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VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

DYNAMICS
Ninth Edition
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University
CHAPTER
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17
Plane Motion of Rigid
Bodies:
Energy and Momentum
Methods
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
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Contents
17 - 2
Introduction
Principle of Work and Energy for a
Rigid Body
Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body
Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body in Plane
Motion
Systems of Rigid Bodies
Conservation of Energy
Power
Sample Problem 17.1
Sample Problem 17.2
Sample Problem 17.3
Sample Problem 17.4
Sample Problem 17.5
Principle of Impulse and Momentum
Systems of Rigid Bodies
Conservation of Angular Momentum
Sample Problem 17.6
Sample Problem 17.7
Sample Problem 17.8
Eccentric Impact
Sample Problem 17.9
Sample Problem 17.10
Sample Problem 17.11
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Introduction
17 - 3
Method of work and energy and the method of impulse and
momentum will be used to analyze the plane motion of rigid
bodies and systems of rigid bodies.
Principle of work and energy is well suited to the solution of
problems involving displacements and velocities.
2 2 1 1
T U T = +

Principle of impulse and momentum is appropriate for
problems involving velocities and time.
( ) ( )
2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
O
t
t
O O
t
t
H dt M H L dt F L

= + = +

}

}
Problems involving eccentric impact are solved by supplementing
the principle of impulse and momentum with the application of
the coefficient of restitution.
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Principle of Work and Energy for a Rigid Body
17 - 4
Method of work and energy is well adapted to
problems involving velocities and displacements.
Main advantage is that the work and kinetic energy
are scalar quantities.
Assume that the rigid body is made of a large
number of particles.
2 2 1 1
T U T = +

=
2 1
, T T
=
2 1
U
initial and final total kinetic energy of
particles forming body
total work of internal and external forces
acting on particles of body.
Internal forces between particles A and B are equal
and opposite.
Therefore, the net work of internal forces is zero.
In general, small displacements of the particles A
and B are not equal but the components of the
displacements along AB are equal.
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Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body
17 - 5
Work of a force during a displacement of its
point of application,
( )
} }
= =

2
1
2
1
cos
2 1
s
s
A
A
ds F r d F U o

Consider the net work of two forces


forming a couple of moment during a
displacement of their points of application.
F F

and
M

u
u
d M
d Fr ds F
r d F r d F r d F dU
=
= =
+ =
2
2 1 1

( )
1 2
2 1
2
1
u u
u
u
u
=
=
}
M
d M U
if M is constant.
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Work of Forces Acting on a Rigid Body
17 - 6
Forces acting on rigid bodies which do no work:
Forces applied to fixed points:
- reactions at a frictionless pin when the supported body
rotates about the pin.
Forces acting in a direction perpendicular to the displacement
of their point of application:
- reaction at a frictionless surface to a body moving along
the surface
- weight of a body when its center of gravity moves
horizontally
Friction force at the point of contact of a body rolling without
sliding on a fixed surface.
( ) 0 = = = dt v F ds F dU
c C
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Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body in Plane Motion
17 - 7
Consider a rigid body of mass m in plane motion.
( )
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1

e
e
I v m
m r v m
v m v m T
i i
i i
+ =
' + =
' + =

Kinetic energy of a rigid body can be separated into:


- the kinetic energy associated with the motion of
the mass center G and
- the kinetic energy associated with the rotation of
the body about G.
Consider a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis
through O.
( ) ( )
2
2
1
2 2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1

e
e e
O
i i i i i i
I
m r r m v m T
=
+ + =

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Systems of Rigid Bodies
17 - 8
For problems involving systems consisting of several rigid bodies, the
principle of work and energy can be applied to each body.
We may also apply the principle of work and energy to the entire system,
2 2 1 1
T U T = +

