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MEC 281




Rasdi bin Deraman

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal
UiTM Pulau Pinang
Metal alloys are often
grouped into two classes –
ferrous and nonferrous.

Ferrous alloys
include steels and
cast irons.

Low Alloy
steels are
to be those
containing a
total of less
than 5% of
such added
Generally, carbon is the most important commercial
steel alloy. Increasing carbon content increases
hardness and strength and improves hardenability.
But carbon also increases brittleness and reduces
weldability because of its tendency to form
martensite. This means carbon content can be both a
blessing and a curse when it comes to commercial

The ferrous alloys are classified based on the

percentage of carbon present in the ferrous. Mostly
the contain of carbon in steel is less than 2 %. Mean
while the carbon contain in cast iron is about 2 to

When the contain of carbon in steel is less than

0.76%, it is called hypoeutectoid steel. While the
contain of carbon in range 0.76 to 2 % which is called
hypereutectoid steel.
• Steels are iron carbon alloys that may
carbon less than 2.0 percent.

• Steel is considered to be carbon steel when

minimum content is specified for chromium,
cobalt, columbium, molybdenum, nickel,
tungsten, vanadium or zirconium, or any
element to be added to obtain a desired
effect; when the specified minimum for
copper : not exceed 0.40%
manganese : not exceed 1.65%
silicon : not exceed 0.60%

Although called plane carbon actually the iron with less

than 1% Carbon alloy contains a small amount of
manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, and silicon.

Its strength is primarily a function of its carbon content,

increasing with carbon amount. The ductility of plain
carbon steels decreases as the carbon content

Some disadvantages of plain carbon steel are as follow:

+ The hardenability is low.
+ The physical properties (Loss of strength and
are decreased by both high and low temperatures
+ Subject to corrosion in most environments
Plain carbon steels are divided into three groups:
+ Low carbon steels
+ Medium carbon steels
+ High carbon steels
5.3.2 Low Carbon Steels
Has less than 0.3% Carbon and are unresponsive to heat
treatments intended to form martensite. Usually a
microstructures consist of ferrite and pearlite, and the
material is generally used as it comes from the cold
work processes.

• Posses good formability
• Posses good weldability: best of all metals :
Note: As a percentage of carbon increases there is a
tendency for the metal to harden and crack.
• Lowest cost and should be considered first
• Rated at 55-60% machinability (soft and drags which
up heat on the tool.

Typical Uses:
• 0.1- 0.2%: Automobile panels, rivets, nails, wire, and
• 0.2 - 0.3%: concrete reinforcing bars, structural shapes
Low Carbon Steel combine with 10% of other alloying
elements such as Copper, Vanadium, Nickel, and
Molybdenum produced High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA)
steels and possess higher strength than plain low
carbon steels. They are ductile, formable, and

The HSLA steels are more resistant to corrosion

environment and they have replaced in many
applications where structure strength is critical (e.g.,
bridges, towers, support columns in high-rise buildings,
and pressure vessels).

The Cranes can be made taller because of HSLA

5.3.3 Medium Carbon
Have between 0.3 to 0.8% Carbon.
Special Advantages:
• Machinability is 60-70%; therefore cut slightly better than
carbon steels. Both hot and cold rolled steels machine
when annealed. Less machinable than high carbon steel
that is very hard steel.
• Good toughness and ductility.
• Extremely popular and have numerous applications.
• Fair formability
• Responds to heat treatment but is often used in the natural

Typical Uses:
• 0.3-0.4 : lead screws, gears, spindles, shafts, and machine
• 0.4-0.5: crankshafts, gears, axles, and heat-treated
machine parts.
• 0.6-0.7: called “low carbon tool steel” and is used where a
5.3.4 High Carbon Steels
Over 0.8% Carbon and less than 1.4% Carbon are the
hardest, strongest, and yet least ductile of the carbon


• Toughness and formability and hardenability are

quite low.
• Not recommended for welding.
• Usually joined by brazing with low temperature
silver alloy
making it possible to repair or fabricate tool-steel
without affecting their heat treated condition.


• Hardness is high
• Wear resistance is high
Typical Uses:

• 0.8-0.9% C: punches for metal, rock drills, shear

cold chisels, rivet sets, and many
hand tools.
• 0.9-1.0% C: used for hardness and high tensile
springs, cutting tools, press tools,
striking dies.
• 1.0-1.15% C: drills, taps, milling cutters, knives.
• 1.1-1.2% C : cold cutting dies, wood working tools.
• 1.2-1.3% C : files, reamers, knives, tools for cutting
and brass.
• 1.3-1.4% C : used where a keen cutting edge is
razors, saws, and where wear
5.3.5 Stainless Steels
Stainless steels are at least 12 percent chromium and many
have high nickel contents. The three basic types of stainless
are Austenitic, Ferritic and Martensitic.

• Martensitic stainless steels make up the cutlery grades. They

have the least amount of chromium, offer high hardenability,
and when welding require to prevent cracking in the heat-
affected zone (HAZ).

• Ferritic stainless steels have 12 to 27 percent chromium with

small amounts of austenite-forming alloys.

• Austenitic stainless steels offer excellent weldability, but

austenite isn’t stable at room temperature. The most
important austenite stabilizer is nickel, and others include
carbon, manganese, and nitrogen.
Classification of stainless
5.3.6 Tool Steels

These are high carbon steel alloys that have been

designed to provide wear resistance and toughness
combined with high strength.Tool steels typically
have excess carbides (carbon alloys) which make
them hard and wear-resistant. Most tool steels are
used in a heat-treated state, generally hardened and
There are various types of Tool Steel for gauges,
tools, instruments and wear surfaces. Some typical
applications include shear knives, slitter knives,
punches, blanking and drawing dies, rolls, mandrels,
pins, chisels, cams, spindles, and moulds for die
The wide spectrum of properties of cast iron is
controlled by three main factors:
(1) the chemical composition of the iron;
(2) the rate of cooling of the casting in the mould
part on the section thicknesses in the casting);
(3) the type of graphite formed (if any).
Cast irons may often be used in place of steel at
considerable cost savings. The design and production
advantages of cast iron include:
- low tooling and production cost
- ready availability
- good machinability without burring
- readily cast into complex shapes
- high inherent damping
- excellent wear resistance and high hardness
white irons)
5.4.1 Gray Cast Irons

• The composition of Carbon and Silicon contents of

gray cast irons vary between 2.5 to 4.0% and 1.0
to 3.0% respectively.

• The microstructures of gray cast irons are consist

of graphite flakes and normally surrounded by an
alpha ferrite or pearlite matrix.

• The formation of graphite occurs because of the

cooling rate is too slow where the austenite in
unstable position and brake down to give graphite

• This cast iron is known as a gray iron because of

the gray appearance of its freshly fracture.
• The mechanical characteristic of Gray cast Irons are as
- Less hard and brittle
- Very weak in tension due to the pointed and sharp end of
flakes, where the failure of component initiated at this point.
- Good during compression which graphite acts as a cushion or
that could absorb the compression energy.
- Low shrinkage in mould due to formation of graphite flakes.
- Good dry bearing qualities due to graphite.

Sprockets Park Bench

Manhole Covers Gas Burners

with Frames
5.4.2 White Cast Irons
• The composition of Carbon and Silicon contents for white cast irons are in
range between 2.5 to 4.0% and less than 1.0% respectively.
• With a rapid cooling rate most of the carbon in the cast irons consist of
pearlite and cementite (Fe3C).
• The mechanical characteristic of White cast Irons are as follows:
- Relatively very hard, brittle and not weldable compared to
gray cast iron, since it is obtained from rapid cooling process.
- When it’s annealed, it becomes malleable cast iron.

• A fracture surface of these alloy

has a white appearance and it is THE MICRISTRUCTURE
called white cast iron. CAST IRON
• Typical Uses:
Necessitate a very hard and
wear resistance surface such
as rollers in rolling mills,
railroads wheel.
5.4.3 Ductile (Nodular) Cast Irons
• Ductile cast iron, which is sometimes called nodular or
spheroidal graphite cast iron. It gets this name because its
carbon is in the shape of small spheres, not flakes.
• Magnesium or cerium is added to the iron before casting
occurs. The effect of these material is to prevent the
formation of graphite flakes during the slow cooling of the
• The structures of the cast irons is mainly pearlite with
nodules of graphite.
• A heat treatment process can be applied to a pearlite
nodular iron to give a microstructure of graphite nodules in
ferrite. The ferrite structure is more ductile but has less
• tensile strength than the pearlite form. It’s also weldable.
Valves, pump bodies,
gears crankshafts, and
other machine

TEE pipe
5.4.4 Malleable Cast Irons
• Malleable cast iron is produced by the heat treatment of
white cast irons.
• Heating white iron at temperatures 800 c to 900 c for 50
hours in a neutral atmosphere (to prevent oxidation)
causes a decomposition of the cementite, forming
graphite in the form of clusters/ rossettes surrounded by
a ferrite or pearlite matrix depending on cooling rate.
• The mechanical characteristic of malleable cast iron is
similar to nodular cast iron and give higher strength and
more ductility and malleability. The silicon content is low.

