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Past Perfect

FORM [had + past participle]

The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred


before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
o o o o I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times. Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)


o We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. o By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years. o They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

Positive I had spoken. Signal Words

Negative I had not spoken

Question Had I spoken?

already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day (with reference to the past, not the present) If-clauses type III

Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect simple).

The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we ____ (build) . He ____ (not / be) to Cape Town before 1997. When she went out to play, she ____ (do / already) her homework. My brother ate all of the cake that our mum ____ (make) . The doctor took off the plaster that he ____ (put on) six weeks before. The waiter brought a drink that I ____ (not / order) . I could not remember the poem we ____ (learn) the week before. The children collected the chestnuts that ____ (fall) from the tree. ____ (he / phone) Angie before he went to see her in London? She ____ (not / ride) a horse before that day.

The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we had built. He had not been to Cape Town before 1997. When she went out to play, she had already done her homework. My brother ate all of the cake that our mum had made. The doctor took off the plaster that he had put on six weeks before. The waiter brought a drink that I had not ordered . I could not remember the poem we had learned the week before. The children collected the chestnuts that had fallen from the tree. Had he phoned Angie before he went to see her in London? She had not ridden a horse before that day.

Mixed verbs exercise


What a language course can do
I (learn) ___________ English for seven years now. Bu last year I (not/work) _______________ hard enough for English, thats why my marks (not/be) _______________ really that good then. As I (pass/want) _____________ my English exam successfully next year, I (study) ________________ harder this term. During my last summer holidays, my parents (send) ____________________ me on a language course to London. It (be) ______________ great and I (think) _______________ I (learn) _________________ a lot. Before I (go) _____________ to London, I (not/enjoy) learning English. But while I (do) _________________ the language course, I (meet) __________________ lots of young people from all over the world. There I (notice) _______________ how important it (be) __________________ to speak foreign languages nowadays. Now I (have) _______________ much more fun learning English than I (have) ________________ before the course. At the moment I (revise) _____________ English grammar. And I (begin/already) _______________ to read the texts in my English textbooks again. I (think) ________________ I (do) __________________ one unit every week. My exam (be) _____________ on 15 June, so there (not/be) _______________ any time to be lost. If I (pass) ______________ my exams successfully, I (start) _______________ an apprenticeship in September. And after my apprenticeship, maybe I (go) ________________ back to London to work there for a while. As you (see/can) __________________, I (become) _____________________ a real London fan already.

I have been learning action that started in the past and is still going on now, emphasis is put on the duration (signal word: for seven years) - Present Perfect Progressive English for seven years now. But last year I was not working hard enough for English, that's why my marks were not 1st verb: you can either use past progressive or simple past. a) Past Progressive: puts emphasis on the duration b) Simple Past: puts emphasis on the fact 2nd verb: a fact in the past - Simple Past. really that good then. As I want to pass my English exam successfully next year, I am going to study 1st verb: situation in the present - Simple Present (after 'want' use 'to' + infinitive) 2nd verb: decision made for the future - Future I going to. harder this term. During my last summer holidays, my parents sent completed action in the past - Simple Past me on a language course to London. It was great and I think I have learned 1st verb: fact in the past - Simple Past 2nd verb: situation in the present - Simple Present 3rd verb: finished action that has an influence on the present. emphasis is on the result - Present Perfect Simple a lot.

Before I went to London, I had not enjoyed 1st verb: action in the past - Simple Past 2nd verb: action taking place before that certain time in the past (signal word: before) - Past Perfect. learning English.
But while I was doing the language course, I met 1st verb: action taking place only for a certain period in the past - Past Progressive 2nd verb: short actions in the past taking place in the middle of another action - Simple Past. lots of young people from all over the world. There I noticed how important it is 1st verb: observation in the past Simple Past 2nd verb: general fact that is true for the present - Simple Present to speak foreign languages nowadays. Now I have much more fun learning English than I had 1st verb: situation in the present - Simple Present 2nd verb: situation in the past - Simple Past before the course. At the moment I am revising action happening around now (signal word: at the moment) - Present Progressive English grammar.

And I have already begun action that has just started (signal word: already), emphasis is put on the fact (not the duration) - Present Perfect Simple to read the texts in my English text books again. I think I will do 1st verb: feeling in the present - Simple Present 2nd verb: assumption with regard to the future (signal word: I think) Future I will one unit every week. My exam is on 15 May, so there is not 1st verb: the exact date for the exam is already scheduled - Simple Present. 2nd verb: idiomatic expression any time to be lost. If I pass my exams successfully, I will start donditional sentence type I: if + Simple Present, Future I will an apprenticeship in September. And after my apprenticeship, maybe I will go assumption / dream for the Future I with will. back to London to work there for a while. As you can see, I have become 1st verb: situation in the present - Simple Present (after 'can' use the infinitive without 'to') 2nd verb: situation from the past to the present, emphasis is put on the fact - Present Perfect Simple a real London fan already.