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Connection Systems Training

Electrical Performance & De-Rating


CTIS # 29954 Prepared By John Yurtin Updated 2-3-2005
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Performance Goal: Do it right the first time, every time Method: Innovation and continuous improvement

Having a good technical understanding of the expectations and performance of connections can help you properly apply them within the vehicle. Electrical performance should be clearly understood since it is the basic function of our products.

This training help you understand electrical performance and how it applies to specific applications.

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Contents
Understanding De-Rating

Crimp-To-Crimp Resistance
Example Various Specifications Its Not That Simple! Cable Examples Actual Failure Analysis What Do I Need To Know? Resources
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Understanding De-Rating

De-Rating limits the circuits current to assure that heat generated does not exceed the limits of the connection materials.
The temperature rise generated by the current + the ambient temperature must not exceed the material limits Temp Rise + Ambient < Lowest Material Limit Example: If cable insulation is limited to 1350C and ambient is 1250C then there cannot be more than 100 of temp rise.
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Crimp-To Crimp Resistance


35mm of 16 ga cable is .53 m/ohm

35 mm length

A mating set of terminals is simply a resistance


We call this Crimp-to-Crimp resistance It is measured before and after testing It unfortunately can vary over the life of the product

The mated terminals replace the resistance of an equal length of wire .


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Crimp-To Crimp Resistance


Crimp-to-Crimp Resistance

Interface resistance Bulk resistances Two Crimp Resistances

Crimp-to-Crimp resistance at the end of testing is usually only several milliohms and varies with design, size and materials Example - 280 Metri-Pack 1.1 m/ohms
But, many specifications allow resistance to be up to 10 m/ohms or more As Current flows through the terminals, they heat up (I2R=P) Heat is dissipated through: Conduction down the core of the wire (approx 80%) Radiation to other bodies Convection through air
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Example
Limitations (example): Cable Insulation: 1350C Terminal Plating: 1750C Conn Body Material: 1500C Copper Core: 2000C Silicone Seals: In a connection system, there is some weakest link with regard to temperature, e.g. maybe the cable insulation If the ambient temp is 1250C and we start passing current, the terminal is going to heat up based on I2R effect Once the ambient plus the rise due to current reaches the insulation limit,then we have a max operating current.
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Example

Cross Link Cable is good for 1350C, so in a 1250C ambient we can only allow a 100 rise.

If we rate terminals for maximum cable current then: For 16 ga cable, the max current is (for example): 15 amps per SAE J 2030 (*29.20 Temp Rise) 13 amps per Deutsch Spec (22.20 Temp Rise)
Because you cant exceed the max rating of the cable insulation, you need to limit the current again, this is called De-Rating. * Calculated Values

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Average Crimp to Crimp Resistance Values


" Micro 64 Metri-Pack 150 " Metri-Pack 150 " GT 150 " Metri-Pack 280 " Metri-Pack 280 " GT 280 " Metri-Pack 480 " Metri-Pack 480 " Metri-Pack 630 " Metri-Pack 630 " Metri-Pack 800 gold plated 5.5 m "unplated 8.5 m tin plated 2.7 m tin plated 4.0 m " unplated 1.8 m tin plated 1.1 m tin plated 3.0 m " unplated 2.5 m tin plated .65 m tin plated .45 m " unplated .50 m tin plated .40 m

It is important to understand that there is no one resistance for any set of terminals, The resistances vary depending on the test and test sequence.

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SAE/USCAR Specification
Temperature Rise Test
Test at 230C in open air, not in connectors
Increase the current in increments until: a) The temperature of any terminal interface exceeds a 55 o C rise, or the maximum temperature recommended by the terminal manufacturer, whichever is lower. b) The Total Connection Resistance of any terminal interface exceeds... (10 m for 1.5mm Terminals) Plot the temp rise curves for each wire size. These graphs are NOT to be used for actual terminal application in a vehicle.

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ISO 8092 Specification


Really has no requirement for specifying max current capability! Temperature Rise Test Test in connectors at 230C (room temp) Test currents for each cable size are found in the specification. (13.5 A for 1mm2 cable) A current reduction coefficient is applied for multiple connectors. The temperature shall not exceed 400C rise Note: The temperature rise shall not be used as a guide to the capability of the connector to operate at elevated ambient temperatures. Current Cycling Apply 500 cycles, each 45 min current on, 15 min current off Current is specified by the manufacturer Resistance not to exceed 30 m or 200% of initial value, whichever selected by supplier and user. (1.5mm terminals)
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And Its Not That Simple!

If several circuits within a connector are powered simultaneously, their heat can add requiring additional de-rating.

Most circuits are not continuously powered, but rather have cyclic currents (on/off cycles).
In multi-way connections, and in wire bundles, simultaneous powered circuits can add up heat, or, in the same way, harness bundles can act as heat sinks. In device connections, the device can be a heat sink or a heat source complicating the de-rating

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Cable Example 13 A

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Cable Example 15A

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Temperature Rise Curve

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Typical Transient Curve

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Terminal Temperature Tool (Intra-Net)

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Actual Resistive Failure Example

Contact resistance increases (next slide) Excessive heat is generated weakening the contact Low contact force results in even greater resistance and heat Temperature reaches limits of the plastic

Eventual total circuit failure

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What Causes Resistance Failure?

Wrong application of the connection Wrong terminals Wires too small Unexpected duty cycle

Poor Crimps
Improper fusing or circuit protection Environmental corrosion of the terminal interface As a rule of thumb, oxidation and stress relaxation rates double with every 10OC rise in terminal temperature. High resistance from worn out motor

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So What Do I Need To Know?


Understand the complete circuit in which the connection performs Know for sure what the expected worst case current will be. Is the current steady state or intermittent? Fusing and circuit protection Should the system be sealed? Understand the real limits of the connection. Use the prediction tools Look at the actual validation test results

Perform testing if necessary

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Resources
Product Data Sheets

Connection Systems E-Catalog


Product Handbook Electrical Performance Programs On-Line Actual Validation Test Reports So What Article George Drew Contact Physics Expert Product Line Managers

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