The term non-ferrous alloys are used for those alloys
do not have iron as the base element. Generally, the
ferrous alloys commonly used in engineering
application are
The advantages
Aluminium ofCopper
alloys, Ferrous alloysMagnesium
alloys, over non-ferrous
alloys arealloys
Titanium as follows:
a) Generally greater strengths.
b) Generally greater stiffness, i.e. larger values
Young’s Modules.
c) Better for welding.
The advantages of Non-ferrous alloys over ferrous
alloys are
as follows:

a)  Good resistance to corrosion without special

processes having to be carried out.
b)  Most non-ferrous alloys have a much lower
density and hence lighter weight components can
be produced.
c) Casting is often easies because of the lower
melting points.
d) Cold working processes are often easier because
of the greater ductility.
e) Higher thermal and electrical conductivities.
f) More decorative colours.
Non-ferrous metals can be improved
the mech. properties by using
solution treatment, ageing &
precipitation hardening, as shown in
figure below.
• Low density (2.7 g/cm3)
• Very good corrosion resistance in common
environments (due to protective oxide
layer, can be improved by anodising)
• Ductile (FCC crystal structure)
• High electrical and thermal conductivity
• High strength to weight ratio
• BUT, low melting point: 660°C
(e.g. melting point of iron is 1535°C).
restricts use at high temperatures.
• Aerospace & air travel: structural
components of planes, fuel tanks in
• Building and construction: panels,
roofs, window frames…
• Packaging: beverage cans, foil…
• Transport: bikes, car engine parts, bus
• Electrical:
e.g. overhead cables
Classification of Aluminium
• Generally Aluminium alloys can be divided into two groups:
# Heat Treatable Alloys

# Non- Heat Treatable Alloys

Classification of Aluminium (Cont…)

• Wrought alloys are designed specifically

for fabrication by hot and cold forming
processes, such as rolling, forging and

• Casting alloys (or foundry alloys) are

exclusively used for the fabrication of
cast parts and have favourable
characteristics for this process. They
exhibit high fluidity in the liquid state
and good resistance to hot cracking
during solidification.
International Alloy
Designation System

• Classification of Wrought Alloys

Wrought Aluminum Alloys
• Primary Fabrication: Usually
semiconsciously cast by direct chill method.
• Ingots are homogenized and rolled.
• Classification: According to major alloying
• Four digits: First digit - major group of
alloying elements.
• Second digit: Impurity limits.
• Last 2 digits: Identify aluminum alloy.
Temper Designations
• Temper designations are designated by
• Example: 2024-T6

F – as fabricated T1 – Naturally aged

O – Annealed T3 – Solution heat treated.
H – Strain hardened. T4 – Solution heat treated
T – Heat treated to and naturally aged.
produce T5 - Cooled and artificially
stable temper aged.
H1 – Strain hardened T6 - Solution heat treated
alloy. and artificially
H2 – Strain hardened and aged.
partially annealed. T7 - Solution heat treated
H3 - Strain hardened an and stabilized.
annealed T8 - Solution heat treated,
cold worked and
artificially aged.
Cast Aluminum Alloys (Cont..)
Heat Treatment of
Aluminium Alloys
• Precipitation Strengthening : Creates fine
dispersion of precipitated particles in the metal
and hinder dislocation movement.
• Basic steps :
# Solution heat treatment: Alloy sample
heated to a temperature between solvus
and solidus and soaked at that temp.
# Quenching: Sample then quenched to
room temperature in water.
# Ageing: Solutionized and quenched
sample is then aged to form finely
dispersed particles.
Precipitation Hardening
Heat treatment normally involves;
(1) Solution treatment at relatively high temp. (To)
within the single phase (α) region, in order to dissolve
the alloying elements,
(2)  Rapid cooling, usually to room temp. (T1) across
the solvus line to exceed the solubility limit. This
leads to obtain a supersaturated solid solution (SSSS)
in aluminuim. Equilibrium structure is α+β, but limited
diffusion does not allow β phase to form.