= arithmetic sum of the kinetic energies of
all bodies forming the system
= work of all forces acting on the various
bodies, whether these forces are internal
or external to the system as a whole.
2 1
,T T
2 1
U
For problems involving pin connected members, blocks and pulleys
connected by inextensible cords, and meshed gears,
- internal forces occur in pairs of equal and opposite forces
- points of application of each pair move through equal distances
- net work of the internal forces is zero
- work on the system reduces to the work of the external forces
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Conservation of Energy
17 - 9
Expressing the work of conservative forces as a
change in potential energy, the principle of work
and energy becomes
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
+ = +
u e
u e
sin
3
sin
2
1
3 2
1
0
2
2
2 2 1 1
l
g
mgl
ml
V T V T
0 , 0
1 1
= = V T
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
12
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
3 2
1
e e e
e
ml
ml l m
I v m T
= + =
+ =
u u sin sin
2
1
2
1
2
mgl Wl V = =
Consider the slender rod of mass m.
mass m
released with zero velocity
determine e at u
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Power
17 - 10
Power = rate at which work is done
For a body acted upon by force and moving with velocity , F

v F
dt
dU

= = Power
For a rigid body rotating with an angular velocity and acted
upon by a couple of moment parallel to the axis of rotation,
e

e
u
M
dt
d M
dt
dU
= = = Power
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Sample Problem 17.1
17 - 11
For the drum and flywheel,
The bearing friction is equivalent to a
couple of At the instant shown,
the block is moving downward at 6 ft/s.
. s ft lb 5 . 10
2
= I
ft. lb 60
Determine the velocity of the block after it
has moved 4 ft downward.
SOLUTION:
Consider the system of the
flywheel and block. The work
done by the internal forces exerted
by the cable cancels.
Apply the principle of work and
kinetic energy to develop an
expression for the final velocity.
Note that the velocity of the block
and the angular velocity of the
drum and flywheel are related by
e r v =
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Sample Problem 17.1
17 - 12
SOLUTION:
Consider the system of the flywheel and block. The work
done by the internal forces exerted by the cable cancels.
Note that the velocity of the block and the angular velocity of
the drum and flywheel are related by
1.25
s rad 80 . 4
ft 1.25
s ft 6
2 2
2
1
1
v
r
v
r
v
r v = = = = = = e e e
Apply the principle of work and kinetic energy to develop an
expression for the final velocity.
( ) ( )( )
lb ft 255
s rad 80 . 4 s ft lb 5 . 10
2
1
s ft 6
s ft 32.2
lb 240
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
=
+ =
+ = e I mv T
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
09 . 7
25 . 1
5 . 10
2
1
2 . 32
240
2
1
v
v
v
I v m T
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ = e
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Sample Problem 17.1
17 - 13
lb ft 255
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
= + = e I mv T
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
09 . 7 v I v m T = + = e
Note that the block displacement and pulley
rotation are related by
rad 20 . 3
ft 25 . 1
ft 4
2
2
= = =
r
s
u
Principle of work and energy:
s ft 01 . 12
7.09 lb ft 768 lb ft 255
2
2
2
2 2 1 1
=
= +
= +

v
v
T U T
s ft 01 . 12
2
= v
( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( )
lb ft 768
rad 20 . 3 ft lb 60 ft 4 lb 240
1 2 1 2 2 1
=
=
=

