces (i.e. gravitational force)

STRESS
Stress defined as force per unit area:
= F/A
A = area, Stress units = Psi, Newton (N),
Pascal (Pa) or bar (10
5
Pa)

(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)
(Twiss and Moores, 1992)
STRESS
Stress at a point in 2D
Types of stress
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
o
)

Normal stress (o
N
)
(+) Compressive (-) Tensile
Shear stress (o
S
)
(+) (-)
STRESS ON A PLANE AND AT A POINT
Stress Tensor Notation
o
11
o
12
o
13
o = o
21
o
22
o
23
o
31
o
32
o
33
Stress Ellipsoid
FUNDAMENTAL STRESS EQUATIONS
Principal Stress:
o
1
> o
2
> o
3
All stress axes are mutually
perpendicular
Shear stress are zero in the
direction of principal stress
Stress Tensor Notation
o
11
o
12
o
13
o = o
21
o
22
o
23
o
31
o
32
o
33
o
12
= o
21
, o
13
= o
31
, o
23
= o
32
Stress Ellipsoid
a) Triaxial stress
b) Principal planes of
the ellipsoid
(Modified from Means, 1976)

2
ELIPSOID TEGASAN

1
>
2
=
3

1
=
2
>
3

1
>
2
>
3

B. Principal stress components
o
1
z
x
o
3
x
1
x3
y
y
x2
x
x
y
z
o
2
x
o
zy
o
xy
o
yy
o
yz
o
yx
o
xx
o
zx
o
zz
o
xz
z
y
Arbitrary
coordinate planes
A. Stress elipsoid
C. General stress components
z
Principal
coordinate planes
The State of
3-Dimensional
Stress at Point
(Twiss and Moores, 1992)
Principal Stress:
o
1
> o
2
> o
3
n
-
Planes of maximum
shear stress
Clockwise
shear stress
x
3
x
1
o
s
o
s
Counterclockwise
shear stress
u' = +45
o
1
x
3
o
3
o
1
n
+
o
s
x
1
u = +45
o
1
o
3
2u = +90
o
n
o
s max
Clockwi se
2u = 90 '
o
s max
Counter clockwise
o
3
B. Mohr Diagram A. Physical Diagram
Planes of maximum shear stress
Mohr Diagram 2-D
(Twiss and Moores, 1992)
o
c
= o
o
+ tan u (o
n
)
The Coulomb Law of Failure
o
c
= critical shear stress
o
o
= cohesive strength
tan u = coefficient
of internal friction
o
n
= normal stress
(Modified from Davis and Reynolds, 1996)
Compressive Fractures
Body force works from distance and depends on the amount of materials
affected (i.e. gravitational force).
Surface force are classes as compressive or tensile according to the
distortion they produce.
Stress is defined as force per unit area.
Stress at the point can be divided as normal and shear component
depending they direction relative to the plane.
Structural geology assumed that force at point are isotropic and
homogenous
Stress vector around a point in 3-D as stress ellipsoid which have three
orthogonal principal directions of stress and three principal planes.
Principal stress o
1
>o
2
>o
3
The inequant shape of the ellipsoid has to do with forces in rock and has
nothing directly to do with distortions.
Mohr diagram is a graphical representative of state of stress of rock
STRESS
STRAIN
UNDEFORMED DEFORMED
Strain is defined as the change (in size and shape) of a body
resulting from the action of an applied stress field
TYPES OF STRAIN
B. Inhomogeneous strain
A. Homogeneous strain
H
I
H
L
l = 5 cm
o
L' = 3 cm
L
l = 8 cm
f
L' = 4.8 cm
Fundamental Strain Equations
Extension (e) = (l
f
l
o
)/l
o
Stretch (S) = l
f
/l
o
= 1 + e

Lengthening e>0 and shortening e<0
Strain
B. Shear strain
Deformed State
Strain
R e = n
Deformed State
Undeformed State
A. Extension and stretch
Undeformed State
R = 1
u
u
r
u
u
r = Sn
T
R
e tan s = 1/2 t

= tan

Shear Strain ( )
SHEAR STRAIN
S
2
S
2
S
3
S
3
S
3
S
1
S
1
S
1
Strain Ellipsoid
S
1
= Maximum Finite Stretch
S
3
= Minimum Finite Stretch
(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)

2
ELIPSOID TERAKAN

1
>
2
=
3

1
=
2
>
3

1
>
2
>
3

O
N
Simple Shear
(Noncoaxial Strain)
A B
M
S1
M L
Pure Shear
(Coaxial Strain)
S
3
S
3
S1
25% Flattering
S
3
S1
S
3
S1 + 22
+ 31
S
3
S1
S1
S
3
30% Flattering
+ 45
40% Flattering
Progressive Deformation
(Davis and Reynolds, 1996)
Strain Measurement
Geological Map
Geologic Cross-section
Seismic Section
Outcrop
Thin Section
Knowing the initial objects
Shape
Size
Orientation
Strain Measurement from Outcrop
A
= gap
A
STRESS vs. STRAIN
Relationship Between Stress and Strain
Evaluate Using Experiment of Rock
Deformation
Rheology of The Rocks
Using Triaxial Deformation Apparatus
Measuring Shortening
Measuring Strain Rate
Strength and Ductility
(Modified from Park, 1989)
Deformation and Material
A. Elastic strain
B. Viscous strain
C. Viscoelastic strain
D. Elastoviscous
E. Plastic strain
Hookes Law: e = o/E, E = Modulus Young or elasticity
Newtonian : o = qc, q = viscosity, c = strain-rate
Stress Ellipsoid
Strain Ellipsoid
Relationship Between Stress and Strain
Evaluate Using Experiment of Rock
Deformation
Rheology of The Rocks
Using Triaxial Deformation Apparatus
Measuring Shortening
Measuring Strain Rate
Strength and Ductility
STRESS STRAIN RELATIONS
BRITTLE & DUCTILE DEFORMATIONS
DEFORMATION MECHANISMS
THANK YOU
GEOLOGY CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM