Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14



O It is the world's third largest economy in USD
exchange-rate terms, the fifth largest by purchasing
power parity (PPP),and the largest economy in Europe.

O Second most populous nation in Europe(82,369,552 -

July 2008 est.)

O Germany is a key member of the continent's economic,

political, and defense organizations.

O Federal republic type of Government

O Pfter WW II, Germany
was divided into 4 zones.

O The capital (Berlin) was

also divided into 4 zones.

O Each one controlled by

one of the four
occupying Pllied powers:
the Pmericans, British,
French and Soviets.
O • 

O  ! "! 
O P  

O #   
O &' (
O The flight of growing
numbers of East Germans
to non-communist countries
via West Berlin .

O Between 1949 and the end

of 1960, over Æ 


O The flight of people to West

Berlin was a huge
embarrassment for the
O •onstruction of 156 km (97
miles) long wall began early
on Sunday, Pugust 13, 1961
in East Berlin.
O The zonal boundary had been
sealed that morning by East
German troops.
O John F. Kennedy had
acknowledged in a speech on
July 25, 1961, that the United
States could hope to defend
only West Berliners and West
O Gave hope to West Berliners
that US would not leave them
alone to face the USSR.
O In 1962 a second parallel fence with 91 meters was
made further into East territory, between the two
barriers was created a ³no man¶s land´, later known as
the ³death strip´.
O During the Wall's existence there were around 5,000
successful escapes into West Berlin.
O From 1962 ± 1989, around 200 people were killed trying
to flee to the West.
O United States President Ronald Reagan delivered his
famed speech at the Berlin Wall in June 1987, in which
he called for Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev
to "tear down this wall!"
O On May 2, 1989 the first visible cracks in the Iron •urtain
appeared when Hungary began dismantling their 150
mile long border fence with Pustria.
O The relatively open border with the West allowed for
hundreds of East Germans vacationing in Hungary to
escape to Pustria and then travel safely to West
O Pfter Hungary's reformist government opened its
borders, a growing number of East Germans began
emigrating to West Germany via Hungary's border with

O Pfter a misunderstanding, Gunther

Schabowski famously announced in
a live broadcast international press
conference that (effectively) all
rules for traveling abroad were
lifted, in effect "immediately".
O Tens of thousands of people
immediately went to the Berlin Wall
where the vastly outnumbered
border guards were forced to open
access points and allow them
through, which proved to be the
end of the Berlin Wall.
O Soldiers were not sure of their
orders up until the very end.
O The fall of the Wall was
the first step toward
German reunification,
which was formally
concluded on October 3,
O Major symbol of •old War
was gone.
O West Germans and West
Berliners were allowed
visa-free travel starting
December 23, 1989.
O On July 1, East Germany
adopted the West German
  "  #

Inflation Rate 3.0% (1989) 0.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate 7.1% (1990) 1% (1989); 3%

(first half, 1990)
Budget: revenues $539 revenues $147
billion; expenditures billion; expenditures
$563 billion(1988) $153.4 billion(1988)

External debt: $500 million(June $20.6 billion (1989)

Industrial 3.3% (1988) 2.7% (1989 est.)
production: growth
    ÷ %!! &!' (!! &!'
  "   )!!(

GDP - per capita (PPP) $34,200 (2007 est.)

Labour force 43.51 million (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 8.4% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty 11% (2001 est.)

Inflation rate 2.3% (2007 est.)

Industrial production 2.1% (2007 est.)
growth rate:

Debt - external $4.489 trillion (30 June