u u M s s W U
Then,
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Sample Problem 17.2
17 - 14
mm 80 kg 3
mm 200 kg 10
= =
= =
B B
A A
k m
k m
The system is at rest when a moment
of is applied to gear B.
Neglecting friction, a) determine the
number of revolutions of gear B before
its angular velocity reaches 600 rpm,
and b) tangential force exerted by gear
B on gear A.
m N 6 = M
SOLUTION:
Consider a system consisting of the two
gears. Noting that the gear rotational
speeds are related, evaluate the final
kinetic energy of the system.
Apply the principle of work and energy.
Calculate the number of revolutions
required for the work of the applied
moment to equal the final kinetic energy
of the system.
Apply the principle of work and energy to
a system consisting of gear A. With the
final kinetic energy and number of
revolutions known, calculate the moment
and tangential force required for the
indicated work.
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Sample Problem 17.2
17 - 15
SOLUTION:
Consider a system consisting of the two gears. Noting
that the gear rotational speeds are related, evaluate the
final kinetic energy of the system.
( )( )
s rad 1 . 25
250 . 0
100 . 0
8 . 62
s rad 8 . 62
min s 60
rev rad 2 rpm 600
= = =
= =
A
B
B A
B
r
r
e e
t
e
( )( )
( )( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
m kg 0192 . 0 m 080 . 0 kg 3
m kg 400 . 0 m 200 . 0 kg 10
= = =
= = =
B B B
A A A
k m I
k m I
( )( ) ( )( )
J 9 . 163
8 . 62 0192 . 0 1 . 25 400 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
=
+ =
+ =
B B A A
I I T e e
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Sample Problem 17.2
17 - 16
Apply the principle of work and energy. Calculate
the number of revolutions required for the work.
( )
rad 32 . 27
163.9J J 6 0
2 2 1 1
=
= +
= +

B
B
T U T
u
u
rev 35 . 4
2
32 . 27
= =
t
u
B
Apply the principle of work and energy to a system
consisting of gear A. Calculate the moment and
tangential force required for the indicated work.
( )( ) J 0 . 126 1 . 25 400 . 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
= = =
A A
I T e
( )
m N 52 . 11
J 0 . 26 1 rad 10.93 0
2 2 1 1
= =
= +
= +

F r M
M
T U T
A A
A
rad 93 . 10
250 . 0
100 . 0
32 . 27 = = =
A
B
B A
r
r
u u
N 2 . 46
250 . 0
52 . 11
= = F
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Sample Problem 17.3
17 - 17
A sphere, cylinder, and hoop, each
having the same mass and radius, are
released from rest on an incline.
Determine the velocity of each body
after it has rolled through a distance
corresponding to a change of elevation h.
SOLUTION:
The work done by the weight of the
bodies is the same. From the principle
of work and energy, it follows that each
body will have the same kinetic energy
after the change of elevation.
Because each of the bodies has a
different centroidal moment of inertia,
the distribution of the total kinetic
energy between the linear and rotational
components will be different as well.
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Sample Problem 17.3
17 - 18
SOLUTION:
The work done by the weight of the bodies is the
same. From the principle of work and energy, it
follows that each body will have the same kinetic
energy after the change of elevation.
r
v
= e With
2
2 2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
v
r
I
m
r
v
I v m I v m T
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + = e
2 2
2
2
2 2
1
2 2 1 1
1
2 2
0
mr I
gh
r I m
Wh
v
v
r
I
m Wh
T U T
+
=
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
= +

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Sample Problem 17.3
17 - 19
2
2
1
2
mr I
gh
v
+
=
gh v mr I Hoop
gh v mr I Cylinder
gh v mr I Sphere
2 707 . 0 :
2 816 . 0 :
2 845 . 0 :
2
2
2
1
2
5
2
= =
= =
= =
Because each of the bodies has a different
centroidal moment of inertia, the distribution of the
total kinetic energy between the linear and
rotational components will be different as well.
The velocity of the body is independent of its mass
and radius.
NOTE:
For a frictionless block sliding through the same
distance, gh v 2 , 0 = = e
The velocity of the body does depend on
2
2
2
r
k
mr
I
=
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Sample Problem 17.4
17 - 20
A 30-lb slender rod pivots about the
point O. The other end is pressed
against a spring (k = 1800 lb/in) until
the spring is compressed one inch and
the rod is in a horizontal position.
If the rod is released from this position,
determine its angular velocity and the
reaction at the pivot as the rod passes
through a vertical position.
SOLUTION:
The weight and spring forces are
conservative. The principle of work and
energy can be expressed as
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
Evaluate the initial and final potential
energy.
Express the final kinetic energy in terms
of the final angular velocity of the rod.
Based on the free-body-diagram
equation, solve for the reactions at the
pivot.
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Sample Problem 17.4
17 - 21
SOLUTION:
The weight and spring forces are conservative. The
principle of work and energy can be expressed as
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
Evaluate the initial and final potential energy.
( )( )
lb ft 75 lb in 900
in. 1 in. lb 1800 0
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
= =
= + = + = kx V V V
e g
( )( )
lb ft 45
ft 1.5 lb 30 0
2
=
= + = + = Wh V V V
e g
Express the final kinetic energy in terms of the angular
velocity of the rod.
( )
2
2
2
2
12
1
s ft lb 941 . 1
ft 5
s ft 32.2
lb 30
12
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= ml I
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
019 . 2 941 . 1 5 . 1
2 . 32
30
2
1
e e e
e e e
= + =
+ = + = I r m I v m T
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Sample Problem 17.4
17 - 22
s rad 86 . 3
2
= e
lb ft 45 2.019 lb ft 75 0
2
2
2 2 1 1
+ = +
+ = +
e
V T V T
From the principle of work and energy,
Based on the free-body-diagram equation, solve for the
reactions at the pivot.
( )( )
o
e
r a
r a
t
n
=
= = =
2 2 2
2
s ft 3 . 22 s rad 86 . 3 ft 5 . 1
o r a
a
t
n
=
=

2
s ft 3 . 22
( )

=
eff
O O
M M
( )r r m I o o + = 0 0 = o
( )

=
eff
x x
F F
( ) o r m R
x
= 0 =
x
R
( )

=
eff
y y
F F
( )
lb 22 . 9
s ft 3 . 22
s ft 32.2
lb 30
lb 30
2
2
=
=
=
y
n y
R
ma R
22 . 9 = R

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Sample Problem 17.5
17 - 23
Each of the two slender rods has a
mass of 6 kg. The system is released
from rest with | = 60
o
.
Determine a) the angular velocity of
rod AB when | = 20
o
, and b) the
velocity of the point D at the same
instant.
SOLUTION:
Consider a system consisting of the two
rods. With the conservative weight force,
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
Express the final kinetic energy of the
system in terms of the angular velocities of
the rods.
Evaluate the initial and final potential
energy.
Solve the energy equation for the angular
velocity, then evaluate the velocity of the
point D.
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Sample Problem 17.5
17 - 24
Evaluate the initial and final potential energy.
( )( )
J 26 . 38
m 325 . 0 N 86 . 58 2 2
1 1
=
= = Wy V
( )( )
J 10 . 15
m 1283 . 0 N 86 . 58 2 2
2 2
=
= = Wy V
SOLUTION:
Consider a system consisting of the two rods. With
the conservative weight force,
2 2 1 1
V T V T + = +
( )( )
N 86 . 58
s m 81 . 9 kg 6
2
=
= = mg W
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Sample Problem 17.5
17 - 25
Since is perpendicular to AB and is horizontal,
the instantaneous center of rotation for rod BD is C.
m 75 . 0 = BC
( ) m 513 . 0 20 sin m 75 . 0 2 = = CD
and applying the law of cosines to CDE, EC = 0.522 m
B
v

D
v

Express the final kinetic energy of the system in terms


of the angular velocities of the rods.
( )e m 375 . 0 =
AB
v

( ) ( )
AB B
BC AB v e e = = e e =
BD

Consider the velocity of point B


( )e m 522 . 0 =
BD
v

( )( )
2 2
12
1
2
12
1
m kg 281 . 0 m 75 . 0 kg 6 = = = = ml I I
BD AB
For the final kinetic energy,
( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
2
12
1
2
2
1
2
12
1
2
2
1
2
12
1
2
2
1
2
12
1
2
520 . 1
281 . 0 522 . 0 6 281 . 0 375 . 0 6
e
e e e e
e e
=
+ + + =
+ + + =
BD BD BD AB AB AB
I v m I v m T
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Sample Problem 17.5
17 - 26
s rad 3.90
J 10 . 15 1.520 J 26 . 38 0
2
2 2 1 1
=
+ = +
+ = +
e
e
V T V T
Solve the energy equation for the angular velocity,
then evaluate the velocity of the point D.
s rad 90 . 3 =
AB
e

