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Bioenergetics

EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY Presented and Adapted by: MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI
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Introduction

Metabolism: total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body

Anabolic reactions

Synthesis of molecules

Catabolic reactions

Breakdown of molecules

Bioenergetics

Converting foodstuffs (fats, proteins, carbohydrates) into energy


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Objectives

Discuss the function of cell membrane, nucleus, & mitochondria Define: endergonic, exergonic, coupled reactions & bioenergetics Describe how enzymes work Discuss nutrients used for energy Identify high-energy phosphates

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Objectives

Discuss anaerobic & aerobic production of ATP Describe how metabolic pathways are regulated Discuss the interaction of anaerobic & aerobic ATP production during exercise Identify the rate limiting enzymes

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Cell Structure

Cell membrane

Protective barrier between interior of cell and extracellular fluid Contains genes that regulate protein synthesis Fluid portion of cell Contains organelles (mitochondria)

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

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Structure of a Typical Cell

Fig 3.1
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Cellular Chemical Reactions

Endergonic reactions

Require energy to be added Release energy Liberation of energy in an exergonic reaction drives an endergonic reaction

Exergonic reactions

Coupled reactions

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The Breakdown of Glucose: An Exergonic Reaction

Fig 3.3
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Coupled Reactions

Fig 3.4
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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation: removing an electron Reduction: addition of an electron Oxidation and reduction are always coupled reactions In cells often involve the transfer of hydrogen atoms rather than free electrons Hydrogen atom contains one electron A molecule that loses a hydrogen also loses an electron, and therefore is oxidized
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Enzymes

Catalysts that regulate the speed of reactions

Lower the energy of activation Temperature pH Lock and key model

Factors that regulate enzyme activity


Interact with specific substrates

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Enzymes Lower the Energy of Activation

Fig 3.6
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EnzymeSubstrate Interaction

Fig 3.7
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Fuels for Exercise

Carbohydrates

Glucose

Stored as glycogen

Fats

Primarily fatty acids

Stored as triglycerides

Proteins

Not a primary energy source during exercise

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High-Energy Phosphates

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Consists of adenine, ribose, and three linked phosphates

Formation Breakdown
ATP ADP + Pi ATP

ATPase

ADP + Pi + Energy
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Structure of ATP

Fig 3.8
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Model of ATP as the Universal Energy Donor

Fig 3.9
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Bioenergetics

Formation of ATP

Phosphocreatine (PC) breakdown Degradation of glucose and glycogen (glycolysis) Oxidative formation of ATP Do not involve O2 PC breakdown and glycolysis Require O2 Oxidative phosphorylation
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Anaerobic pathways

Aerobic pathways

Anaerobic ATP Production

ATP-PC system

Immediate source of ATP


PC + ADP
Creatine kinase

ATP + C

Glycolysis

Energy investment phase


Requires 2 ATP Produces ATP, NADH (carrier molecule), and pyruvate or lactate
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Energy generation phase

The Two Phases of Glycolysis

Fig 3.10
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Glycolysis Energy Investment Phase

Fig 3.11
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Glycolysis Energy Generation Phase

Fig 3.11
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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation

Molecule accepts electrons (along with H+) Molecule donates electrons

Reduction

Nicotinomide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)


NAD + 2H+ NADH + H+

Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)


FAD + 2H+ FADH2
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Production of Lactic Acid

Normally, O2 is available in the mitochondria to accept H+ (and electrons) from NADH produced in glycolysis

In anaerobic pathways, O2 is not available

H+ and electrons from NADH are accepted by pyruvic acid to form lactic acid

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Conversion of Pyruvic Acid to Lactic Acid

Fig 3.12
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Aerobic ATP Production

Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)

Completes the oxidation of substrates and produces NADH and FADH to enter the electron transport chain Oxidative phosphorylation Electrons removed from NADH and FADH are passed along a series of carriers to produce ATP H+ from NADH and FADH are accepted by O2 to form water
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Electron transport chain


The Three Stages of Oxidative Phosphorylation

Fig 3.13
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The Krebs Cycle

Fig 3.14
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Relationship Between the Metabolism of Proteins, Fats, and Carbohydrates

Fig 3.15
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Electron Transport Chain

Fig 3.17
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The Chemiosmotic Hypothesis of ATP Formation

Electron transport chain results in pumping of H+ ions across inner mitochondrial membrane

Results in H+ gradient across membrane

Energy released to form ATP as H+ diffuse back across the membrane

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The Chemiosmotic Hypothesis of ATP Formation

Fig 3.16
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Aerobic ATP Tally

Metabolic Process Glycolysis

High-Energy Products 2 ATP 2 NADH

ATP from Oxidative ATP Subtotal Phosphorylation 5 5 15 3 2 (if anaerobic) 7 (if aerobic) 12 14 29 32 32

Pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA 2 NADH Krebs cycle 2 GTP 6 NADH 2 FADH

Grand Total

2.5 ATP per NADH 1.5 APT per FADH

Table 3.1

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Efficiency of Oxidative Phosphorylation

Aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glucose

Yields 32 ATP

Aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glycogen

Yields 33 ATP

Overall efficiency of aerobic respiration is 34%

66% of energy released as heat


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Control of Bioenergetics

Rate-limiting enzymes

An enzyme that regulates the rate of a metabolic pathway High levels of ATP inhibit ATP production Low levels of ATP and high levels of ADP+Pi stimulate ATP production

Levels of ATP and ADP+Pi

Calcium may stimulate aerobic ATP production


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Action of Rate-Limiting Enzymes

Fig 3.19
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Control of Metabolic Pathways


Pathway ATP-PC system Glycolysis Krebs cycle Rate-Limiting Enzyme Creatine kinase Stimulators ADP Inhibitors ATP

Phosphofructokinase AMP, ADP, Pi, pH ATP, CP, citrate, pH Isocitrate dehydrogenase ADP, Ca , NAD
++

ATP, NADH ATP

Electron transport Cytochrome Oxidase ADP, Pi chain

Table 3.2
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Control of Bioenergetics
ATP-PC System
PC + ADP 1 C + ATP Glycogen Glucose Glucose 6-phosphate

Rate Limiting Enzymes 1. Creatine kinase 2. Phosphofructokinase 3. Iscitrate dehydrogenase 4. Cytochrome oxidase

Glycerol

2 Phosphoglyceraldehyde

Glycolysis

Triglycerides

Lactic Acid
-ox

Pyruvic Acid

Fatty acids

Acetyl CoA

Amino Acids

Proteins

Ketone bodies

C4

Kerbs Cycle
3

C6
NADH FADH

Urea

Table 3.2

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C5

ETS
4

Interaction Between Aerobic and Anaerobic ATP Production

Energy to perform exercise comes from an interaction between aerobic and anaerobic pathways Effect of duration and intensity

Short-term, high-intensity activities

Greater contribution of anaerobic energy systems

Long-term, low to moderate-intensity exercise

Majority of ATP produced from aerobic sources

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