(3)   Controlled
decomposition of the SSSS to
form a finely dispersed
precipitate, usually by ageing
for convenient times and
temp. (T2) where diffusion is
appreciable – β phase starts
to form.
Effects of Ageing on
Ageing curve: Strength
• Plot of strength or hardness vs. aging time.
• As aging time increases alloy becomes stronger harder
and less ductile.

• Over-ageing
strength & hardness.
5.5.2 Copper And Its Alloys
(Chemical symbol Cu) - Element No. 29 of the
periodic system, atomic weight 63.57. A
characteristically reddish metal of bright luster,
highly malleable and ductile and having high
electrical and heat conductivity; melting point
1083°C; boiling point 2336°C; specific gravity 8.94.
Universally used in the pure state as sheet, tube,
rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements
as an alloy with other metals.
i. Brasses
Copper base alloys in which zinc is the principal
added element. Brass is harder and stronger than
either of its alloying elements copper or zinc; it is
malleable and ductile; develops high tensile with
cold-working and not heat treatable for purposes of
hardness development.
Types of brasses are as follows:
• Gilding Brass: 85% copper and 15% Zn is used for jewellery
because it has a colour resembling that of gold.
• Cartridge brass: 70% copper and 30% Zn is used in the
production of cartridge and shell cases.

• Muntz metal: 60% copper and 40% zinc is used for castings and
hot-worked products. High strength brasses are developed
from this by adding other elements such as 0.8% Pb .

• Duplex brass (β ’): 45% Zn is formed at a low temperature

(453°C). The presence of the β ’ phase produces a drop in
ductility but increase in tensile strength to the maximum value
of brass. Duplex brass β ’ have little industrial application but
have good properties for hot forming processes, e.g. extrusion.
ii. Bronzes
Bronzes that contain up to 8% Sn are α bronzes and
can be cold worked.

Phosphor bronze is might have about 95% Cu, 5%

and 0.02 to 0.4 %P. These alloys are used for
 Aluminium bronze is consist of copper and
contact, clips, instrument components.
alloys. The contain about 10% Al are used for
casting. It
has high strength and good resistance to corrosion
wear. Typical applications of such materials are
casing, gears, valves etc.
 Casting bronzes that contain Zn are called
Gunmetal contains 88%Cu, 10% Sn and 2%Zn.
 Beryllium Copper
alloy finds that
general usecontain with components.
for marine 2-3 %
beryllium with
optionally fractional percentages of nickel or
Alloys of this series show remarkable age-
properties to give alloys with very high tensile
(1400Mpa). Because of such hardness and good
electrical conductivity, beryllium-copper is used
electrical switches, springs, etc.
5.5.3 Titanium And Its Alloys
Ti has a relatively low density, 4,500kg/cu. m. It has a
relatively low strength when pure but alloying gives a
considerable increase in strength.
Ti is an expensive metal, its high cost reflecting the
difficulties experienced in the extraction and
formation of the material. Because of excellent
corrosion resistance, commercially pure Ti is used for
chemical plant components, surgical implants, marine
and aircraft engine parts, etc.
Ti alloy contain 92.5% Ti, 5% Al, 2.5% Sn are strong and
maintain their strength at high temp. but are difficult to
work. The alloys have good weldability and are used
where high temp strength is required, e.g. steam turbine
The 90% Ti, 6% Va alloy can be readily welded, forged
and machined. This alloy is used for both high and low
temp. applications, e.g. rocket motor cases, turbine
5.5.4 Magnesium And Its Alloys

(Chemical symbol Mg.) - Element No. 12 of the periodic

system; atomic weight 24.305. Mg has a density of 1,700
kg/cu. m with a melting point of approximately 627°C. A
silver-white light malleable, ductile metallic element that
occurs abundantly in nature. The metal is used in
metallurgical and chemical processes; in photography
and in the manufacture of pyrotechnics because of the
intense white light it produces on burning. It has a low
tensile strength, needing to be alloyed with the other
metals to improve its strength. Mg has an HCP crystal
structure is relatively soft and has a low elastic Modulus.
Mg alloys are used in applications where lightness is the
primary consideration, e.g. in aircraft and spacecraft. Mg
– Al - Zn alloys and Mg – Zn – Zicronium are the main two
groups of alloys in general use. A general purpose
wrought alloy has about 93% Mg, 6% Zn, 0.3% Mn can be
forged, extruded, welded and has excellent
5.5.5 Nickel And Its Alloys