( )
( )( )
s m 00 . 2
s rad 90 . 3 m 513 . 0
=
=
= e CD v
D
s m 00 . 2 =
D
v

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Principle of Impulse and Momentum
17 - 27
Method of impulse and momentum:
- well suited to the solution of problems involving time and velocity
- the only practicable method for problems involving impulsive
motion and impact.
Sys Momenta
1
+ Sys Ext Imp
1-2
= Sys Momenta
2

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Principle of Impulse and Momentum
17 - 28
v m m v L
i i

= =


The momenta of the particles of a system may be reduced to a vector
attached to the mass center equal to their sum,
i i i G
m v r H

'
=

and a couple equal to the sum of their moments about the mass center,
e I H
G
=

For the plane motion of a rigid slab or of a rigid body symmetrical with
respect to the reference plane,
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Principle of Impulse and Momentum
17 - 29
Principle of impulse and momentum for the plane motion of a rigid slab
or of a rigid body symmetrical with respect to the reference plane
expressed as a free-body-diagram equation,
Leads to three equations of motion:
- summing and equating momenta and impulses in the x and y
directions
- summing and equating the moments of the momenta and impulses
with respect to any given point
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Principle of Impulse and Momentum
17 - 30
Noncentroidal rotation:
- The angular momentum about O
( )
( )
( )e
e e
e e
2
r m I
r r m I
r v m I I
O
+ =
+ =
+ =
- Equating the moments of the momenta and
impulses about O,
2 1
2
1
e e
O
t
t
O O
I dt M I = +

}
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Systems of Rigid Bodies
17 - 31
Motion of several rigid bodies can be analyzed by applying
the principle of impulse and momentum to each body
separately.
For problems involving no more than three unknowns, it may
be convenient to apply the principle of impulse and
momentum to the system as a whole.
For each moving part of the system, the diagrams of momenta
should include a momentum vector and/or a momentum couple.
Internal forces occur in equal and opposite pairs of vectors and
do not generate nonzero net impulses.
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Conservation of Angular Momentum
17 - 32
When the sum of the angular impulses pass through O, the
linear momentum may not be conserved, yet the angular
momentum about O is conserved,
( ) ( )
2
0
1
0
H H =
Two additional equations may be written by summing x and
y components of momenta and may be used to determine
two unknown linear impulses, such as the impulses of the
reaction components at a fixed point.
When no external force acts on a rigid body or a system of rigid
bodies, the system of momenta at t
1
is equipollent to the system
at t
2
. The total linear momentum and angular momentum about
any point are conserved,
( ) ( )
2
0
1
0
H H =
2 1
L L

=
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Sample Problem 17.6
17 - 33
The system is at rest when a moment
of is applied to gear B.
Neglecting friction, a) determine the
time required for gear B to reach an
angular velocity of 600 rpm, and b) the
tangential force exerted by gear B on
gear A.
m N 6 = M
mm 80 kg 3
mm 200 kg 10
= =
= =
B B
A A
k m
k m
SOLUTION:
Considering each gear separately, apply
the method of impulse and momentum.
Solve the angular momentum equations
for the two gears simultaneously for the
unknown time and tangential force.
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Sample Problem 17.6
17 - 34
SOLUTION:
Considering each gear separately, apply the method of impulse
and momentum.
( )
( ) ( )( )
s N 2 . 40
s rad 1 . 25 m kg 400 . 0 m 250 . 0
0
2
=
=
=
Ft
Ft
I Ftr
A A A
e
moments about A:
moments about B:
( )
( ) ( )
( )( ) s rad 8 . 62 m kg 0192 . 0
m 100 . 0 m N 6
0
2
2
=

