Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

Geology of Petroleum Systems

Petroleum Geology
Objectives are to be able to: Discuss basic elements of Petroleum Systems Describe plate tectonics and sedimentary basins Recognize names of major sedimentary rock types Describe importance of sedimentary environments to petroleum industry Describe the origin of petroleum Identify hydrocarbon trap types Define and describe the important geologic controls on reservoir properties, porosity and permeability

Outline

Petroleum Systems approach Geologic Principles and geologic time Rock and minerals, rock cycle, reservoir properties Hydrocarbon origin, migration and accumulation Sedimentary environments and facies; stratigraphic traps Plate tectonics, basin development, structural geology Structural traps

Petroleum System - A Definition


A Petroleum System is a dynamic hydrocarbon system that functions in a restricted geologic space and time scale.
A Petroleum System requires timely convergence of geologic events essential to the formation of petroleum deposits. These Include: Mature source rock Hydrocarbon expulsion Hydrocarbon migration Hydrocarbon accumulation Hydrocarbon retention
(modified from Demaison and Huizinga, 1994)

Cross Section Of A Petroleum System


(Foreland Basin Example)
Geographic Extent of Petroleum System Extent of Play Extent of Prospect/Field O
Stratigraphic Extent of Petroleum System

Seal Rock Reservoir Rock Source Rock Underburden Rock

Pod of Active Source Rock


Petroleum Reservoir (O)

Basement Rock Fold-and-Thrust Belt (arrows indicate relative fault motion)


(modified from Magoon and Dow, 1994)

Top Oil Window Top Gas Window

Sedimentary Basin Fill

Essential Elements of Petroleum System

Overburden Rock

Basic Geologic Principles



Uniformitarianism Original Horizontality Superposition Cross-Cutting Relationships

Cross-Cutting Relationships
K J I H G
Angular Unconformity

C E D
Igneous Dike

F B

Types of Unconformities
Disconformity
An unconformity in which the beds above and below are parallel

Angular Unconformity
An unconformity in which the older bed intersect the younger beds at an angle

Nonconformity
An unconformity in which younger sedimentary rocks overlie older metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks

Correlation
Establishes the age equivalence of rock

layers in different areas Methods:


Similar lithology Similar stratigraphic section Index fossils Fossil assemblages Radioactive age dating

Geologic Time Chart


0 0
Quaternary

Billions of years ago

Millions of years ago

Phanerozoic

Tertiary
50

Millions of years ago

0 Pleistocene

Recent

Cryptozoic (Precambrian)

100 150 200 250 300

Cretaceous

20

Miocene

Cenozoic Era

10

Pliocene

Mesozoic

Jurassic Triassic Permian


Pennsylvanian Mississippian

30 Oligocene 40 50

Eocene

60 Paleocene

Paleozoic

4.6

350 400 450 500 550 600

Devonian
Silurian

Ordovician

Cambrian

Tertiary period

Quaternary period

Eon

Era Period

Epoch

Rocks

Classification of Rocks
IGNEOUS SEDIMENTARY METAMORPHIC

Rock-forming Source of process material

Molten materials in deep crust and upper mantle

Weathering and erosion of rocks exposed at surface

Rocks under high temperatures and pressures in deep crust

Crystallization (Solidification of melt)

Sedimentation, burial and lithification

Recrystallization due to heat, pressure, or chemically active fluids

The Rock Cycle


Magma

Metamorphic Rock

Heat and Pressure

Igneous Rock
n a

Sedimentary Rock

Weathering, Transportation and Deposition i

Sediment

Sedimentary Rock Types


Relative abundance
Sandstone and conglomerate ~11% Limestone and dolomite ~13%

Siltstone, mud and shale ~75%

Minerals - Definition
Naturally Occurring Solid Generally Formed by Inorganic Processes

Ordered Internal Arrangement of Atoms (Crystal Structure)


Chemical Composition and Physical Properties Fixed or Vary Within A Definite Range

Quartz Crystals

Average Detrital Mineral Composition of Shale and Sandstone


Mineral Composition Shale (%)
Clay Minerals Quartz Feldspar Rock Fragments Carbonate Organic Matter, Hematite, and Other Minerals 60 30 4 <5 3 <3

Sandstone (%)
5 65 10-15 15 <1 <1
(modified from Blatt, 1982)

The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Minerals Strongly Influence the Composition of Sedimentary Rocks
Quartz Feldspar
Mechanically and Chemically Stable Can Survive Transport and Burial Nearly as Hard as Quartz, but Cleavage Lessens Mechanical Stability May be Chemically Unstable in Some Climates and During Burial Mechanically Unstable During Transport Chemically Unstable in Humid Climates Because of Low Hardness, Cleavage, and Reactivity With Weak Acid