Ni has a density of 8,880 kg/cu. m and melting point

of 1455°C. Ni has good tensile strength at high
temperature and can be both cold and hot working,
has good machining properties and can be joined
by welding, brazing and soldering.
Ni is used as the base metal for a number of alloys
with excellent corrosion resistance. Monel is the
name given to commercial alloys with Ni-Cu. Monel
400 has 66.5% Ni and 31.5% Cu has high strength,
toughness and weldability. It is highly resistant to
sea water, alkalis, many acids and superheated
stem, hence its used for marine fixtures and
fasteners, food processing plant components.
5.5.6 Zinc And Its Alloys

Zn has a density of 7,100 kg/cu. m. Pure Zn has a

melting point of only 419 °C. Zn is frequently used as
a coating on steel in order to protect that material
against corrosion, the product being known as
galvanized steel.

The main use of Zn alloys is for die casting. They are

excellent for this purpose because of low melting
points and the lack of corrosion of dies used with
them. Zn alloys contain 95.6% Zn, 4.3%Al, 0.03%Cu,
0.06% Mg are ductile and tensile strength 285 Mpa.
Zn alloys can be machined and to a limited extend,
worked. Soldering and welding are not generally
High melting temperatures,
Large elastic moduli, hardnesses, and strengths.

For example;
Tungsten (W), melts at 3,410°C, which is more
than double that of iron and ten times that of

Because of their high melting points and ease of

oxidation, refractory metals are usually worked
in powder form. Powder metallurgy (PM)
processes play an important role in the
fabrication of refractory metals.
Five main elements of refractory metals widely used
are Tungsten (W), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb),
Tantalum (Ta) and Rhenium (Re).
Melting Point (ºC) 3410 3180 2996 2617 2468
Density (g/cm3) 19.3 21.0 16.6 10.2 8.6
Thermal Expansion (ppm/ºC) 4.5 6.2 6.3 4.8 7.3
Thermal Conduct. (W/cm-ºC) 1.70 0.40 0.52 1.40 0.54
Electrical Resistivity (µ ohm-cm) 5.3 18.5 13.1 5.4 14.4
Tensile Strength 20ºC (GPa) 0.7-3.5 0.7-2.0 0.2-0.5 0.7-1.4 0.4-0.7

1000ºC (GPa) 0.3-0.5 0.4-0.7 0.1 0.1-0.2 0.04-0.1

Young’s Modulus 20ºC (GPa) 410 450 185 330 130

1000ºC (GPa) 365 360 170 280 110

Limitation of refractory metals:
- some experience rapid oxidation at elevated

Typical applications:
extrusion dies, structural parts in space vehicles,
incandescent light filaments, x-ray tubes, and welding
- Excellent strength at high temperatures.
Even when heated to 10000C tungsten rocket nose
cones still have twice the tensile strength iron has at
room temperature.

- Very high melting point (2468 - 34100C). High

melting points of tungsten, tantalum and
molybdenum make them useful in processing
molten metals and minerals such as glass making.

- Excellent wear and abrasion resistance.

Refractory metals, often in alloy form extend
the life of seals, bushings, nozzles, valve
seats and many points of high wear. Alloys
with gold and silver also make excellent long-
life contact points or electronic equipment.

- High resistance to thermal shock.

The stresses of rapid expansion due to heat
would destroy most metal filaments in just a
few on-off cycles. A tungsten filament,
because of its high melting point and good
non- sag characteristic, will withstand
thousands of on-off cycles and still remain
- Hardness.
Cutting tools today are made of tungsten carbide.
For cutting, forming steel and other metals, even
for drilling oil wells and in mining.
The main characteristics of super alloys are as
- Able to maintain high strengths at high temperatures.
- Good corrosion and oxidation resistance at high
temperatures, means that capable to withstand high
temp. & oxidizing atmospheres for long time periods.
- Good resistance to creep and rupture at high temp.
Typical applications of super alloys are as follows:
aircraft turbines, gas turbine, nuclear reactors, and
petrochemical equipment and biomedical implants..

Generally, there are three main classes of super alloys:

Nickel (Ni) – Base
Nickel-Ferrous (Ni-Fe) – Base (cheaper than Ni-base)
Cobalt (Co) – Base
Type of materials
Gold (Au), silver (Ag), platinum (Pt), & palladium (Pd).

- Highly resistant to corrosion or oxidation,
at elevated temperatures
-Soft and ductile.
-They tend to be very valuable.

Typical applications
-Jewellery , dental restoration materials, coins,
catalysts, and thermocouples.