= +
Ft t
I Ftr Mt
B B B
e
Solve the angular momentum equations for the two gears simultaneously
for the unknown time and tangential force.
N 46.2 s 871 . 0 = = F t
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Sample Problem 17.7
17 - 35
Uniform sphere of mass m and
radius r is projected along a rough
horizontal surface with a linear
velocity and no angular velocity.
The coefficient of kinetic friction is

Determine a) the time t
2
at which
the sphere will start rolling without
sliding and b) the linear and angular
velocities of the sphere at time t
2
.
.
k

1
v
SOLUTION:
Apply principle of impulse and momentum
to find variation of linear and angular
velocities with time.
Relate the linear and angular velocities
when the sphere stops sliding by noting
that the velocity of the point of contact is
zero at that instant.
Substitute for the linear and angular
velocities and solve for the time at which
sliding stops.
Evaluate the linear and angular velocities
at that instant.
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Sample Problem 17.7
17 - 36
SOLUTION:
Apply principle of impulse and momentum
to find variation of linear and angular
velocities with time.
0 = Wt Nt
y components:
x components:
2 1
2 1
v m mgt v m
v m Ft v m
k
=
=
gt v v
k
=
1 2
mg W N = =
moments about G:
( ) ( )
2
2
5
2
2
e
e
mr tr mg
I Ftr
k
=
=
t
r
g
k

e
2
5
2
=
Sys Momenta
1
+ Sys Ext Imp
1-2
= Sys Momenta
2
Relate linear and angular velocities when
sphere stops sliding by noting that velocity
of point of contact is zero at that instant.
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
t
r
g
r gt v
r v
k
k

e
2
5
1
2 2
Substitute for the linear and angular
velocities and solve for the time at which
sliding stops.
g
v
t
k

1
7
2
=
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Sample Problem 17.7
17 - 37
x components:
gt v v
k
=
1 2
y components:
mg W N = =
moments about G: t
r
g
k

e
2
5
2
=
Sys Momenta
1
+ Sys Ext Imp
1-2
= Sys Momenta
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
t
r
g
r gt v
r v
k
k

e
2
5
1
2 2
g
v
t
k

1
7
2
=
Evaluate the linear and angular velocities
at that instant.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
v
g v v
k
k

1
1 2
7
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
v
r
g
k
k

e
1
2
7
2
2
5
1 2
7
5
v v =
r
v
1
2
7
5
= e
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Sample Problem 17.8
17 - 38
Two solid spheres (radius = 3 in.,
W = 2 lb) are mounted on a spinning
horizontal rod (

e = 6 rad/sec) as shown. The balls are
held together by a string which is
suddenly cut. Determine a) angular
velocity of the rod after the balls have
moved to A and B, and b) the energy
lost due to the plastic impact of the
spheres and stops.
, s ft lb 0.25
2
=
R
I
SOLUTION:
Observing that none of the external
forces produce a moment about the y
axis, the angular momentum is
conserved.
Equate the initial and final angular
momenta. Solve for the final angular
velocity.
The energy lost due to the plastic impact
is equal to the change in kinetic energy
of the system.
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Sample Problem 17.8
17 - 39
Sys Momenta
1
+ Sys Ext Imp
1-2
= Sys Momenta
2
( ) | | ( ) | |
2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 e e e e e e
R S s R S s
I I r r m I I r r m + + = + +
SOLUTION:
Observing that none of the
external forces produce a
moment about the y axis, the
angular momentum is
conserved.
Equate the initial and final
angular momenta. Solve for
the final angular velocity.
2
2
2 5
2
2
5
2
s ft lb 00155 . 0 ft
12
2
s ft 32.2
lb 2
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = ma I
S
2696 . 0
12
25
2 . 32
2
0108 . 0
12
5
2 . 32
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= r m r m
S S
R S s
R S s
I I r m
I I r m
+ +
+ +
=
2
2
2
1
1 2
e e
s rad 6
1
= e
2
s ft lb 25 . 0 =
R
I
s rad 08 . 2
2
= e
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Sample Problem 17.8
17 - 40
The energy lost due to the
plastic impact is equal to the
change in kinetic energy of the
system.
2
s ft lb 00155 . 0 =
S
I
2 2
1
s ft lb 0108 . 0 = r m
S
s rad 6
1
= e
2
s ft lb 25 . 0 =
R
I
s rad 08 . 2
2
= e
2 2
2
s ft lb 2696 . 0 = r m
S
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 2 2 e e e
R S S R S S
I I r m I I v m T + + = + + =
( )( )
( )( )
95 . 4 71 . 1
lb ft 71 . 1 08 . 2 792 . 0
lb ft 95 . 4 6 275 . 0
1 2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
= =
= =
= =
T T T
T
T
lb ft 24 . 3 = T A
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Eccentric Impact
17 - 41
Period of deformation Period of restitution
}
= dt R Impulse