Calcite

Some Common Minerals


Oxides
Hematite Magnetite

Sulfides
Pyrite Galena Sphalerite

Carbonates
Aragonite Calcite Dolomite Fe-Dolomite Ankerite

Sulfates
Anhydrite Gypsum

Halides
Halite Sylvite

Silicates
Non-Ferromagnesian
(Common in Sedimentary Rocks) Quartz Muscovite (mica) Feldspars Potassium feldspar (K-spar) Orthoclase Microcline, etc. Plagioclase Albite (Na-rich - common) through Anorthite (Ca-rich - not common)

Ferromagnesian (not common in sedimentary rocks)


Olivine Pyroxene Augite Amphibole Hornblende Biotite (mica)
Red = Sedimentary RockForming Minerals

The Four Major Components


Framework
Sand (and Silt) Size Detrital Grains

Matrix
Clay Size Detrital Material

Cement
Material precipitated post-depositionally, during burial. Cements fill pores and replace framework grains

Pores
Voids between above components

Sandstone Composition Framework Grains


KF = Potassium Feldspar

PRF = Plutonic Rock Fragment

PRF

KF
CEMENT

P = Pore
Potassium Feldspar is Stained Yellow With a Chemical Dye Pores are Impregnated With Blue-Dyed Epoxy

P
Norphlet Sandstone, Offshore Alabama, USA Grains are About =< 0.25 mm in Diameter/Length

Porosity in Sandstone
Pore Throat

Pores Provide the Volume to Contain Hydrocarbon Fluids

Pore Throats Restrict Fluid Flow

Scanning Electron Micrograph Norphlet Formation, Offshore Alabama, USA

Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs Fibrous Authigenic Illite


Secondary Electron Micrograph
Significant Permeability Reduction
Negligible Porosity Reduction High Irreducible Water Saturation Migration of Fines Problem
Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone Hatters Pond Field, Alabama, USA

Illite

(Photograph by R.L. Kugler)

Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs Authigenic Chlorite


Secondary Electron Micrograph
Iron-Rich Varieties React With Acid Occurs in Several Deeply Buried Sandstones With High Reservoir Quality Occurs as Thin Coats on Detrital Grain Surfaces
Jurassic Norphlet Sandstone Offshore Alabama, USA

~ 10 mm

(Photograph by R.L. Kugler)

Clay Minerals in Sandstone Reservoirs Authigenic Kaolinite


Secondary Electron Micrograph

Significant Permeability Reduction High Irreducible Water Saturation

Migration of Fines Problem

Carter Sandstone North Blowhorn Creek Oil Unit Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, USA

(Photograph by R.L. Kugler)

Effects of Clays on Reservoir Quality


Authigenic Illite
100 1000 100 10 1 1

Authigenic Chlorite

Permeability (md)

10

0.1

0.1 0.01 2 6 10 14 2 6 10 14 18

0.01

Porosity (%)
(modified from Kugler and McHugh, 1990)

Influence of Clay-Mineral Distribution on Effective Porosity


fe
Dispersed Clay
Detrital Quartz Grains Clay Minerals

fe
Clay Lamination

Structural Clay
(Rock Fragments, Rip-Up Clasts, Clay-Replaced Grains)

fe

Diagenesis
Carbonate Cemented

Diagenesis is the PostDepositional Chemical and Mechanical Changes that Occur in Sedimentary Rocks Some Diagenetic Effects Include

Oil Stained

Compaction Precipitation of Cement Dissolution of Framework Grains and Cement

Whole Core Misoa Formation, Venezuela

The Effects of Diagenesis May Enhance or Degrade Reservoir Quality

Fluids Affecting Diagenesis


Precipitation Evaporation Evapotranspiration

Water Table Infiltration Meteoric Water COMPACTIONAL WATER Petroleum Fluids

Meteoric Water Zone of abnormal pressure

Isotherms CH 4,CO 2,H2 S


(modified from from Galloway and Hobday, 1983)

Subsidence

Dissolution Porosity
Partially Dissolved Feldspar Dissolution of Framework Grains (Feldspar, for Example) and Cement may Enhance the Interconnected Pore System

Pore Quartz Detrital Grain


Thin Section Micrograph - Plane Polarized Light Avile Sandstone, Neuquen Basin, Argentina

This is Called Secondary Porosity

(Photomicrograph by R.L. Kugler)

Hydrocarbon Generation, Migration, and Accumulation

Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks


Kerogen
Disseminated Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks That is Insoluble in Oxidizing Acids, Bases, and Organic Solvents.

Vitrinite

Vitrinite
A nonfluorescent type of organic material in petroleum source rocks derived primarily from woody material. The reflectivity of vitrinite is one of the best indicators of coal rank and thermal maturity of petroleum source rock.

