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Chapter 25:

Ergogenic Aids

EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 5 th edition Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley

Presentation revised and updated by

TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC

Humboldt State University

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Objectives

Define ergogenic aid

• Explain why a “placebo” treatment in a “double-blind design” is used in research studies involving ergogenic aids

Describe, in general, the effective ness of nutritional supplements on performance

Describe the effect of additional oxygen on performance; distinguish between hyperbaric oxygenation and that accomplished by breathing oxygen-enriched gas mixture

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Objectives

Describe blood doping and its potential for improving endurance performance

Explain the mechanism by which ingested buffers might improve anaerobic performances

Explain how amphetamines might improve exercise performance

Describe the various mechanisms by which caffeine might improve performance

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Objectives

Identify the risks associated with using chewing tobacco to obtain a nicotine “high”

Describe the risks of cocaine use and how it can cause death

Describe the physiological and psychological effects of different types of warm-ups

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Ergogenic Aid

A substance, appliance, or procedure (e.g. blood

doping) that improves

performance

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Ergogenic Aids

Research design concerns Placebo

Look-alike substance containing nothing that will improve performance

• Athlete’s belief in a substance may

influence performance Double-blind studies

Neither the investigators nor the subjects are aware of who is receiving

the treatment

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Research Design Concerns

Amount of substance Too little or too much may show no effect Subject May be effective in trained but not untrained subjects, and vice versa Task Endurance vs. short-term events Large-motor vs. fine-motor activities Use May enhance short-term performance but compromise long-term performance

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Changes in Performancethe Placebo Effect

Changes in Performance – the Placebo Effect Fig 25.1 (c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All

Fig 25.1

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Nutritional Supplements

Little evidence that nutritional supplements improve performance

Supplements include:

Protein Creatine Carnitine

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Aerobic Performance

Oxygen breathing

Before or after exercise: no effect on performance

During exercise: improved performance Blood doping

Infusion of RBCs in effort to increase hemoglobin concentration and oxygen

carrying capacity of blood

Effective in improving VO 2max and endurance performance

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Oxygen Breathing

Oxygen Breathing Fig 25.2 (c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fig 25.2

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Blood Doping

Blood Doping Fig 25.3 (c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fig 25.3

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Anaerobic Performance

Blood buffers (sodium bicarbonate)

Improves performances of 1-10 minutes duration or repeated bouts of high-intensity

exercise

No benefit for tasks of less than one minute

Optimal dose

• 0.3 g•kg body weight -1 (with 1 liter of water)

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Drugs

Amphetamines Catecholamine-like effect

Improve performance in fatigued subjects only

No improvement in alert, non-fatigued subjects

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Caffeine

Drugs

May improved performance at muscle, nervous system, or the delivery of fuel to muscle

Can elevate blood glucose and increase fat utilization

Effect is variable and dose-related

Effect may be diminished in regular users

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Factors Influenced by Caffeine That

Might Improve Performance

Factors Influenced by Caffeine That Might Improve Performance Fig 25.4 (c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Fig 25.4

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mechanisms by Which Caffeine

May Increase FFA Mobilization

Mechanisms by Which Caffeine May Increase FFA Mobilization Fig 25.5 (c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Fig 25.5

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cocaine

Drugs

Powerful stimulator of cardiovascular and central nervous systems

May cause sudden death Nicotine

Can stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

Cardiovascular or GI effects

Known to cause diseases of the mouth, including oral cancer

(c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Mechanisms

by Which Cocaine Can

Kill

Fig 25.6

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The Effects of Nicotine

The Effects of Nicotine Fig 25.7 (c) 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Fig 25.7

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Physical Warm-Up

Causes both physiological and psychological changes that are beneficial to performance

Increased muscle temperature, arousal, focus on event Warm-up activities Identical to performance Directly related to performance General warm-up

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