}
= dt P Impulse

( ) ( )
n
B
n
A
u u

=
Principle of impulse and momentum is supplemented by
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
n
B
n
A
n
A
n
B
v v
v v
dt P
dt R
n restitutio of t coefficien e

' '
=
= =
}
}

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Sample Problem 17.9
17 - 42
A 0.05-lb bullet is fired into the side of a
20-lb square panel which is initially at
rest.
Determine a) the angular velocity of the
panel immediately after the bullet
becomes embedded and b) the impulsive
reaction at A, assuming that the bullet
becomes embedded in 0.0006 s.
SOLUTION:
Consider a system consisting of the
bullet and panel. Apply the principle of
impulse and momentum.
The final angular velocity is found
from the moments of the momenta and
impulses about A.
The reaction at A is found from the
horizontal and vertical momenta and
impulses.
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Sample Problem 17.9
17 - 43
SOLUTION:
Consider a system consisting
of the bullet and panel. Apply
the principle of impulse and
momentum.
The final angular velocity is
found from the moments of
the momenta and impulses
about A.
moments about A:
( ) ( )
2
12
9
2
12
14
ft 0 ft e
P P B B
I v m v m + = +
( )
2
12
9
2
ft e = v
2
2
2
6
1
s ft lb 2329 . 0
12
18
2 . 32
20
6
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = b m I
P P
( )( ) ( )( )
2
12
9
2
12
9
12
14
2329 . 0
2 . 32
20
1500
2 . 32
05 . 0
e e +
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
( ) s ft 50 . 3
s rad 67 . 4
2
12
9
2
2
= =
=
e
e
v
s rad 67 . 4
2
= e
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Sample Problem 17.9
17 - 44
( ) s ft 50 . 3 s rad 67 . 4
2
12
9
2 2
= = = e e v
The reactions at A are found
from the horizontal and
vertical momenta and
impulses.
x components:
( ) ( ) ( ) 50 . 3
2 . 32
20
0006 . 0 1500
2 . 32
05 . 0
2
|
.
|