Reflected-Light Micrograph of Coal

Interpretation of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (based on early oil window maturity)
Hydrocarbon Generation Potential TOC in Shale (wt. %) 0.0-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-2.0 2.0-5.0 >5.0 TOC in Carbonates (wt. %) 0.0-0.2 0.2-0.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-2.0 >2.0

Poor
Fair Good

Very Good
Excellent

Schematic Representation of the Mechanism of Petroleum Generation and Destruction


Progressive Burial and Heating
Organic Debris Diagenesis Oil Reservoir Kerogen Catagenesis Thermal Degradation Oil and Gas Cracking Metagenesis Carbon
(modified from Tissot and Welte, 1984)

Initial Bitumen Migration

Methane

Comparison of Several Commonly Used Maturity Techniques and Their Correlation to Oil and Gas Generation Limits
0.2

65 70

Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro) %

0.5

0.6
0.7 0.8 0.9 1.2

Incipient Oil Generation


OIL Wet Gas

75

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

80

430 450 465

1.0 1.3 2.0 3.0


4.0

Max. Oil Generated


Dry Gas Max.

85 90

Oil Floor Wet Gas Floor Dry Gas Floor

Dry Gas Generated

95

(modified from Foster and Beaumont, 1991, after Dow and OConner, 1982)

Pyrolysis Tmax (C)

0.4

Spore Coloration Index (SCI)

0.3

Weight % Carbon in Kerogen

Generation, Migration, and Trapping of Hydrocarbons

Fault (impermeable)

Oil/water contact (OWC) Migration route

Seal
Hydrocarbon accumulation in the reservoir rock Top of maturity Source rock

Reservoir rock

Cross Section Of A Petroleum System


(Foreland Basin Example)
Geographic Extent of Petroleum System Extent of Play Extent of Prospect/Field O
Stratigraphic Extent of Petroleum System

Seal Rock Reservoir Rock Source Rock Underburden Rock

Pod of Active Source Rock


Petroleum Reservoir (O)

Basement Rock Fold-and-Thrust Belt (arrows indicate relative fault motion)


(modified from Magoon and Dow, 1994)

Top Oil Window Top Gas Window

Sedimentary Basin Fill

Essential Elements of Petroleum System

Overburden Rock

Hydrocarbon Traps
Structural traps
Stratigraphic traps

Combination traps

Structural Hydrocarbon Traps


Shale Oil Gas Trap Oil/Gas Contact Oil/Water Contact Oil

Closure

Fracture Basement

Fold Trap

Salt

Salt Diapir

Dome

Oil

(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)

Hydrocarbon Traps - Dome


Gas
Oil

Sandstone

Shale

Fault Trap
Oil / Gas

Stratigraphic Hydrocarbon Traps


Unconformity Pinch out

Uncomformity

Oil/Gas

Oil/Gas

Channel Pinch Out


Oil/Gas

(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)

Other Traps
Meteoric Water

Asphalt Trap
Biodegraded Oil/Asphalt

Water

Partly Biodegraded Oil

Hydrodynamic Trap Shale


Water

Hydrostatic Head

Oil
(modified from Bjorlykke, 1989)

Heterogeneity

Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone


Heterogeneity
Segments Reservoirs Increases Tortuosity of Fluid Flow

Heterogeneity May Result From:


Depositional Features Diagenetic Features
(Whole Core Photograph, Misoa Sandstone, Venezuela)

Reservoir Heterogeneity in Sandstone


Heterogeneity Also May Result From:
Faults

Fractures
Faults and Fractures may be Open (Conduits) or Closed (Barriers) to Fluid Flow
(Whole Core Photograph, Misoa Sandstone, Venezuela)

Geologic Reservoir Heterogeneity


Bounding Surface

Bounding Surface

Eolian Sandstone, Entrada Formation, Utah, USA

Scales of Geological Reservoir Heterogeneity


Well
Determined From Well Logs, Seismic Lines, Statistical Modeling, etc. 1-10 km

Interwell Area

Well

Field Wide

100's m

Interwell

Reservoir Sandstone
100's m

10's m

Well-Bore

10-100's mm

10-100's mm

1-10's m

Petrographic or Scanning Electron Microscope

Hand Lens or Binocular Microscope

Unaided Eye

(modified from Weber, 1986)

Scales of Investigation Used in Reservoir Characterization


300 m

Relative Volume
50 m

Gigascopic
300 m

Well Test

10

14

Megascopic

5m

150 m

Reservoir Model 12 2 x 10 Grid Cell

2m 1m

Macroscopic

cm
mm - mm

Wireline Log Interval Core Plug Geological Thin Section

3 x 10 5 x 10 1

Microscopic
(modified from Hurst, 1993)

Stages In The Generation of An Integrated Geological Reservoir Model


Geologic Activities
Regional Geologic Framework Depositional Model

(As Needed)

Core Analysis
Log Analysis Well Test Analysis

Diagenetic Model Integrated Geologic Model Applications Studies


Reserves Estimation Simulation

Structural Model Fluid Model


(As Needed)

Model Testing And Revision