\
|
= +
|
.
|

\
|
= +
x
p x B B
A
v m t A v m A
lb 259 =
x
A lb 259 =
x
A
y components:
0 0 = + t A
y
A
0 =
y
A
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Sample Problem 17.10
17 - 45
A 2-kg sphere with an initial velocity
of 5 m/s strikes the lower end of an 8-
kg rod AB. The rod is hinged at A and
initially at rest. The coefficient of
restitution between the rod and sphere
is 0.8.
Determine the angular velocity of the
rod and the velocity of the sphere
immediately after impact.
SOLUTION:
Consider the sphere and rod as a single
system. Apply the principle of impulse
and momentum.
The moments about A of the momenta
and impulses provide a relation between
the final angular velocity of the rod and
velocity of the sphere.
The definition of the coefficient of
restitution provides a second
relationship between the final angular
velocity of the rod and velocity of the
sphere.
Solve the two relations simultaneously
for the angular velocity of the rod and
velocity of the sphere.
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Sample Problem 17.10
17 - 46
SOLUTION:
Consider the sphere and rod as a
single system. Apply the
principle of impulse and
momentum.
The moments about A of the
momenta and impulses provide a
relation between the final
angular velocity of the rod and
velocity of the rod.
moments about A:
( ) ( ) ( ) e' + ' + ' = I v m v m v m
R R s s s s
m 6 . 0 m 2 . 1 m 2 . 1
( )
( )( )
2 2
12
1
2
12
1
m kg 96 . 0 m 2 . 1 kg 8
m 6 . 0
= = =
' = ' = '
mL I
r v
R
e e
( )( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )e
e
' +
' + ' =
2
m kg 96 . 0
m 6 . 0 m 6 . 0 kg 8 m 2 . 1 kg 2 m 2 . 1 s m 5 kg 2
s
v
e' + ' = 84 . 3 4 . 2 12
s
v
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Sample Problem 17.10
17 - 47
Moments about A:
e' + ' = 84 . 3 4 . 2 12
s
v
The definition of the coefficient
of restitution provides a second
relationship between the final
angular velocity of the rod and
velocity of the sphere.
( )
( ) ( ) s m 5 8 . 0 m 2 . 1 = ' '
= ' '
s
s B s B
v
v v e v v
e
Relative velocities:
Solve the two relations
simultaneously for the angular
velocity of the rod and velocity
of the sphere.
Solving,
s m 143 . 0 = '
s
v s m 143 . 0 = '
s
v
rad/s 21 . 3 = ' e rad/s 21 . 3 = ' e
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Sample Problem 17.11
17 - 48
A square package of mass m moves
down conveyor belt A with constant
velocity. At the end of the conveyor,
the corner of the package strikes a rigid
support at B. The impact is perfectly
plastic.
Derive an expression for the minimum
velocity of conveyor belt A for which
the package will rotate about B and
reach conveyor belt C.
SOLUTION:
Apply the principle of impulse and
momentum to relate the velocity of the
package on conveyor belt A before the
impact at B to the angular velocity about
B after impact.
Apply the principle of conservation of
energy to determine the minimum initial
angular velocity such that the mass
center of the package will reach a
position directly above B.
Relate the required angular velocity to
the velocity of conveyor belt A.
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Sample Problem 17.11
17 - 49
SOLUTION:
Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to relate the velocity of the package on
conveyor belt A before the impact at B to angular velocity about B after impact.
Moments about B:
( )( ) ( )( )
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
0 e I a v m a v m + = + ( )
2
6
1
2
2
2
2
a m I a v = = e
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
2
2
6
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
0 e e a m a a m a v m + = +
2
3
4
1
e a v =
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Sample Problem 17.11
17 - 50
Apply the principle of conservation of energy to determine
the minimum initial angular velocity such that the mass
center of the package will reach a position directly above B.
3 3 2 2
V T V T + = +
2 2
Wh V =
( ) ( )
2
2
2
3
1
2
2
2
6
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
e e e
e
ma ma a m
I mv T
= + =
+ =
3 3
Wh V =
0
3
= T (solving for the minimum e
2
)
( ) ( )
( ) a a
GB h
612 . 0 60 sin
15 45 sin
2
2
2
= =
+ =
a a h 707 . 0
2
2
3
= =
( ) ( ) a g a a
a
g
h h
ma
W
Wh Wh ma
285 . 0 612 . 0 707 . 0
3 3
0
2
2 3
2
2
2
3 2
2
2
2
3
1
= = =
+ = +
e
e
a g a a v 285 . 0
3
4
2
3
4
1
= = e
ga v 712 . 0
1
=